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Toru Otori, Sumio Matzno, Atushi Kawase, Masahiro Iwaki, Tetsutaro Kimachi, Keiji Nishiwaki, William C Figoni, Ryuta Tominaga, Mai Asahide, Mayumi Nishikata, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kenji Matsuyama
OBJECTIVES: To avoid the chelate formation between levofloxacin (LVFX) and aluminium hydroxide in gastrointestinal tract, an ethoxycarbonyl 1-ethyl hemiacetal ester of levofloxacin (LVFX-EHE) was synthesised as a prodrug. METHODS: The effects of aluminium hydroxide on the bioavailability of LVFX following oral administration of LVFX-EHE were investigated in rats. Furthermore, the effects of aluminium hydroxide on small intestinal absorption of LVFX and LVFX-EHE when subjected to a hydrolysis experiment using in situ everted gut sac were investigated, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of LVFX and LVFX-EHE for various intestinal bacteria were measured...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Yuliang Dong, Weiqing Liu, Yiling Lei, Tingxi Wu, Shiwen Zhang, Yuchen Guo, Yuan Liu, Demeng Chen, Quan Yuan, Yongyue Wang
Oral infectious diseases may lead to bone loss, which makes it difficult to achieve satisfactory restoration. The rise of multidrug resistant bacteria has put forward severe challenges to the use of antibiotics. Silver (Ag) has long been known as a strong antibacterial agent. In clinic, gelatin sponge with colloid silver is used to reduce tooth extraction complication. To investigate how this material affect infected bone defects, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infected 3-mm-diameter cranial defects were created in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health- promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviors such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioral and biological responses to stress later in life...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
H Y Shi, Q D Li, X Y Wan
Objective: To investigate the destructive effects of erythromycin on biofilm of MRSA and find the effect of erythromycin on QS related factors. Methods: Tested the MBC of erythromycin on MRSA.Established the model of biofilm.Erythromycin was added into the medium when bacteria were inoculated for 24 h. Tested the biofilm and collected the supernatant or serum of rat at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 7 d after adding erythromycin to detect the concentration of autoinducing peptides (AIP). Results: The MBC of the erythromycin on standard strains of MRSA was 256 g/L...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Jihee Yoon, Ho-Seong Cho, Chul Park, Byoung-Yong Park, Yang-Hoon Kim, Jiho Min
Yeast vacuoles, lysosomes, are cell organelles that have antimicrobial activity against several bacteria in vitro. Lysosomes have a potential application to the treatment of pathogens such as antibiotics in vivo. Therefore, the in vivo efficacy of lysosomes was examined in a rat infection model against pathogenic Escherichia coli with varying susceptibilities to standard antimicrobial agents. Before in vivo testing, the concentration-dependent safety of lysosomes was confirmed by blood test and histopathology of normal rats...
October 18, 2016: Current Microbiology
Ia Kusradze, Natia Karumidze, Sophio Rigvava, Teona Dvalidze, Malkhaz Katsitadze, Irakli Amiranashvili, Marina Goderdzishvili
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, non-motile bacterium that, due to its multidrug resistance, has become a major nosocomial pathogen. The increasing number of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains has renewed interest in phage therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of phage administration in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections in an animal model to demonstrate phage therapy as non-toxic, safe and alternative antibacterial remedy. Using classical methods for the study of bacteriophage properties, we characterized phage vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7 as a dsDNA myovirus with a 90 kb genome size...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dong-Lin Xia, Yan-Pei Chen, Yu-Fei Wang, Xiao-Dong Li, Ning Bao, Hong He, Hai-Ying Gu
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic patients are at increased risk of severe skin infections. Covering the wound as early as possible can prevent infection and shorten the course of treatment. In this study, the authors fabricated a waterproof and breathable composite liquid dressing (CLD) that formed a barrier to bacteria and shortened healing time of diabetic rat skin ulcers. METHODS: The CLD was prepared in a formulation that, on evaporation of the liquid carrier, acts as a waterproof, breathable coating on injured skin...
