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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635280/anti-adhesive-activity-and-metabolomics-analysis-of-rat-urine-after-cranberry-vaccinium-macrocarpon-aiton-administration
#1
Gregorio Peron, Pellizzaro Anna, Brun Paola, Elisabetta Schievano, Stefano Mammi, Stefania Sut, Ignazio Castagliuolo, Stefano Dall'Acqua
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) is used to treat non-complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). A-type procyanidins (PAC-A) are considered the active constituents being able to inhibit bacterial adhesion to the urinary epithelium. However, there are doubts about PAC-A role in UTIs, due to their poor bioavailability, extensive metabolism, limited knowledge about urinary excretion and contradictory clinical trials. The effects of 35 days cranberry (11 mg/kg PAC-A, 4 mg/kg PAC-B) supplementation were studied in healthy rats using a UPLC-MS-based metabolomics approach...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631116/environmental-factors-and-zoonotic-pathogen-ecology-in-urban-exploiter-species
#2
REVIEW
Jamie L Rothenburger, Chelsea H Himsworth, Nicole M Nemeth, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R...
June 19, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629947/temporal-microbiota-changes-of-high-protein-diet-intake-in-a-rat-model
#3
Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Zhen Luo, Weiyun Zhu
Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis...
June 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625768/screening-and-characterization-of-lactic-acid-bacterial-strains-that-produce-fermented-milk-and-reduce-cholesterol-levels
#4
Xuefang Guan, Qingxian Xu, Yi Zheng, Lei Qian, Bin Lin
OBJECTIVE: To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. METHODS: The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. RESULTS: The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study...
June 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622357/protective-effect-of-aplysin-on-liver-tissue-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-alcohol-fed-rats
#5
Meilan Xue, Ying Liu, Rui Lyu, Na Ge, Man Liu, Yan Ma, Hui Liang
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the protective effect of aplysin on the liver and its influence on inflammation and the gut microbiota in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an alcohol-containing liquid diet, control liquid diet or treatment with aplysin for 8 weeks. Hepatic and intestinal histopathological analysis was performed, and cytokine levels and the intestinal mucosal barrier were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621836/-dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-modify-gut-microbial-composition-and-partially-increase-colon-permeability-in-rats
#6
Wanting Qu, Xiaojin Yuan, Jinsong Zhao, Yingxiao Zhang, Jing Hu, Jiawei Wang, Juxiu Li
SCOPE: The adverse impacts of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on health are currently of interest. These compounds are inevitably formed during thermal food processing and make foods less digestible because of protein cross-linking. This study examined not only whether dietary AGEs alter cecal microbiota and their metabolites but also their effects on colon permeability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a high-AGEs diet (AGEs content was increased by heating food at 125°C/3 h) for 6, 12, or 18 weeks...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618347/biodegradation-and-biocompatibility-of-haloarchaea-produced-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-copolymers
#7
Jing Han, Lin-Ping Wu, Xiao-Bin Liu, Jing Hou, Li-Li Zhao, Jun-Yu Chen, Da-He Zhao, Hua Xiang
We previously reported that the tailor-made random poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (R-PHBHV) and higher-order PHBHV (O-PHBHV) produced by haloarchaea possessed unique material properties to meet biomedical application-specific requirements. Here, we further investigated the biocompatibility and biodegradation of these novel materials. Cell biocompatibility of solution-cast films, assessed using rat fibroblast and osteoblast cells, revealed that R-PHBHV and O-PHBHV exhibited better support for cell attachment and proliferation compared with the bacteria-produced poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and PHBHV or polylactic acid (PLA)...
September 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617678/single-variant-bottleneck-in-the-early-dynamics-of-h-influenzae-bacteremia-in-neonatal-rats-questions-the-theory-of-independent-action
#8
Xinxian Shao, Bruce Levin, Ilya Nemenman
There is an abundance of information about the genetic basis, physiological and molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. In contrast, relatively little is known about population dynamic processes, by which bacteria colonize hosts and invade tissues and cells and thereby cause disease. In an article published in 1978, Moxon and Murphy presented evidence that, when inoculated intranasally with a mixture streptomycin sensitive and resistant (Sm (S) and Sm (R) ) and otherwise isogenic strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), neonatal rats develop a bacteremic infection that often is dominated by only one strain, Sm (S) or Sm (R) ...
