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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544761/composites-of-bacterial-cellulose-and-small-molecule-decorated-gold-nanoparticles-for-treating-gram-negative-bacteria-infected-wounds
#1
Ying Li, Yue Tian, Wenshu Zheng, Yan Feng, Rong Huang, Jingxin Shao, Rongbing Tang, Peng Wang, Yuexiao Jia, Jiangjiang Zhang, Wenfu Zheng, Guang Yang, Xingyu Jiang
Bacterial infections, especially multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, are an increasingly serious problem in the field of wound healing. Herein, bacterial cellulose (BC) decorated by 4,6-diamino-2-pyrimidinethiol (DAPT)-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-DAPT NPs) is presented as a dressing (BC-Au-DAPT nanocomposites) for treating bacterially infected wounds. BC-Au-DAPT nanocomposites have better efficacy (measured in terms of reduced minimum inhibition concentration) than most of the antibiotics (cefazolin/sulfamethoxazole) against Gram-negative bacteria, while maintaining excellent physicochemical properties including water uptake capability, mechanical strain, and biocompatibility...
May 23, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544588/the-in-vivo-th17-and-treg-immune-responses-to-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans
#2
Susan Mahabady, Natalia Tjokro, Shant Aharonian, Homayoun H Zadeh, Casey Chen, Hooman Allayee, Parish P Sedghizadeh
The periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is known to elicit systemic immune response in infected host, and occasionally causes non-oral infections. Detailed information on its immunopathological responses and the involvement of bacterial virulence factors remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the systemic immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans oral infection. We used an animal model that simulates systemic dissemination of the bacteria by injecting live wild type (WT) D7S-1 and double knockout mutant of leukotoxin and cytolethal distending toxin (ΔltxΔcdt) A...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543032/influence-of-different-wild-garlic-allium-ursinum-extracts-on-the-gastrointestinal-system-spasmolytic-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-properties
#3
Dragana R Pavlović, Milica Veljković, Nikola M Stojanović, Marija Gočmanac-Ignjatović, Tatjana Mihailov-Krstev, Suzana Branković, Dušan Sokolović, Mirjana Marčetić, Niko Radulović, Mirjana Radenković
OBJECTIVES: As there are no previous studies of the European wild-garlic (Allium ursinum) effects on the gastrointestinal system, despite its traditional applications in gastrointestinal disorders' treatment and regular use in the human diet, we have quantified and compared spasmolytic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of its different leaf extracts. METHODS: Wild-garlic extracts were tested for spasmolytic activity on isolated rat ileum, antimicrobial activity on selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by microdilution method and antioxidant capacity by DPPH radical-scavenging assay...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539072/design-and-characterization-of-multifaceted-lyophilized-liposomal-wafers-with-promising-wound-healing-potential
#4
Amelia M Avachat, Pooja J Takudage
Various dressings are available to heal chronic wounds which many times fail to achieve the expected results. To overcome some of their drawbacks, formulation of a novel dressing; lyophilized liposomal wafers having better wound healing potential has been proposed in the present study. The drug incorporated in the formulation is Gatifloxacin (GTX) which is a fourth generation floroquinolone antibiotic having in vitro activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The formulation was designed in 3 stages where at first liposomes were prepared, the liposomes were converted to gel using chitosan and lastly this gel was lyophilized to form liposomal wafers...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536862/mechanisms-of-hepatotoxicity-associated-with-the-monocyclic-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotic-bal30072
#5
Franziska Paech, Simon Messner, Jochen Spickermann, Mathias Wind, Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne Therese Witschi, Brett A Howell, Rachel J Church, Jeff Woodhead, Marc Engelhardt, Stephan Krähenbühl, Martina Maurer
BAL30072 is a new monocyclic β-lactam antibiotic under development which provides a therapeutic option for the treatment of severe infections caused by multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the absence of liver toxicity in preclinical studies in rats and marmosets and in single dose clinical studies in humans, increased transaminase activities were observed in healthy subjects in multiple-dose clinical studies. We, therefore, initiated a comprehensive program to find out the mechanisms leading to hepatocellular injury using HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), HepaRG cells (inducible hepatocytes derived from a human hepatic progenitor cell line), and human liver microtissue preparations...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526515/prenatal-lipopolysaccharide-induces-hypothalamic-dopaminergic-hypoactivity-and-autistic-like-behaviors-repetitive-self-grooming-and-stereotypies
#6
Thiago B Kirsten, Maria M Bernardi
Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces social, cognitive, and communication deficits. For a complete screening of autistic-like behaviors, the objective of this study was to evaluate if our rat model also induces restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Thus, we studied the self-grooming microstructure. We also studied the neurochemistry of hypothalamus and frontal cortex, which are brain areas related to autism to better understand central mechanisms involved in our model...
