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Darya S Smirnova, Ilya A Volodin, Tatyana S Demina, Elena V Volodina
The vocal repertoire of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and the specific role of meow vocalizations in communication of this species attract research interest about two dozen years. Here, we expand this research focus for the contextual use of call types, sex differences and individual differences at short and long terms. During 457 trials of acoustic recordings, we collected calls (n = 8120) and data on their contextual use for 13 adult cheetahs (6 males and 7 females) in four Russian zoos. The cheetah vocal repertoire comprised 7 call types produced in 8 behavioural contexts...
2016: PloS One
Emmanuel Chirre, Pedro M Prieto, Christina Schwarz, Pablo Artal
Night myopia, which is a shift in refraction with light level, has been widely studied but still lacks a complete understanding. We used a new infrared open-view binocular Hartmann-Shack wave front sensor to quantify night myopia under monocular and natural binocular viewing conditions. Both eyes' accommodative response, aberrations, pupil diameter, and convergence were simultaneously measured at light levels ranging from photopic to scotopic conditions to total darkness. For monocular vision, reducing the stimulus luminance resulted in a progression of the accommodative state that tends toward the subject's dark focus or tonic accommodation and a change in convergence following the induced accommodative error...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Juan Tabernero, Emmanuel Chirre, Lucia Hervella, Pedro Prieto, Pablo Artal
Presbyopia, the loss of the eye's accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45-50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye...
May 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Emmanuel Chirre, Pedro M Prieto, Pablo Artal
We have designed and built a binocular Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor using a single microlens array and camera for real-time aberration measurement of both eyes in an open-view configuration. Furthermore, the use of a long wavelength (1050 nm) laser diode makes the illumination source completely invisible, so that measurements can be unobtrusively performed while the subject stares at the visual world under realistic conditions. The setup provides a large dynamic range and simultaneous measurements of convergence, pupil size, accommodation, and aberrations...
August 15, 2014: Optics Letters
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