June 15, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607360/development-of-a-root-canal-treatment-model-in-the-rat
#9
Naomichi Yoneda, Yuichiro Noiri, Saori Matsui, Katsutaka Kuremoto, Hazuki Maezono, Takuya Ishimoto, Takayoshi Nakano, Shigeyuki Ebisu, Mikako Hayashi
Root canal treatment is performed to treat apical periodontitis, and various procedures and techniques are currently used. Although animal models have been used in the developmental research of root canal treatment, little of this research has used small animals such as rats, because of their small size. In this study, root canal treatment was performed on the rat mandibular first molar, which had four root canals, using a microscope, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated bacteriologically, radiologically and histopathologically...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605130/effect-of-cocoa-s-theobromine-on-intestinal-microbiota-of-rats
#10
Sandra Martín-Peláez, Mariona Camps-Bossacoma, Malen Massot-Cladera, Mar Rigo-Adrover, Àngels Franch, Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Margarida Castell
SCOPE: To establish the role of cocoa theobromine on gut microbiota composition and fermentation products after cocoa consumption in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet (RF diet), a diet containing 10% cocoa (CC diet) or a diet including 0.25% theobromine (TB diet) for 15 days. Gut microbiota (fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to flow cytometry and metagenomics analysis), SCFA and IgA-coated bacteria were analyzed in fecal samples...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594930/evaluation-of-an-enhanced-cleaning-and-disinfection-protocol-in-salmonella-contaminated-pig-holdings-in-the-united-kingdom
#11
Francesca Martelli, Mark Lambert, Paul Butt, Tanya Cheney, Fabrizio Antonio Tatone, Rebecca Callaby, André Rabie, Rebecca J Gosling, Steve Fordon, Graham Crocker, Robert H Davies, Richard Piers Smith
Salmonella is the second most commonly reported zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogen in the European Union, and a significant proportion of the cases are linked to the consumption of contaminated pork. Reduction of Salmonella at the farm level helps to mininimise the contamination pressure at the slaughterhouse, and therefore the number of Salmonella bacteria entering the food chain. Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) between batches of pigs is an intervention measure that has potential to reduce the transmission of Salmonella contamination within farms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588308/a-four-biomarker-blood-signature-discriminates-systemic-inflammation-due-to-viral-infection-versus-other-etiologies
#12
D L Sampson, B A Fox, T D Yager, S Bhide, S Cermelli, L C McHugh, T A Seldon, R A Brandon, E Sullivan, J J Zimmerman, M Noursadeghi, R B Brandon
The innate immune system of humans and other mammals responds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are conserved across broad classes of infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses. We hypothesized that a blood-based transcriptional signature could be discovered indicating a host systemic response to viral infection. Previous work identified host transcriptional signatures to individual viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and dengue, but the generality of these signatures across all viral infection types has not been established...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579065/engineering-a-sprayable-and-elastic-hydrogel-adhesive-with-antimicrobial-properties-for-wound-healing
#13
Nasim Annabi, Devyesh Rana, Ehsan Shirzaei Sani, Roberto Portillo-Lara, Jessie L Gifford, Mohammad M Fares, Suzanne M Mithieux, Anthony S Weiss
Hydrogel-based bioadhesives have emerged as alternatives for sutureless wound closure, since they can mimic the composition and physicochemical properties of the extracellular matrix. However, they are often associated with poor mechanical properties, low adhesion to native tissues, and lack of antimicrobial properties. Herein, a new sprayable, elastic, and biocompatible composite hydrogel, with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, for the treatment of chronic wounds is reported. The composite hydrogels were engineered using two ECM-derived biopolymers, gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and methacryloyl-substituted recombinant human tropoelastin (MeTro)...
September 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578061/effects-of-the-combination-of-%C3%AF-3-pufas-and-proanthocyanidins-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-rats
#14
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Eunice Molinar-Toribio, María Pilar Almajano, Lucía Méndez, Isabel Medina, Núria Taltavull, Marta Romeu, Maria Rosa Nogués, Josep Lluís Torres
ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and other pathologies that involve low-grade inflammation. They have recently been shown to exert complementary functional effects with proanthocyanidins. As the reduction of health-promoting gut bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been linked to a number of alterations in the host, the aim of this study was to determine whether PUFAs and proanthocyanidins also cooperate in maintaining well-balanced microbiota...