May 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525602/aloin-a-component-of-the-aloe-vera-plant-leaf-induces-pathological-changes-and-modulates-the-composition-of-microbiota-in-the-large-intestine-of-f344-n-male-rats
#7
Mary D Boudreau, Greg R Olson, Volodymyr P Tryndyak, Matthew S Bryant, Robert P Felton, Frederick A Beland
In a previous study, the oral administration of an Aloe vera whole leaf extract induced dose-related mucosal and goblet cell hyperplasia in the rat colon after 13-weeks and colon cancer after two years. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether or not the administration of aloin, a component of the Aloe vera plant leaf, would replicate the pathophysiological effects that were observed in rats in the previous study with an Aloe vera whole leaf extract. Groups of 10 male F344/N rats were administered aloin at 0, 6...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522324/non-invasive-three-dimensional-imaging-of-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-using-diffuse-light-imaging-tomography-combined-with-micro-computed-tomography
#8
REVIEW
Luci A Witcomb, Julie Czupryna, Kevin P Francis, Gad Frankel, Peter W Taylor
In contrast to two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, three dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography (DLIT-μCT) has the potential to realise spatial variations in infection patterns when imaging experimental animals dosed with derivatives of virulent bacteria carrying bioluminescent reporter genes such as the lux operon from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The method provides an opportunity to precisely localise the bacterial infection sites within the animal and enables the generation of four-dimensional movies of the infection cycle...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512779/structure-of-protein-emulsion-in-food-impacts-intestinal-microbiota-caecal-luminal-content-composition-and-distal-intestine-characteristics-in-rats
#9
Martin Beaumont, Daphné Jaoui, Véronique Douard, Damien Mat, Fanny Koeth, Bénédicte Goustard, Camille Mayeur, Stanislas Mondot, Anais Hovaghimian, Steven Le Feunteun, Catherine Chaumontet, Anne-Marie Davila, Daniel Tomé, Isabelle Souchon, Camille Michon, Gilles Fromentin, François Blachier, Marion Leclerc
SCOPE: Few studies have evaluated in vivo the impact of food structure on digestion, absorption of nutrients and on microbiota composition and metabolism. In this study we evaluated in rat the impact of two structures of protein emulsion in food on gut microbiota, luminal content composition, and intestinal characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats received for 3 weeks two diets of identical composition but based on lipid-protein matrices of liquid fine (LFE) or gelled coarse (GCE) emulsion...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512097/glutathionylation-of-yersinia-pestis-lcrv-and-its-effects-on-plague-pathogenesis
#10
Anthony Mitchell, Christina Tam, Derek Elli, Thomas Charlton, Patrick Osei-Owusu, Farbod Fazlollahi, Kym F Faull, Olaf Schneewind
Glutathionylation, the formation of reversible mixed disulfides between glutathione and protein cysteine residues, is a posttranslational modification previously observed for intracellular proteins of bacteria. Here we show that Yersinia pestis LcrV, a secreted protein capping the type III secretion machine, is glutathionylated at Cys(273) and that this modification promotes association with host ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), moderates Y. pestis type III effector transport and killing of macrophages, and enhances bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504280/metabolic-profile-and-underlying-improved-bio-activity-of-fructus-aurantii-immaturus-by-human-intestinal-bacteria
#11
Xing Yan Liu, Meng Lin Fan, Huai You Wang, Bo Yang Yu, Ji Hua Liu
Fructus aurantii immaturus (FAI) is the dried young fruit of Citrus aurantium L. or Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the metabolic fate of FAI upon incubation with human intestinal bacteria, meanwhile to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of FAI and the transformed Fructus aurantii immaturus (TFAI). The water extract of FAI was anaerobically incubated with human intestinal bacterial suspensions for 48 h at 37 °C. Liquid chromatography-hybridised with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS) was applied to identify FAI metabolites...
