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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140452/mechanical-ventilation-induces-il-4-secretion-in-lungs-and-reduces-the-phagocytic-capacity-of-lung-macrophages
#1
Kenny Bielen, Bart 's Jongers, Jan Boddaert, Christine Lammens, Philippe G Jorens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Herman Goossens, Samir Kumar-Singh
Patients receiving mechanical ventilation are at risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Here, we show that clinically utilized ventilation protocols in rat with 5 or 8 mL/kg tidal volumes cause increased IL-4 expression, lowered ratio of TH1:TH2 transcriptional factors (Tbet:Gata3) and increased arginase1-positive (Arg1+) macrophages and eosinophils in lungs. Macrophages from ventilated lungs had reduced ex vivo capacity towards phagocytosing bacteria. Ventilated animals, when further challenged with bacterial pneumonia, continued to show persistence of Arg1+ M2 macrophages as well as an increased bacterial burden compared to spontaneously breathing animals receiving the same bacterial dose...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131380/upregulation-of-prmt6-by-lps-suppresses-klotho-expression-through-interaction-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-glomerular-mesangial-cells
#2
Kuen-Daw Tsai, Wen-Xi Lee, Wei Chen, Bo-Yu Chen, Kuan-Lin Chen, Tzu-Chia Hsiao, Sue-Hong Wang, Yi-Ju Lee, Shan-Yuan Liang, Jia-Ching Shieh, Ting-Hui Lin
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) released from gram-negative bacteria stimulates immune responses in infected cells. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and protein methylation modulate LPS-induced innate immune gene expressions. Expression of the Klotho protein decreased with LPS treatment in rats. In a cellular model, information regarding the effect of LPS on Klotho expression was meager. In the present study, we demonstrated that LPS triggered global DNA and protein methylation in glomerular mesangial MES-13 cells...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130338/colonic-hydrogen-sulfide-produces-portal-hypertension-and-systemic-hypotension-in-rats
#3
Tomasz Huc, Halina Jurkowska, Maria Wróbel, Kinga Jaworska, Maksymilian Onyszkiewicz, Marcin Ufnal
Hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas, at low concentrations is also a biological mediator in animals. In the colon, hydrogen sulfide is produced by intestinal tissues and gut sulfur bacteria. Gut-derived molecules undergo liver metabolism. Portal hypertension is one of the most common complications contributing to the high mortality in liver cirrhosis. We hypothesized that the colon-derived hydrogen sulfide may affect portal blood pressure. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained either on tap water (controls) or on water solution of thioacetamide to produce liver cirrhosis (CRH-R)...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129876/-microbial-ecology-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
Ethan T Hillman, Hang Lu, Tianming Yao, Cindy H Nakatsu
The ecosystem of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract traverses a number of environmental, chemical, and physical conditions because it runs from the oral cavity to the anus. These differences in conditions along with food or other ingested substrates affect the composition and density of the microbiota as well as their functional roles by selecting those that are the most suitable for that environment. Previous studies have mostly focused on Bacteria, with the number of studies conducted on Archaea, Eukarya, and Viruses being limited despite their important roles in this ecosystem...
November 10, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126807/post-exposure-immunization-by-capsid-modified-adc7-vector-expressing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-oprf-clears-p-aeruginosa-respiratory-infection
#5
Rika Gomi, Anurag Sharma, Wenzhu Wu, Biin Sung, Stefan Worgall
Respiratory infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major health problems, particularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). No vaccine against P. aeruginosa is yet available. A vaccine that controls colonization of the respiratory tract with P. aeruginosa could be useful to prevent chronic infection and exacerbations. Replication-deficient adenoviral (Ad) vectors based on non-human serotypes are attractive vaccine platforms as they can circumvent the problem of pre-existing anti-Ad immunity in humans...
November 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113344/polysaccharides-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-ramat-ameliorate-colitis-rats-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota-community
#6
Jin-Hua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan, Shu Jiang, Nan-Nan Feng, Wen-Qian Qiu, Yong Ling
The gut microflora dysbiosis has been closely related with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, the effect of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat on the gut microbiota was evaluated by ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Physiological and pathological analyses suggested that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides possessed notably protective effects on UC in vivo. Based on the Illumina MiSeq platform, 16S rRNA sequencing of the rat colonic contents indicated that the intestinal flora structure remarkably changed in the model rats and the tendency was alleviated to a certain degree by treatment with different dosages of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111191/protective-potency-of-meristotropis-xanthioides-against-nephrotoxicity-in-a-rat-model-along-with-its-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-activities
#7
Roya Karamian, Mostafa Asadbegy, Siamak Yari
OBJECTIVE: To investigate nephroprotective potential of Meristotropis xanthioides (M. xanthioides) extract against ethanol-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats, and also its total phenolics content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. METHODS: Total phenol and flavonoid amounts of the leaf and stem extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride reagents, respectively. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the extracts were investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and disc diffusion methods, respectively...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109040/chronic-chlorpyrifos-exposure-elicits-diet-specific-effects-on-metabolism-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-rats
#8
Bing Fang, Jin Wang Li, Ming Zhang, Fa Zheng Ren, Guo Fang Pang
Chlorpyrifos is a commonly-used pesticide which was reported to interfere with hormone signaling and metabolism, however, little is known about its effect on gut microbiota. In this study, adult male rats fed a normal (NF) or high fat (HF) diet were exposed to 0.3 or 3.0 mg chlorpyrifos/kg bodyweight/day or vehicle alone for 9 weeks. Effects on bodyweight, serum levels of glucose, lipid, cytokines, and gut microbiome community structure were measured. The effects of chlorpyrifos on metabolism were dose- and diet-dependent, with NF-fed rats administered the low dose showing the largest metabolic changes...