November 2016: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Andrew V Stachulski, Karl Swift, Mark Cooper, Stephen Reynolds, Daniel Norton, Steven D Slonecker, Jean-François Rossignol
Thiazolides are polypharmacology agents with at least three mechanisms of action against a broad spectrum of parasites, bacteria and viruses. In respiratory viruses they inhibit the replication of orthomyxoviridae and paramyxoviridae at a post-translational level. Nitazoxanide 1a, the prototype thiazolide, was originally developed as an antiparasitic agent and later repurposed for the treatment of viral respiratory infections. The second generation thiazolides following nitazoxanide, such as the 5-chloro analogue RM-5038 2a, are also broad-spectrum antiviral agents as we have reported...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Anatoliy Kubyshkin, Denis Chegodar, Andrew Katsev, Armen Petrosyan, Yuri Krivorutchenko, Olga Postnikova
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of nanosilver particles in solution stabilized in a matrix of sodium alginate on the growth and development of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter cloacae, the antibiotic-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans, and the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1. METHODS: Isolates of pathogenic bacteria obtained from bronchoalveolar and peritoneal lavage samples from Wistar rats with experimental pneumonia and peritonitis were tested for their susceptibility to silver nanoparticles in solution with an alginate stabilizer...
2016: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal
Sooyeon Song, Sei-Jung Lee, Dong-June Park, Sejong Oh, Kye-Taek Lim
Recently, interest in the beneficial role of probiotics in the protection and management of allergic diseases caused by immune disorders has been increasing. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 on induced allergic inflammatory response in bisphenol A-treated rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells and mouse splenocytes. We also evaluated the applicability of L. plantarum L67 as a yogurt starter culture. We measured the ability of Lactobacillus strains to induce the production of IL-12 and IFN- γ in cultured splenocytes by ELISA...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes, however the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience
Candela R González, Mariano Ar Amer, Alfredo D Vitullo, Silvia I González-Calvar, María I Vacas
Saliva is the first barrier to entry of bacteria and viruses into the body. The submandibular glands (SMG) contribute to the maintenance of oral health and regulation of immune/ inflam matory responses. Previous studies suggest that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) may contribute to salivary gland fibrosis but the expression of the TGFB1 system in the SMG has not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze in rat SMG the immunolocalization of TGFB1 and its specific receptors ALK5 (profibrotic) and ALK1 (proproliferative) and the coreceptor endoglin (EDG) in a bilateral experimental periodontitis (EP) model (cotton thread ligature around the neck of the first lower molars) for 1 and 6 weeks...
September 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
Mireia Díaz-Lobo, Alda Lisa Concia, Livia Gómez, Pere Clapés, Ignacio Fita, Joan J Guinovart, Joan C Ferrer
Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) are the key enzymes that control, respectively, the synthesis and degradation of glycogen, a multi-branched glucose polymer that serves as a form of energy storage in bacteria, fungi and animals. An abnormal glycogen metabolism is associated with several human diseases. Thus, GS and GP constitute adequate pharmacological targets to modulate cellular glycogen levels by means of their selective inhibition. The compound 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) is a known potent inhibitor of GP...