May 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500337/examining-the-efficacy-of-intravenous-administration-of-predatory-bacteria-in-rats
#12
Kenneth Shatzkes, Eric Singleton, Chi Tang, Michael Zuena, Sean Shukla, Shilpi Gupta, Sonal Dharani, Joseph Rinaggio, Daniel E Kadouri, Nancy D Connell
The proteobacteria Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus are obligate predators of Gram-negative bacteria, and have been proposed to be used to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. The ability of predatory bacteria to reduce bacterial burden in vivo within the lungs of rats has been demonstrated, but it was unknown if predatory bacteria can attenuate systemic bacterial burden administered intravenously. In this study, we first assessed the safety of intravenous inoculation of predatory bacteria in rats...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495632/evaluation-of-dermal-wound-healing-activity-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-and-antioxidant-activities-of-a-new-exopolysaccharide-produced-by-lactobacillus-sp-ca6
#13
Imen Trabelsi, Naourez Ktari, Sirine Ben Slima, Mehdi Triki, Sana Bardaa, Hela Mnif, Riadh Ben Salah
The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities and the in vivo wound healing performance of a noval exopolysaccharides (EPS-Ca6) produced by Lactobacillus sp.Ca6 strain. The results showed that EPS-Ca6 had a potential antioxidant activity determined through four different assays: DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching by linoleic acid assay, and Metal chelating activities. It also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella enterica and Micrococcus luteus...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490473/specific-imaging-of-bacterial-infection-using-6-18-f-fluoromaltotriose-a-second-generation-pet-tracer-targeting-the-maltodextrin-transporter-in-bacteria
#14
Gayatri Gowrishankar, Jonathan Hardy, Mirwais Wardak, Mohammad Namavari, Robert Reeves, Evgenios Neofytou, Ananth Srinivasan, Joseph Wu, Christopher Contag, Sanjiv Gambhir
Purpose: 6"-(18)F-fluoromaltotriose is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer that can potentially be used to image and localize most bacterial infections, much like 2-deoxy-2-(18)F-fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) has been used to image and localize many cancers. However, unlike (18)F-FDG, 6"-(18)F-fluoromaltotriose is not taken up by inflammatory lesions and appears to be specific to bacterial infections by targeting the maltodextrin transporter that is expressed in most Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains of bacteria...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489364/fate-of-d-fagomine-after-oral-administration-to-rats
#15
Susana Amézqueta, Sara Ramos-Romero, Carolina Martínez-Guimet, Albert Moreno, Mercè Hereu, Josep Lluis Torres
D-Fagomine is an iminosugar found in buckwheat that is capable of inhibiting the adhesion of potentially pathogenic bacteria to epithelial mucosa and of reducing postprandial blood glucose concentration. This paper evaluates the excretion and metabolism of orally administered D-fagomine in rats and compares outcomes with the fate of 1-deoxynojirimycin. D-Fagomine and 1-deoxynojirimycin show similar absorption and excretion kinetics. D-Fagomine is partly absorbed (41-84%, dose 2 mg/kg body weight) and excreted in urine within 8 h while non-absorbed fraction is cleared in feces within 24 h...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485323/rhubarb-monomers-protect-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-in-sepsis-via-junction-proteins
#16
Lyu Wang, Yun-Liang Cui, Zhe Zhang, Zhao-Fen Lin, De-Chang Chen
