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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907030/sensitive-and-simplified-detection-of-antibiotic-influence-on-the-dynamic-and-versatile-changes-of-fecal-short-chain-fatty-acids
#1
Xiaoya Zhao, Zhenzuo Jiang, Fan Yang, Yan Wang, Xiumei Gao, Yuefei Wang, Xin Chai, Guixiang Pan, Yan Zhu
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by anaerobic fermentation of mainly indigestible dietary carbohydrates by gut microbiota, have a profound influence on intestinal function and host energy metabolism. Antibiotics may seriously disturb the balance of fecal SCFAs. To evaluate the impacts of antibiotics on fecal SCFAs produced by gut microbiota, a simple, reproducible and accurate gas chromatography (GC) method, which can simultaneously analyze seven SCFAs in fecal samples, was developed and validated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889756/liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-reveals-the-effect-of-lactobacillus-treatment-on-the-faecal-metabolite-profile-of-rats-with-chronic-renal-failure
#3
Bin Wu, Hongli Jiang, Quan He, Meng Wang, Jinhong Xue, Hua Liu, Kehui Shi, Meng Wei, Shanshan Liang, Liwen Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic kidney disease is accompanied by changes in the gut microbiome and by an increase in the number of gut pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference of the faecal metabolic profiles in rats with uremia, and to determine whether the altered metabolites in the rats with uremia can be restored by Lactobacillus. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, uremia and uremia + probiotic (UP) groups...
November 26, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887575/the-gut-microbiota-in-young-and-middle-aged-rats-showed-different-responses-to-chicken-protein-in-their-diet
#4
Yingying Zhu, He Li, Xinglian Xu, Chunbao Li, Guanghong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Meat protein in the diet has been shown to be beneficial for the growth of Lactobacillus in the caecum of growing rats; however, it is unknown whether gut microbiota in middle-aged animals have the same responses to meat protein diets. This study compared the composition of the gut microbiota between young and middle-aged rats after being fed 17.7% chicken protein diet for 14 days. METHODS: Feces were collected on day 0 and day 14 from young rats (4 weeks old) and middle-aged rats (64 weeks old) fed with 17...
November 25, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885933/sufficient-intake-of-high-amylose-cornstarch-maintains-high-colonic-hydrogen-production-for-24%C3%A2-h-in-rats
#5
Naomichi Nishimura, Hiroki Tanabe, Tatsuro Yamamoto
Colonic hydrogen (H2) can suppress oxidative stress and damage in the body. We examined the minimum requirement of high amylose cornstarch (HAS) to maintain high colonic H2 production for 24 h. Ileorectostomized and sham-operated rats were fed a control diet supplemented with or without 20% HAS for 7 days. Colonic starch utilization was determined. Next, rats were fed the control diet with or without 10% or 20% HAS for 14 or 28 days, respectively. Breath and flatus H2 excretion for 24 h was measured. 1...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884340/use-of-an-experimental-model-to-evaluate-infection-resistance-of-meshes-in-abdominal-wall-surgery
#6
Ramón Pérez-Tanoira, C Lévano-Linares, Á Celdrán-Uriarte, M C Isea-Peña, M Sánchez De Molina, C García-Vasquez, J Esteban-Moreno
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal species are the most common organisms causing prosthetic mesh infections, however, infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are increasing. This study evaluates the resistance of biomaterial for abdominal wall prostheses against the development of postoperative infection in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 75 rats, we intramuscularly implanted three different types of prostheses: (1) low-density polypropylene monofilament mesh (PMM), (2) high-density PMM, and (3) a composite prosthesis composed of low-density PMM and a nonporous hydrophilic film...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882474/effects-of-cck-8-and-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-hydrogen-sulfide-system-on-acute-lung-injury-in-rats
#7
Fengjun Tian, Yiling Ling, Yuqin Chen, Zhiyong Wang
Acute lung injury (ALI) is mainly characterized by diffusive injuries to lung epithelium and increased permeability of alveolar-capillary membranes caused by various factors, which leads to pulmonary edema and pulmonary closure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is the main component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, is one of the most important factors causing pulmonary infection and ALI. More and more reports have indicated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is closely correlated with ALI and has anti-inflammation function, while the specific mechanism needs further investigation...
November 24, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876335/globularia-alypum-methanolic-extract-improves-burn-wound-healing-process-and-inflammation-in-rats-and-possesses-antibacterial-and-antioxidant-activities
#8
Zohra Ghlissi, Rim Kallel, Assaad Sila, Bahira Harrabi, Rim Atheymen, Khaled Zeghal, Ali Bougatef, Zouheir Sahnoun
Burns are known as one of the most common and destructive forms of injury with a vast spectrum of consequences. Despite the discovery of various antibacterial and antiseptic agents, burn wound healing still has remained a challenge to modern medicine. Plants have been considered as potential agents for prevention and treatment of disorders in recent years. Globularia alypum L. (GA) is widely used in folk medicine against skin diseases and abscesses, however there is no scientific evidence justifying its use...