September 26, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Jiaul Hoque, Padma Akkapeddi, Chandardhish Ghosh, Divakara S S M Uppu, Jayanta Haldar
Bacterial colonization and subsequent formation of biofilms onto surfaces of medical devices and implants is a major source of nosocomial infections. Most antibacterial coatings to combat infections are either metal-based or non-degradable polymer-based and hence limited by their non-degradability and unpredictable toxicity. Moreover, to combat infections effectively, the coatings are required to display simultaneous antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. Herein we report biocompatible and biodegradable coatings based on organo-soluble quaternary chitin polymers which were immobilized non-covalently onto surfaces as bactericidal paint...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shu G Chen, Vilius Stribinskis, Madhavi J Rane, Donald R Demuth, Evelyne Gozal, Andrew M Roberts, Rekha Jagadapillai, Ruolan Liu, Kyonghwan Choe, Bhooma Shivakumar, Francheska Son, Shunying Jin, Richard Kerber, Anthony Adame, Eliezer Masliah, Robert P Friedland
Misfolded alpha-synuclein (AS) and other neurodegenerative disorder proteins display prion-like transmission of protein aggregation. Factors responsible for the initiation of AS aggregation are unknown. To evaluate the role of amyloid proteins made by the microbiota we exposed aged rats and transgenic C. elegans to E. coli producing the extracellular bacterial amyloid protein curli. Rats exposed to curli-producing bacteria displayed increased neuronal AS deposition in both gut and brain and enhanced microgliosis and astrogliosis compared to rats exposed to either mutant bacteria unable to synthesize curli, or to vehicle alone...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mami Kikuchi, Mariko Ueno, Yoshiharu Itoh, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), many metabolites of gut microbiota retain in the body as uremic toxins (UTs). However, the kinds of bacteria producing UTs are rarely discussed. METHODS: We analyzed UT production and the composition of gut microbiota in CKD rats and cecectomized rats. AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, was administrated to evaluate how the precursors of UT affect gut microbiota. Serum and urine levels of UTs were quantified by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry...
October 5, 2016: Nephron
Ruixue Liu, Yongchao Li, Bo Zhang
The purpose of the study was to assess the effects and the protective mechanism of konjac oligosaccharide (KOS) on the ulcerative colitis (UC) model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. KOS (1.0 and 4.0g/kg/day) was administered for 14days after the induction of colitis with TNBS. The status of the rats was assessed by morphological and biochemical methods. The effect of KOS on the colonic microflora was also assessed by studying the bacteria profile and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in feces by standard culture techniques and gas chromatography, respectively...
September 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Friso de Beer, Wim Lagrand, Gerie J Glas, Charlotte J P Beurskens, Gerard van Mierlo, Diana Wouters, Sacha Zeerleder, Joris J T H Roelofs, Nicole P Juffermans, Janneke Horn, Marcus J Schultz
Complement activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. We hypothesized that inhibition of the complement system in the lungs by repeated treatment with nebulized plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor reduces pulmonary complement activation and subsequently attenuates lung injury and lung inflammation. This was investigated in a rat model of severe Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Rats were intra-tracheally challenged with S. pneumoniae to induce pneumonia. Nebulized C1-esterase inhibitor or saline (control animals) was repeatedly administered to rats, 30 min before induction of pneumonia and every 6 h thereafter...
September 28, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Murat Karamese, Hakan Aydin, Emin Sengul, Volkan Gelen, Cigdem Sevim, Duran Ustek, Emre Karakus
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are "live", beneficial microbes that provide important health benefits in their hosts. There is significant interest in the modulation and regulation of the immune function by probiotics. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a probiotic mixture, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, by detecting serum cytokine and immunoglobulin levels. METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Luiz F F Oliveira, Sérgio L Salvador, Pedro H F Silva, Flávia A C Furlaneto, Luciene Figueiredo, Renato Casarin, Edilson Ervolino, Daniela B Palioto, Sérgio L S Souza, Mario Taba, Arthur B Novaes, Michel R Messora
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of topical administration of probiotic bacteria (PROB) of the genus Bifidobacterium on experimental periodontitis (EP) in rats. METHODS: 32 rats were divided into groups C (control; without EP), EP (EP only), C-HN019 (control+PROB) and EP-HN019 (EP+PROB). On day 0 of the experiment, animals of groups EP and EP-HN019 received cotton ligatures around mandibular first molars (MFM). In groups C-HN019 and EP-HN019, 1mL of suspensions containing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (B...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
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