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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791472/pioglitazone-abolishes-autistic-like-behaviors-via-the-il-6-pathway
#1
Thiago Berti Kirsten, Renato C Casarin, Maria M Bernardi, Luciano F Felicio
Autism is characterized by social deficits, communication abnormalities, and repetitive behaviors. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infections by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789490/evaluation-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-the-inhibition-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection-and-its-application-to-food-systems
#2
Cheng-Chih Tsai, Yung-Hsien Hung, Lan-Chun Chou
This study tested the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inhibition on Vibrio parahaemolyticus BCRC (Bioresource Collection and Research Center) 10806 and BCRC 12865 in a food model. MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays indicated that Caco-2 cells were not damaged after a two-hour treatment with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and V. parahaemolyticus . The LAB cell culture and supernatant effectively inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus in a food model. ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) results indicated the significant inhibition of TNF-α; IL-1β; and IL-6; but Lactobacillus plantarum PM 222 and L...
May 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789027/ethanolamine-enhances-intestinal-functions-by-altering-gut-microbiome-and-mucosal-anti-stress-capacity-in-weaned-rats
#3
Jian Zhou, Xia Xiong, Ke-Xing Wang, Li-Jun Zou, Peng Ji, Yu-Long Yin
Ethanolamine (Etn) contained in milk is the base constituent of phosphatidylethanolamine and is required for the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and bacteria, which is important for maintenance of the gut microbiome and intestinal development. The present study investigated the effect of Etn on intestinal function and microbiome using 21-d-old Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 0, 250, 500 and 1000 μm Etn in drinking water for 2 weeks immediately after weaning. Growth performance, intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity and mucosal immunity, as well as gut microbiota community composition, were evaluated...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781552/topical-rifampin-powder-for-orthopaedic-trauma-part-i-rifampin-powder-reduces-recalcitrant-infection-in-a-delayed-treatment-musculoskeletal-trauma-model
#4
Stefanie M Shiels, David J Tennent, Joseph C Wenke
Open fractures become infected despite meticulous debridement and care. Locally applied antibiotics, commonly embedded in polymethylmethacrylate, deliver high doses of drug directly to the fracture site. Direct application of antibiotic powder, which is being applied prophylactically in spine surgery, is a recent interest in the trauma sector, where bacterial biofilms are more prevalent. Traditional antibiotics, such as vancomycin, are poor performers against bacterial biofilms thus are ineffective in delayed treatment...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772287/probiotics-and-nutraceuticals-as-a-new-frontier-in-obesity-prevention-and-management
#5
N Kobyliak, T Falalyeyeva, N Boyko, O Tsyryuk, T Beregova, L Ostapchenko
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial interaction between the microbiota and humans is how bacteria contained within the gut 'talk' to the immune system and in this landscape, probiotics and nutraceuticals play a major role. The study aims to determine whether probiotics plus nutraceuticals such as smectite or omega-3 are superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity model in rats. METHODS: Totally, 75 rats divided into five groups were included (n=15, in each)...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761668/a-mechanism-based-disease-progression-model-describing-host-pathogen-interactions-during-the-pathogenesis-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-pneumonia
#6
John K Diep, Thomas A Russo, Gauri G Rao
The emergence of highly resistant bacteria is a serious threat to global public health. The host immune response is vital for clearing bacteria from the infected host; however, the current drug development paradigm does not take host-pathogen interactions into consideration. Here, we used a systems-based approach to develop a quantitative, mechanism-based disease progression model to describe bacterial dynamics, host immune response, and lung injury in an immunocompetent rat pneumonia model. Previously, Long-Evans rats were infected with A...
May 15, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758001/an-antimicrobial-peptide-loaded-gelatin-chitosan-nanofibrous-membrane-fabricated-by-sequential-layer-by-layer-electrospinning-and-electrospraying-techniques
#7
Yuzhu He, Yahui Jin, Xiumei Wang, Shenglian Yao, Yuanyuan Li, Qiong Wu, Guowu Ma, Fuzhai Cui, Huiying Liu
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique is widely used in the treatment of bone defects caused by peri-implantitis, periodontal disease, etc. However, the GBR membranes commonly used in clinical treatments currently have no antibacterial activity. Therefore, in this study, sequential layer-by-layer electrospinning and electrospraying techniques were utilized to prepare a gelatin (Gln) and chitosan (CS) composite GBR membrane containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAp) and antimicrobial peptide (Pac-525)-loaded PLGA microspheres (AMP@PLGA-MS), which was supposed to have osteogenic and antibacterial activities...