BACKGROUND: Leakage of the intestinal mucosal barrier may cause translocation of bacteria, then leading to multiorgan failure. This study hypothesized that rhubarb monomers might protect the gut mucosal barrier in sepsis through junction proteins. METHODS: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 230-250 g) under anesthesia and sedation were subjected to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). After surgical preparation, rats were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6 or 8 each group): sham group (Group A: normal saline gavage); sepsis group (Group B: normal saline gavage); Group C (intraperitoneally, dexamethasone 0...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483713/safety-assessment-of-astaxanthin-derived-from-engineered-escherichia-coli-k-12-using-a-13-week-repeated-dose-oral-toxicity-study-and-a-prenatal-developmental-toxicity-study-in-rats
#17
Yin-Ju Lin, Jian-Yu Lin, Di-Sheng Wang, Chien-Hao Chen, Ming-Hsi Chiou
Astaxanthin is a natural carotenoid with strong antioxidant activity that has been used for decades as a nutrient/color additive and it has recently been marketed as a health supplement. Astaxanthin can be synthesized in a wide range of microalgae, yeast, and bacteria. As genes directing astaxanthin biosynthesis in various organisms have been cloned, this study assessed the safety of astaxanthin crystal produced by Escherichia coli K-12 harboring plasmids carrying astaxanthin biosynthetic genes. The astaxanthin crystal contains a total carotenoid content of 950 mg/g and an astaxanthin content of 795 mg/g...
May 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480860/-research-of-intestinal-microflora-in-the-rats-following-the-internal-and-external-irradiation
#18
Y Kairkhanova, N Chaizhunusоva, M Urazalin, V Stepanenko, M Hоshi
The aim of the research was comparative investigation of the quantitative and qualitative composition of large intestinal microflora following internal (by dispersed powdered 56Mn) and internal exposure of Wistar rats. Ten weeks-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into four groups: L-56Mn group with 12 rats, H-56Mn with ten rats, 60Co group with nine rats and control group with nine rats. L-56Mn and H-56Mn groups were exposed to two different doses of 56MnO2 powder. 60Co group received 2 Gy of external 60Co γ-ray whole body irradiation...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474458/accuracy-of-complement-activation-product-levels-to-detect-infected-pleural-effusion-in-rats
#19
Guilherme E Peterson, Samanta S Silva, Sérgio L Amantéa, Patrícia Miorelli, Paulo Sanches, Jane Kulczynski, Eliane Roesch, José Carlos Fraga
BACKGROUND: Pleural empyema is a well-known complication of pneumonia. If treatment is delayed, empyema may increase morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Therefore, the identification of empyema biomarkers in parapneumonic pleural effusion is desirable. Previous research has suggested complement activation products as candidate empyema markers. OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of complement activation products C3a, C5a, and C5b9 in pleural effusion induced by Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), or turpentine (control)...
May 5, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469580/microbiota-is-involved-in-post-resection-adaptation-in-humans-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#20
Laura Gillard, Camille Mayeur, Véronique Robert, Isabelle Pingenot, Johanne Le Beyec, André Bado, Patricia Lepage, Muriel Thomas, Francisca Joly
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by severe intestinal malabsorption following restrictive surgery. The objective of this study was to determine the functional contribution of SBS-microbiota after resection. It is well-known that SBS-microbiota displayed specific features with a prevalence of Lactobacillus, a low amount of some anaerobic microbes (Clostridium leptum) and an accumulation of fecal lactate in some patients. Patients with jejuno-colonic anastomosis were stratified according to the presence of lactate in their feces and, we observe that the lactate-producing bacteria were predominant in the sub-group of patients accumulating fecal lactate...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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