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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602614/mir-203-interplays-with-polycomb-repressive-complexes-to-regulate-the-proliferation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#1
Pei-Pei Liu, Gang-Bin Tang, Ya-Jie Xu, Yu-Qiang Zeng, Shuang-Feng Zhang, Hong-Zhen Du, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
The polycomb repressive complexes 1 (PRC1) and 2 (PRC2) are two distinct polycomb group (PcG) proteins that maintain the stable silencing of specific sets of genes through chromatin modifications. Although the PRC2 component EZH2 has been known as an epigenetic regulator in promoting the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the regulatory network that controls this process remains largely unknown. Here we show that miR-203 is repressed by EZH2 in both embryonic and adult NSPCs. MiR-203 negatively regulates the proliferation of NSPCs...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598616/identification-of-bmi1-promoter-inhibitors-from-beaumontia-murtonii-and-eugenia-operculata
#2
Yui Kaneta, Midori A Arai, Naoki Ishikawa, Kazufumi Toume, Takashi Koyano, Thaworn Kowithayakorn, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Atsushi Iwama, Masami Ishibashi
B-Cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region 1 (BMI1) is a core component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Abnormal expression of BMI1 is associated with a number of human malignances and cancer stem cells (CSCs), which cause chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, small molecules that inhibit BMI1 expression are potential candidates for cancer therapy. In this study, a cell-based reporter gene assay was developed that allowed BMI1 promoter activity to be measured in 293T human embryonic kidney cells based on luciferase expression levels...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596365/pcgf3-5-prc1-initiates-polycomb-recruitment-in-x-chromosome-inactivation
#3
Mafalda Almeida, Greta Pintacuda, Osamu Masui, Yoko Koseki, Michal Gdula, Andrea Cerase, David Brown, Arne Mould, Cassandravictoria Innocent, Manabu Nakayama, Lothar Schermelleh, Tatyana B Nesterova, Haruhiko Koseki, Neil Brockdorff
Recruitment of the Polycomb repressive complexes PRC1 and PRC2 by Xist RNA is an important paradigm for chromatin regulation by long noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that the noncanonical Polycomb group RING finger 3/5 (PCGF3/5)-PRC1 complex initiates recruitment of both PRC1 and PRC2 in response to Xist RNA expression. PCGF3/5-PRC1-mediated ubiquitylation of histone H2A signals recruitment of other noncanonical PRC1 complexes and of PRC2, the latter leading to deposition of histone H3 lysine 27 methylation chromosome-wide...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588451/neurogenic-to-gliogenic-fate-transition-perturbed-by-loss-of-hmgb2
#4
Robert Bronstein, Jackson Kyle, Ariel B Abraham, Stella E Tsirka
Mouse cortical development relies heavily on a delicate balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis. The lateral ventricular zone produces different classes of excitatory pyramidal cells until just before birth, when the production of astroglia begins to prevail. Epigenetic control of this fate shift is of critical importance and chromatin regulatory elements driving neuronal or astroglial development play an vital role. Different classes of chromatin binding proteins orchestrate the transcriptional repression of neuronal-specific genes, while allowing for the activation of astrocyte-specific genes...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580277/expression-and-functional-assessment-of-candidate-type-2-diabetes-susceptibility-genes-identify-four-new-genes-contributing-to-human-insulin-secretion
#5
Fatou K Ndiaye, Ana Ortalli, Mickaël Canouil, Marlène Huyvaert, Clara Salazar-Cardozo, Cécile Lecoeur, Marie Verbanck, Valérie Pawlowski, Raphaël Boutry, Emmanuelle Durand, Iandry Rabearivelo, Olivier Sand, Lorella Marselli, Julie Kerr-Conte, Vikash Chandra, Raphaël Scharfmann, Odile Poulain-Godefroy, Piero Marchetti, François Pattou, Amar Abderrahmani, Philippe Froguel, Amélie Bonnefond
OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 loci independently contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, translational implications for precision medicine and for the development of novel treatments have been disappointing, due to poor knowledge of how these loci impact T2D pathophysiology. Here, we aimed to measure the expression of genes located nearby T2D associated signals and to assess their effect on insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577303/hhex-regulates-hematopoietic-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-stress-hematopoiesis-via-repression-of-cdkn2a
#6
Jacob T Jackson, Benjamin J Shields, Wei Shi, Ladina Di Rago, Donald Metcalf, Nicos A Nicola, Matthew P McCormack
The Hematopoietically-expressed homeobox transcription factor (Hhex) is important for the maturation of definitive hematopoietic progenitors and B-cells during development. We have recently shown that in adult hematopoiesis, Hhex is dispensable for maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid lineages but essential for the commitment of Common Lymphoid Progenitors (CLPs) to lymphoid lineages. Here we show that during serial bone marrow transplantation, Hhex-deleted HSCs are progressively lost, revealing an intrinsic defect in HSC self-renewal...