May 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757290/the-lambda-select-cii-mutation-detection-system
#8
Ahmad Besaratinia, Stella Tommasi
A number of transgenic animal models and mutation detection systems have been developed for mutagenicity testing of carcinogens in mammalian cells. Of these, transgenic mice and the Lambda (λ) Select cII Mutation Detection System have been employed for mutagenicity experiments by many research groups worldwide. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the Lambda Select cII mutation assay, which can be applied to cultured cells of transgenic mice/rats or the corresponding animals treated with a chemical/physical agent of interest...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754388/consumption-of-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-mtcc-5898-fermented-milk-attenuates-dyslipidemia-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-male-rats-fed-on-cholesterol-enriched-diet
#9
Radha Yadav, Suhail Hakeem Khan, Sanusi Bello Mada, Sunita Meena, Rajeev Kapila, Suman Kapila
There is a growing and alarming prevalence that increased serum cholesterol is closely related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Probiotic consumption could be a safe and natural strategy to combat. Therefore, we sought to examine the cholesterol-lowering potential of co-supplementation of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC: 5898-fermented buffalo milk (2.5% fat) in rats fed cholesterol-enriched diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups on the basis of feed, viz. group 1, fed standard diet (SD); group 2, fed cholesterol-enriched diet (CED); and group 3, fed cholesterol-enriched diet along with L...
May 13, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752091/tunable-sequential-drug-delivery-system-based-on-chitosan-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogels-and-plga-microspheres-for-management-of-non-healing-infected-wounds
#10
Jinjian Huang, Jianan Ren, Guopu Chen, Zongan Li, Yan Liu, Gefei Wang, Xiuwen Wu
Treatment of non-healing infected wounds is an arduous task in clinical practice. Early antibacterial strategy and subsequent promotion of granulation tissue growth facilitate to cure the wounds. For this purpose, we fabricated a sequential drug delivery system by incorporation of an injectable hydrogel with porous PLGA microspheres. Vancomycin was linked to the injectable hydrogel via the reversible Schiff's base reaction, and VEGF were encapsulated into PLGA microspheres. After adding vancomycin, the strength and elasticity of the hydrogel were improved, and the gelation time was shortened...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750384/effects-of-moderate-voluntary-ethanol-consumption-on-the-rat-and-human-gut-microbiome
#11
Kassi L Kosnicki, Jerrold C Penprase, Patricia Cintora, Pedro J Torres, Greg L Harris, Susan M Brasser, Scott T Kelley
Many alcohol-induced health complications are directly attributable to the toxicity of alcohol or its metabolites, but another potential health impact of alcohol may be on the microbial communities of the human gut. Clear distinctions between healthy and diseased-state gut microbiota have been observed in subjects with metabolic diseases, and recent studies suggest that chronic alcoholism is linked to gut microbiome dysbiosis. Here, we investigated the effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption on the gut microbiome in both rats and humans...
May 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750327/do-nano-crystalline-silver-coated-hernia-grafts-reduce-infection
#12
Elif Nergiz Adıgüzel, Ebru Esen, Gökçe Aylaz, Betül Keskinkılıç Yağız, Mehmet Kıyan, Aydın Doğan, Ali Ekrem Ünal
PURPOSE: Inguinal hernia repairs are the most common interventions in adults in general surgery clinics. Depending on the type of mesh and repair, the incidence of mesh-related infection ranges from 0.6 to 8%. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microorganism causing graft infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of nano-crystalline silver-coated polypropylene grafts against graft infection created with MRSA in rats. METHODS: A total of 60 female, Wistar albino rats were used in the study...
May 10, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748675/catechin-supplemented-in-a-fos-diet-induces-weight-loss-by-altering-cecal-microbiota-and-gene-expression-of-colonic-epithelial-cells
#13
Jianming Luo, Lulu Han, Liu Liu, Lijuan Gao, Bin Xue, Yong Wang, Shiyi Ou, Michael Miller, Xichun Peng
Our previous study showed that catechin controlled rats' body weights and changed gut microbiota composition when supplemented into a high-fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) diet. This experiment is devised to further confirm the relationship between specific bacteria in the colon and body weight gain, and to investigate how specific bacteria impact body weight by changing the expression of colonic epithelial cells. Forty obese rats were divided into four groups: three catechin-supplemented groups with a high-FOS diet (100, 400, and 700 mg kg-1 d-1 catechin, orally administered) and one group with a high-FOS diet only...