November 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096310/glyphosate-has-limited-short-term-effects-on-commensal-bacterial-community-composition-in-the-gut-environment-due-to-sufficient-aromatic-amino-acid-levels
#9
Lene Nørby Nielsen, Henrik M Roager, Mònica Escolà Casas, Henrik L Frandsen, Ulrich Gosewinkel, Kai Bester, Tine Rask Licht, Niels Bohse Hendriksen, Martin Iain Bahl
Recently, concerns have been raised that residues of glyphosate-based herbicides may interfere with the homeostasis of the intestinal bacterial community and thereby affect the health of humans or animals. The biochemical pathway for aromatic amino acid synthesis (Shikimate pathway), which is specifically inhibited by glyphosate, is shared by plants and numerous bacterial species. Several in vitro studies have shown that various groups of intestinal bacteria may be differently affected by glyphosate. Here, we present results from an animal exposure trial combining deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the bacterial community with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolic profiling of aromatic amino acids and their downstream metabolites...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091721/ultrasound-microbubble-mediated-transfection-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-decoy-oligodeoxynucleotide-into-gingival-tissues-inhibits-periodontitis-in-rats-in-vivo
#10
Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Yuji Ishida, Jun Hosomichi, Jun-Ichi Suzuki, Kasumi Hatano, Risa Usumi-Fujita, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Sawa Kaneko, Takashi Ono
Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease for which the fundamental treatment is to reduce the load of subgingival pathogenic bacteria by debridement. However, previous investigators attempted to implement a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as a suppressor of periodontitis progression. Although we recently reported the effectiveness of the ultrasound-microbubble method as a tool for transfecting the NF-κB decoy ODN into healthy rodent gingival tissue, this technique has not yet been applied to the pathological gingiva of periodontitis animal models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090119/a-review-on-the-toxicology-and-dietetic-role-of-bacterial-cellulose
#11
REVIEW
Fernando Dourado, Miguel Gama, Ana Cristina Rodrigues
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a biopolymer synthesized by certain acetic acid bacteria strains. The safety of BC regarding its potential use in food applications is here reviewed. The acute, sub-acute and subchronic oral toxicity assays showed that consumption of BC had no adverse effects in rats. Several studies demonstrated that BC is not genotoxic, did not induce chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells under both non-activating and metabolic activating conditions, is inactive in the in vitro Rat Primary Hepatocyte Unscheduled DNA Synthesis Assay, had no reproductive toxicity in mice and exerted no embryotoxicity and teratogenicity effects in rats...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089928/antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-effects-of-human-amniotic-chorionic-membrane-extract-on-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#12
Mukesh K Yadav, Yoon Y Go, Shin Hye Kim, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
Background:Streptococcus pneumoniae colonize the human nasopharynx in the form of biofilms. The biofilms act as bacterial reservoirs and planktonic bacteria from these biofilms can migrate to other sterile anatomical sites to cause pneumonia, otitis media (OM), bacteremia and meningitis. Human amniotic membrane contains numerous growth factors and antimicrobial activity; however, these have not been studied in detail. In this study, we prepared amniotic membrane extract and chorionic membrane extract (AME/CME) and evaluated their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080828/effects-of-sulfur-fumigation-on-the-pharmacokinetics-metabolites-and-analgesic-activity-of-radix-paeoniae-alba
#13
Ming Kong, Huan-Huan Liu, Jie Wu, Ming-Qin Shen, Zhi-Gang Wang, Su-Min Duan, Yan-Bo Zhang, He Zhu, Song-Lin Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, BS), one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, has many pharmacological effects including analgesic activity. Previous studies found that sulfur-fumigation, a post-harvest handling process developed to prevent mold contamination of medicinal herbs, altered the quality of BS. However, whether sulfur-fumigation affects the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of BS warrants further investigation. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the feasibility of sulfur-fumigation as a post-harvest handling process of BS from the viewpoints of pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054025/antibacterial-activity-against-cariogenic-bacteria-and-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-potential-of-anacardium-occidentale-l-and-anadenanthera-macrocarpa-benth-brenan-extracts
#14
Josenildo Segundo Chaves de Araújo, Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho, Andressa Brito Lira, Andréia Vieira Pereira, Tatiane Kelly Barbosa de Azevêdo, Edja Maria de Melo de Brito Costa, Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira, Hilzeth de Luna Freire Pessôa, Jozinete Vieira Pereira
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity against bacteria with cariogenic relevance, toxic and genotoxic potential of the plants Anacardium occidentale L. and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Bernam. DESIGN: Using a microdilution technique, the extracts were submitted to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing against Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 903), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557), Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 7073), Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 15300) and Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 27609)...