June 2, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513584/kinesin-5-independent-mitotic-spindle-assembly-requires-the-antiparallel-microtubule-crosslinker-ase1-in-fission-yeast
#7
Sergio A Rincon, Adam Lamson, Robert Blackwell, Viktoriya Syrovatkina, Vincent Fraisier, Anne Paoletti, Meredith D Betterton, Phong T Tran
Bipolar spindle assembly requires a balance of forces where kinesin-5 produces outward pushing forces to antagonize the inward pulling forces from kinesin-14 or dynein. Accordingly, Kinesin-5 inactivation results in force imbalance leading to monopolar spindle and chromosome segregation failure. In fission yeast, force balance is restored when both kinesin-5 Cut7 and kinesin-14 Pkl1 are deleted, restoring spindle bipolarity. Here we show that the cut7Δpkl1Δ spindle is fully competent for chromosome segregation independently of motor activity, except for kinesin-6 Klp9, which is required for anaphase spindle elongation...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505103/neuronal-migration-and-auts2-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Kei Hori, Mikio Hoshino
Neuronal migration is one of the pivotal steps to form a functional brain, and disorganization of this process is believed to underlie the pathology of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy. However, it is not clear how abnormal neuronal migration causes mental dysfunction. Recently, a key gene for various psychiatric diseases, the Autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2), has been shown to regulate neuronal migration, which gives new insight into understanding this question...
May 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491069/characterization-of-the-polycomb-group-mark-h3k27me3-in-unicellular-algae
#9
Pawel Mikulski, Olga Komarynets, Fabio Fachinelli, Andreas P M Weber, Daniel Schubert
Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins mediate chromatin repression in plants and animals by catalyzing H3K27 methylation and H2AK118/119 mono-ubiquitination through the activity of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and PRC1, respectively. PcG proteins were extensively studied in higher plants, but their function and target genes in unicellular branches of the green lineage remain largely unknown. To shed light on PcG function and modus operandi in a broad evolutionary context, we demonstrate phylogenetic relationship of core PRC1 and PRC2 proteins and H3K27me3 biochemical presence in several unicellular algae of different phylogenetic subclades...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483375/mechanisms-regulating-prc2-recruitment-and-enzymatic-activity
#10
REVIEW
Daniel Holoch, Raphaël Margueron
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and its histone H3 lysine-27 methylation activity are crucial for multicellular development by virtue of their role in maintaining transcriptional repression patterns. The recruitment and enzymatic activity of PRC2 are controlled by a series of intricate mechanisms whose molecular details have been emerging at a rapid pace. Recent studies have uncovered intriguing modes of PRC2 regulation by facultative PRC2 subunits, PRC1, and specific features of the chromatin environment...
May 5, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440749/correction-pcgf6-prc1-suppresses-premature-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-by-regulating-germ-cell-related-genes
#11
Mitsuhiro Endoh, Takaho A Endo, Jun Shinga, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Anca Farcas, Kit-Wan Ma, Shinsuke Ito, Jafar Sharif, Tamie Endoh, Naoko Onaga, Manabu Nakayama, Tomoyuki Ishikura, Osamu Masui, Benedikt M Kessler, Toshio Suda, Osamu Ohara, Akihiko Okuda, Robert J Klose, Haruhiko Koseki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429652/atypical-regulators-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Jianxiang Chen, Muthukumar Rajasekaran, Kam M Hui
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma development depends on the inhibition and activation of multiple vital pathways, including the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway lies at the center of various signaling pathways that regulate embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and cancers. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been observed frequently in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, activating mutations in β-catenin, Axin and Adenomatous Polyposis Coli only contribute to a portion of the Wnt signaling hyper-activation observed in hepatocellular carcinoma...
June 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422978/the-escrt-regulator-did2-maintains-the-balance-between-long-distance-endosomal-transport-and-endocytic-trafficking
#13
Carl Haag, Thomas Pohlmann, Michael Feldbrügge
In highly polarised cells, like fungal hyphae, early endosomes function in both endocytosis as well as long-distance transport of various cargo including mRNA and protein complexes. However, knowledge on the crosstalk between these seemingly different trafficking processes is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates endosomal transport in fungal hyphae of Ustilago maydis. Loss of Did2 results in defective vacuolar targeting, less processive long-distance transport and abnormal shuttling of early endosomes...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412742/association-of-the-long-non-coding-rna-malat1-with-the-polycomb-repressive-complex-pathway-in-t-and-nk-cell-lymphoma
#14
Soo Hee Kim, Se Hoon Kim, Woo Ick Yang, Soo Jeong Kim, Sun Och Yoon
Recently, various long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to have significant therapeutic or prognostic value. However, the expression of lncRNAs has not been investigated in T and NK cell lymphoma. Thus, we evaluated the biological and prognostic role of lncRNAs related to the polycomb repressive complex (PRC) and PRC markers in tissue samples and cell lines of T and NK cell lymphoma. Among the tested lncRNAs, MALAT1 was most highly expressed in clinical samples and cell lines. High expression of MALAT1 as well as BMI1 was related to poor prognosis in patients with mature T cell lymphoma...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403905/h2a-monoubiquitination-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-is-generally-independent-of-lhp1-and-prc2-activity
#15
Yue Zhou, Francisco J Romero-Campero, Ángeles Gómez-Zambrano, Franziska Turck, Myriam Calonje
BACKGROUND: Polycomb group complexes PRC1 and PRC2 repress gene expression at the chromatin level in eukaryotes. The classic recruitment model of Polycomb group complexes in which PRC2-mediated H3K27 trimethylation recruits PRC1 for H2A monoubiquitination was recently challenged by data showing that PRC1 activity can also recruit PRC2. However, the prevalence of these two mechanisms is unknown, especially in plants as H2AK121ub marks were examined at only a handful of Polycomb group targets...