May 11, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731832/costus-root-granules-improve-ulcerative-colitis-through-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-mediation-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#14
Xiaohong Wang, Dan Li, Yong Zhang, Shuang Wu, Fang Tang
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic nonspecific inflammatory disease that occurs in the colon and rectum. Costus root is a type of traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits antibacterial properties and serves an inhibitory role in the regeneration of gut bacteria. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Costus root-mediated improvements in ulcerative colitis remain unclear. A complex formula of Costus root granules was created and investigated in the present study for its therapeutic effects in a rat model of ulcerative colitis...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723210/predictive-modelling-of-a-novel-anti-adhesion-therapy-to-combat-bacterial-colonisation-of-burn-wounds
#15
Paul A Roberts, Ryan M Huebinger, Emma Keen, Anne-Marie Krachler, Sara Jabbari
As the development of new classes of antibiotics slows, bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics is becoming an increasing problem. A potential solution is to develop treatment strategies with an alternative mode of action. We consider one such strategy: anti-adhesion therapy. Whereas antibiotics act directly upon bacteria, either killing them or inhibiting their growth, anti-adhesion therapy impedes the binding of bacteria to host cells. This prevents bacteria from deploying their arsenal of virulence mechanisms, while simultaneously rendering them more susceptible to natural and artificial clearance...
May 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723107/lactobacillus-gasseri-pa-3-utilizes-the-purines-gmp-and-guanosine-and-decreases-their-absorption-in-rats
#16
N Yamada, C Saito, Y Murayama-Chiba, H Kano, Y Asami, H Itoh
Excessive intake of purine-rich foods elevates serum uric acid levels, making it a risk factor for hyperuricemia. We hypothesized that lactic acid bacteria ingested with food might utilize purines and contribute to their decreased absorption in the intestines, thereby preventing hyperuricemia. We previously reported that Lactobacillus gasseri PA-3 (PA-3) incorporates adenosine/inosine and related purines and that oral ingestion of PA-3 reduced the absorption of these purines in rats. However, it is unclear whether PA-3 also decreases the absorption of other purines, such as guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and guanosine...
May 3, 2018: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718810/comparison-of-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-induced-by-silver-nanoparticle-containing-dressing-materials-during-wound-healing
#17
Young Suk Choi, Heui-Chul Gwak, Jae Keun Park, Ji Yun Lim, Eui Dong Yeo, Eunseok Park, Junyong Kim, Young Koo Lee
INTRODUCTION: Silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-containing dressings are used worldwide for the treatment of wounds; however, many studies have indicated that AgNPs are toxic to humans and cause cell death, primarily via apoptosis. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the investigators compare the apoptotic effects of various AgNP dressing materials, with the hypothesis that nanosilver would be less toxic than ionic silver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the in vivo experiments, Sprague-Dawley (SD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were treated with 5 dressing materials: Aquacel Ag (product A, silver ion; ConvaTec, Berkshire, UK), Acticoat (product B, AgNP; Smith & Nephew, Fort Worth, TX), Medifoam Silver (product C, silver ion; Genewel Science Co Ltd, Seongnam, South Korea), PolyMem Silver (product D, AgNP; Ferris Mfg Corp, Fort Worth, TX), and Vaseline-impregnated dressing gauze (control; Unilever, London, UK)...
April 13, 2018: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710519/effects-of-shenling-baizhu-powder-herbal-formula-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-induced-nafld-rats
#18
Yupei Zhang, Kairui Tang, Yuanjun Deng, Runsen Chen, Shu Liang, Huijun Xie, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Qinhe Yang
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease closely associated with obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a formulation of a variety of natural medicinal plants, has hepatoprotective properties and clinical efficacy in treating non-infectious intestinal disease. SLBZP has improved NAFLD symptoms; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. METHODS: We established an NAFLD model in rats given a high-fat diet (HFD), administered different interventions and measured serum biochemical indices and inflammatory factors...
April 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705499/high-salt-intake-increases-plasma-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-concentration-and-produces-gut-dysbiosis-in-rats
#19
Klaudia Bielinska, Marek Radkowski, Marta Grochowska, Karol Perlejewski, Tomasz Huc, Kinga Jaworska, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Marcin Ufnal
OBJECTIVE: A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk...
March 22, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704258/potential-role-of-periodontal-pathogens-in-compromising-epithelial-barrier-function-by-inducing-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#20
A A Abdulkareem, R M Shelton, G Landini, P R Cooper, M R Milward
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells acquire a mesenchymal-like phenotype and this may be induced by exposure to gram-negative bacteria. It has been proposed that EMT is responsible for compromising epithelial barrier function in the pathogenesis of several diseases. However, the possible role of EMT in the pathogenesis of periodontitis has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether gram-negative, anaerobic periodontal pathogens could trigger EMT in primary oral keratinocytes in vitro...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
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