November 19, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861762/gut-microbiome-in-children-with-enthesitis-related-arthritis-in-a-developing-country-and-the-effect-of-probiotic-administration
#9
Amita Aggarwal, Aditya N Sarangi, Priyanka Gaur, Anuj Shukla, Rakesh Aggarwal
In Asia, enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) is the most-frequent category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. ERA has a strong association with HLA-B27 and subclinical gut inflammation. In a HLA-B27 transgenic rat model, presence of Bacteroides bacteria in the gut appears to cause spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Thus, we studied gut microbiota in children with ERA. Stool specimens from 33 patients with ERA and 14 age-matched healthy controls were studied; none had any gastrointestinal symptom, or had received a drug known to affect gut motility or microbiota in the preceding 6 weeks...
November 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861552/pathoadaptive-mutations-of-escherichia-coli-k1-in-experimental-neonatal-systemic-infection
#10
Alex J McCarthy, David Negus, Patricia Martin, Catarina Pechincha, Eric Oswald, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Although Escherichia coli K1 strains are benign commensals in adults, their acquisition at birth by the newborn may result in life-threatening systemic infections, most commonly sepsis and meningitis. Key features of these infections, including stable gastrointestinal (GI) colonization and age-dependent invasion of the bloodstream, can be replicated in the neonatal rat. We previously increased the capacity of a septicemia isolate of E. coli K1 to elicit systemic infection following colonization of the small intestine by serial passage through two-day-old (P2) rat pups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859774/a-metabolic-way-to-investigate-related-hurdles-caused-poor-bioavailability-in-oral-delivery-of-isoacteoside-in-rats-employing-uplc-q-tof-ms
#11
Qingling Cui, Yingni Pan, Xiaowei Yan, Bao Qu, Xiaoqiu Liu, Wei Xiao
RATIONALE: Isoacteoside (ISAT), a phenylethanoid glycoside, acting as the principal bioactive component in traditional Chinese medicines, possesses broad pharmacological effects such as neuroprotective, antihypertensive and hepatoprotective activities. However, its pharmaceutical development has been severely limited due to the poor oral bioavailability. It is essential and significant to investigate related hurdles leading to the poor bioavailability of isoacteoside. METHODS: Whole animal metabolism studies were conducted in rats, followed by metabolic mechanism including gastrointestinal stability, intestinal flora metabolism and intestinal enzyme metabolism employing the powerful ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)...
November 17, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858027/%C3%AE-galactosides-present-in-lupin-flour-affect-several-metabolic-parameters-in-wistar-rats
#12
María I Palacio, Adriana R Weisstaub, Ángela Zuleta, Analía I Etcheverría, Guillermo D Manrique
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of α-galactosides present in a lupin diet on metabolic parameters in growing Wistar rats. Lupin (Lupinus albus) is a rich source of non-digestible carbohydrates called α-galactosides whose beneficial health effects have been widely reported. For our investigation, twenty male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets: control (C) and lupin flour (L) for a 60-day period. The fermentation of these α-galactosides was monitored by measuring the following indicators: changes in the dynamic lactobacilli and enterobacteriaceae population, cecal content pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), Ca and P absorption, and serum lipid (triglycerides and cholesterol) contents...
November 18, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853108/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-therapeutic-apparatus-using-hydrogen-peroxide-photolysis-to-treat-dental-and-periodontal-infectious-diseases
#13
Hirohisa Sato, Yoshimi Niwano, Keisuke Nakamura, Takayuki Mokudai, Hiroyo Ikai, Taro Kanno, Hiroshi Egusa
The present study aimed to evaluate the acute locally injurious property of our most current hydroxyl radical generation system by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) photolysis. This system, which releases 3% H2O2 with a 405-nm laser, was developed in our laboratory for the treatment of dental and periodontal infectious diseases. First, the hydroxyl radical yield generated by H2O2 photolysis was examined by applying an electron spin resonance-spin trapping technique. Second, the bactericidal effect of the device was examined under a simulant condition in which Streptococcus mutans, a pathogenic bacterial species that causes caries, was irrigated with running 3% H2O2 concomitantly with laser irradiation...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852922/abnormal-expression-of-trail-receptors-in-decidual-tissue-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infected-rats-during-early-pregnancy-loss
#14
Jinzhi Lu, Liya Zhu, Lei Zhang, Jinpeng Jiang, Fang Xie, Qing Huang, Xiaolan Li, Cunjian Yi
Chlamydia trachomatis is the scientific name of pathogenic bacteria causing infection that has been linked to spontaneous abortion. In this study, the expression pattern of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL; a cytokine related to cell apoptosis) and its receptors was monitored in the decidua of C trachomatis-infected pregnant rats during early gestation to investigate the potential role of this molecular system in C trachomatis-induced spontaneous abortion. The data showed that C trachomatis infection significantly altered the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the receptors; death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5 increased, but decoy receptor (DcR) 1 and DcR2 decreased...