April 12, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394257/cooperative-gene-activation-by-af4-and-dot1l-drives-mll-rearranged-leukemia
#16
Hiroshi Okuda, Boban Stanojevic, Akinori Kanai, Takeshi Kawamura, Satoshi Takahashi, Hirotaka Matsui, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Akihiko Yokoyama
The eleven-nineteen leukemia (ENL) protein family, composed of ENL and AF9, is a common component of 3 transcriptional modulators: AF4-ENL-P-TEFb complex (AEP), DOT1L-AF10-ENL complex (referred to as the DOT1L complex) and polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Each complex associates with chromatin via distinct mechanisms, conferring different transcriptional properties including activation, maintenance, and repression. The mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene often fuses with ENL and AF10 family genes in leukemia...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393894/loss-of-polycomb-group-protein-pcgf1-severely-compromises-proper-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Yun Yan, Wukui Zhao, Yikai Huang, Huan Tong, Yin Xia, Qing Jiang, Jinzhong Qin
The Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is essential for fate decisions of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Emerging evidence suggests that six major variants of PRC1 complex, defined by the mutually exclusive presence of Pcgf subunit, regulate distinct biological processes, yet very little is known about the mechanism by which each version of PRC1 instructs and maintains cell fate. Here, we disrupted the Pcgf1, also known as Nspc1 and one of six Pcgf paralogs, in mouse ES cells by the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We showed that although these mutant cells were viable and retained normal self-renewal, they displayed severe defects in differentiation in vitro...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388433/rna-helicase-ddx5-inhibits-reprogramming-to-pluripotency-by-mirna-based-repression-of-rybp-and-its-prc1-dependent-and-independent-functions
#18
Huanhuan Li, Ping Lai, Jinping Jia, Yawei Song, Qing Xia, Kaimeng Huang, Na He, Wangfang Ping, Jiayu Chen, Zhongzhou Yang, Jiao Li, Mingze Yao, Xiaotao Dong, Jicheng Zhao, Chunhui Hou, Miguel A Esteban, Shaorong Gao, Duanqing Pei, Andrew P Hutchins, Hongjie Yao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382142/protein-regulator-of-cytokinesis-prc1-confers-chemoresistance-and-predicts-an-unfavorable-postoperative-survival-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients
#19
Yu Wang, Feng Shi, Guo-Hui Xing, Ping Xie, Na Zhao, Yu-Feng Yin, Shu-Yan Sun, Jing He, Ying Wang, Shi-Ying Xuan
Background: PRC1, a microtubules(MTs)-associated protein, is essential in the mitosis and cell cycle regulation. It has been recently linked to chemoresistance and tumorigenesis. The current study sought to explore the role of PRC1 on chemoresistance and postoperative prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). Methods: PRC1 was transfected into HCC cells to detect its effects of chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil in vitro and in vivo. This study also investigated the impact of PRC1 on 5-FU-induced G2/M phase arrest and the potential molecular mechanism...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329686/demethylated-hsatii-dna-and-hsatii-rna-foci-sequester-prc1-and-mecp2-into-cancer-specific-nuclear-bodies
#20
Lisa L Hall, Meg Byron, Dawn M Carone, Troy W Whitfield, Gayle P Pouliot, Andrew Fischer, Peter Jones, Jeanne B Lawrence
This study reveals that high-copy satellite II (HSATII) sequences in the human genome can bind and impact distribution of chromatin regulatory proteins and that this goes awry in cancer. In many cancers, master regulatory proteins form two types of cancer-specific nuclear bodies, caused by locus-specific deregulation of HSATII. DNA demethylation at the 1q12 mega-satellite, common in cancer, causes PRC1 aggregation into prominent Cancer-Associated Polycomb (CAP) bodies. These loci remain silent, whereas HSATII loci with reduced PRC1 become derepressed, reflecting imbalanced distribution of UbH2A on these and other PcG-regulated loci...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
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