October 14, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044377/heparosan-coated-liposomes-for-drug-delivery
#15
Rachel S Lane, F Michael Haller, Anais A E Chavaroche, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Liposomal encapsulation is a useful drug delivery strategy for small molecules, especially chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin. Doxil® is a doxorubicin-containing liposome ("dox-liposome") that passively targets drug to tumors while reducing side effects caused by free drug permeating and poisoning healthy tissues. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the hydrophilic coating of Doxil® that protects the formulation from triggering the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Evading the MPS prolongs dox-liposome circulation time thus increasing drug deposition at the tumor site...
November 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041937/biocompatible-coated-magnetosome-minerals-with-various-organization-and-cellular-interaction-properties-induce-cytotoxicity-towards-rg-2-and-gl-261-glioma-cells-in-the-presence-of-an-alternating-magnetic-field
#16
Yasmina Hamdous, Imène Chebbi, Chalani Mandawala, Raphael Le Fèvre, François Guyot, Olivier Seksek, Edouard Alphandéry
BACKGROUND: Biologics magnetics nanoparticles, magnetosomes, attract attention because of their magnetic characteristics and potential applications. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize novel magnetosomes, which were extracted from magnetotactic bacteria, purified to produce apyrogen magnetosome minerals, and then coated with Chitosan, Neridronate, or Polyethyleneimine. It yielded stable magnetosomes designated as M-Chi, M-Neri, and M-PEI, respectively. Nanoparticle biocompatibility was evaluated on mouse fibroblast cells (3T3), mouse glioblastoma cells (GL-261) and rat glioblastoma cells (RG-2)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040914/efficient-capture-rapid-killing-and-ultrasensitive-detection-of-bacteria-by-a-nano-decorated-multi-functional-electrode-sensor
#17
Runrun Wu, Yue Ma, Jianming Pan, Shih-Hui Lee, Jinxin Liu, Hengjia Zhu, Runxin Gu, Kenneth J Shea, Guoqing Pan
In this work, we demonstrated a nano-decorated porous impedance electrode sensor for efficient capture, rapid killing and ultrasensitive detection of bacteria. The multi-functional sensor was prepared by a facile sonochemical method via in situ deposition of antibacterial prickly Zn-CuO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on a Ni porous electrode. Due to the surface burr-like nanostructures, the nano-decorated impedance sensor exhibited very good bacterial-capture efficiency (70 - 80% in 20min) even at a low concentration of 50 CFU mL(-1), rapid antibacterial rate (100% killing in 30min) and high detection sensitivity (as low as 10 CFU mL(-1))...
October 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036231/vildagliptin-increases-butyrate-producing-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-diabetic-rats
#18
Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Jia Zheng, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035036/nanoprobe-synthesized-by-magnetotactic-bacteria-detecting-fluorescence-variations-under-dissociation-of-rhodamine-b-from-magnetosomes-following-temperature-ph-changes-or-the-application-of-radiation
#19
Edouard Alphandéry, Darine Abi Haidar, Olivier Seksek, Maxime Thoreau, Alain Trautmann, Nadege Bercovici, Florence Gazeau, François Guyot, Imène Chebbi
We report a method of fabrication of fluorescent magnetosomes, designated as MCR400, in which 400 μM of rhodamine B are introduced in the growth medium of AMB-1 magnetotactic bacteria and fluorescent magnetosomes are then extracted from these bacteria. These fluorescent magnetosomes behave differently from most fluorescent nanoprobes, which often lead to fluorescence losses over time due to photobleaching. Indeed, when MCR400 are heated to 30-90 °C, brought to an acidic pH, or exposed to radiations, we observed that their fluorescence intensity increased...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031223/enhanced-antibacterial-activity-and-biocompatibility-of-zinc-incorporated-organic-inorganic-nanocomposite-coatings-via-electrophoretic-deposition
#20
Pin Huang, Kena Ma, Xinjie Cai, Dan Huang, Xu Yang, Jiabing Ran, Fushi Wang, Tao Jiang
Increased use of reconstruction procedures in orthopedics has improved the life of patients undergoing surgery. However, surgical site infection remains a major challenge. Efforts were made to fabricate antibacterial surfaces with good biocompatibility. This present study aimed to fabricate zinc-incorporated chitosan/gelatin (CS/G) nanocomposite coatings on the titanium substrates via electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Physicochemical characterization confirmed that zinc was successfully deposited in a metallic oxide/salt complex status...
October 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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