November 16, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847439/lactobacillus-casei-strain-c1-attenuates-vascular-changes-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Wei Boon Yap, Faisal Malau Ahmad, Yi Cheng Lim, Satirah Zainalabidin
Hypertension can be caused by various factors while the predominant causes include increase in body fluid volume and resistance in the circulatory system that elevate the blood pressure. Consumption of probiotics has been proven to attenuate hypertension; however, the effect is much strain-dependent. In this study, a newly isolated Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei) strain C1 was investigated for its antihypertensive properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) suspension of 11 log colony-forming unit (CFU) was given to SHR (SHR+LAB, n=8), and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was given as a control in SHR (SHR, n=8) and in Wistar rats as sham (WIS, n=8)...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845140/re-combined-therapy-with-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-ciprofloxacin-against-acute-urogenital-organ-damage-in-rat-sepsis-syndrome-induced-by-intrapelvic-injection-of-cecal-bacteria
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834203/predatory-bacteria-attenuate-klebsiella-pneumoniae-burden-in-rat-lungs
#17
Kenneth Shatzkes, Eric Singleton, Chi Tang, Michael Zuena, Sean Shukla, Shilpi Gupta, Sonal Dharani, Onoyom Onyile, Joseph Rinaggio, Nancy D Connell, Daniel E Kadouri
: Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus are predatory bacteria that naturally-and obligately-prey on other Gram-negative bacteria, and their use has been proposed as a potential new approach to control microbial infection. The ability of predatory bacteria to prey on Gram-negative human pathogens in vitro is well documented; however, the in vivo safety and efficacy of predatory bacteria have yet to be fully assessed. In this study, we examined whether predatory bacteria can reduce bacterial burden in the lungs in an in vivo mammalian system...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832729/potato-powders-prepared-by-successive-cooking-process-depending-on-resistant-starch-content-affect-the-intestinal-fermentation-in-rats
#18
Sakura Kawakami, Kyu-Ho Han, Takahiro Araki, Kiyoshi Ohba, Tatsuya Wakabayashi, Kenichiro Shimada, Michihiro Fukushima
The effects of resistant starch (RS) in dry potato powders prepared by various processes on intestinal fermentation in rats were assessed. Rats were fed raw potato powder (RP), blanched potato powder (BP), steamed potato powder (SP), or drum-dried potato powder (DP) for 4 weeks. The cecal RS content was significantly higher in the RP group than in the control diet (CN) group and other dry potato powder groups. Cecum pH was significantly lower in the RP group compared to the CN group, and was also significantly lower than that in the SP, BP, and DP groups...
November 11, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826358/use-of-molecular-typing-to-investigate-bacterial-translocation-from-the-intestinal-tract-of-chlorpyrifos-exposed-rats
#19
Claire Joly Condette, Bertin Elion Dzon, Farida Hamdad, Maurice Biendo, Véronique Bach, Hafida Khorsi-Cauet
BACKGROUND: Human are confronted on a daily basis with contaminant pesticide residues in food, water and other components of the environment. Although the digestive system is the first organ to come into contact with food contaminants, very few data are available on the impact of low-dose pesticide exposure during the in utero and postnatal periods on intestinal bacterial translocation (BT). Previous studies have revealed that chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the contamination of sterile organs...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825834/toxicological-assessment-of-anionic-methacrylate-copolymer-i-characterization-bioavailability-and-genotoxicity
#20
Johanna Eisele, Geoff Haynes, Knut Kreuzer, Caroline Hall
Anionic Methacrylate Copolymer (AMC) is a fully polymerized copolymer used in the pharmaceutical industry as an enteric/delayed-release coating to permit the pH-dependent release of active ingredients in the gastrointestinal tract from oral dosage forms. This function is of potential use for food supplements. Oral administration of radiolabeled copolymer to rats resulted in the detection of chemically unchanged copolymer in the feces, with negligible absorption (<0.1%). AMC is therefore determined not to be bioavailable...
December 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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