July 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576646/increase-in-hypothalamic-ampk-phosphorylation-induced-by-prolonged-exposure-to-lps-involves-ghrelin-and-cb1r-signaling
#15
Priscila M S Rivas, Fernanda M V Vechiato, Beatriz C Borges, Rodrigo Rorato, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Lucila L K Elias
Acute administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria induces hypophagia. However, the repeated administration of LPS leads to desensitization of hypophagia, which is associated with increased hypothalamic p-AMPK expression. Because ghrelin and endocannabinoids modulate AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, we hypothesized that these neuromodulators play a role in the reversal of tolerance to hypophagia in rats under long-term exposure to LPS. Male Wistar rats were treated with single (1 LPS, 100μg/kg body weight, ip) or repeated injections of LPS over 6days (6 LPS)...
June 8, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573221/efficacy-and-safety-of-ban-huang-oral-liquid-for-treating-bovine-respiratory-diseases
#16
Bing Li, Xu-Zheng Zhou, Jian-Rong Niu, Xiao-Juan Wei, Jian-Yong Li, Ya-Jun Yang, Xi-Wang Liu, Fu-Sheng Cheng, Ji-Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ban Huang oral liquid was developed as a veterinary compound preparation by the Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the oral liquid preparation of traditional Chinese medicine, Ban Huang, is safe and effective for treating respiratory diseases in cattle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute oral toxicity experiments were conducted in Wistar rats and Kunming mice via oral administration...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571818/association-between-oxidative-status-and-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#17
Marianna Gyuraszova, Alexandra Kovalcikova, Roman Gardlik
Studies have shown that the microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role when it comes to the maintenance of its proper functions. Many studies exist that have analyzed the composition of the bacterial community in the different regions of the GIT of humans and model animals. Microbial imbalance leads to several systemic disorders, including cardiovascular and renal disease. The imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their elimination by antioxidants leads to oxidative stress...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571487/targeting-of-streptococcus-mutans-biofilms-by-a-novel-small-molecule-prevents-dental-caries-and-preserves-the-oral-microbiome
#18
S S Garcia, M S Blackledge, S Michalek, L Su, T Ptacek, P Eipers, C Morrow, E J Lefkowitz, C Melander, H Wu
Dental caries is a costly and prevalent disease characterized by the demineralization of the tooth's enamel. Disease outcome is influenced by host factors, dietary intake, cariogenic bacteria, and other microbes. The cariogenic bacterial species Streptococcus mutans metabolizes sucrose to initiate biofilm formation on the tooth surface and consequently produces lactic acid to degrade the tooth's enamel. Persistence of S. mutans biofilms in the oral cavity can lead to tooth decay. To date, no anticaries therapies that specifically target S...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559986/severe-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock-induces-compromised-immune-barrier-function-of-the-mesenteric-lymph-node-leading-to-an-increase-in-intestinal-bacterial-translocation
#19
Jian Zhang, Yun Zhang, Tao Xu, Sheng-Jing Pan, Gang Nie, Xiao-Yan Miao, Jun-Yu Qiu, Wen-Qiao Yu, Shao-Yang Zhang, Ting-Bo Liang
Critically ill patients have increased susceptibility to translocation of gut bacteria. However, the mechanisms are complicated and remain unclear, and the aim of this study was to explore these mechanisms. Rats exposed to different levels of shock were orally administrated with bioluminescent Citrobacter. We found that severe shock caused an increase in bacterial translocation to the visceral organs, such as liver, spleen and blood, compared with mild shock. Surprisingly, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph node (MLN) was unchanged between the two shock groups...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557438/anti-inflammatory-and-antibacterial-effects-of-covalently-attached-biomembrane-mimic-polymer-grafts-on-gore-tex-implants
#20
Young Ju Jin, Sunah Kang, Pona Park, Dongkil Choi, Dae Woo Kim, Dongwook Jung, Jaemoon Koh, Joohee Jeon, Myoungjin Lee, Jiyeon Ham, Ji-Hun Seo, Hong-Ryul Jin, Yan Lee
Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), also known as Gore-Tex, is widely used as an implantable biomaterial in biomedical applications because of its favorable mechanical properties and biochemical inertness. However, infection and inflammation are two major complications with ePTFE implantations, because pathogenic bacteria can inhabit the microsized pores, without clearance by host immune cells, and the limited biocompatibility can induce foreign body reactions. To minimize these complications, we covalently grafted a biomembrane-mimic polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxylethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), by partial defluorination followed by UV-induced polymerization with cross-linkers on the ePTFE surface...
June 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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