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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924034/polycomb-directs-timely-activation-of-germline-genes-in-spermatogenesis
#1
So Maezawa, Kazuteru Hasegawa, Masashi Yukawa, Akihiko Sakashita, Kris G Alavattam, Paul R Andreassen, Miguel Vidal, Haruhiko Koseki, Artem Barski, Satoshi H Namekawa
During spermatogenesis, a large number of germline genes essential for male fertility are coordinately activated. However, it remains unknown how timely activation of this group of germline genes is accomplished. Here we show that Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) directs timely activation of germline genes during spermatogenesis. Inactivation of PRC1 in male germ cells results in the gradual loss of a stem cell population and severe differentiation defects, leading to male infertility. In the stem cell population, RNF2, the dominant catalytic subunit of PRC1, activates transcription of Sall4, which codes for a transcription factor essential for subsequent spermatogenic differentiation...
September 18, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910277/interplay-between-microtubule-bundling-and-sorting-factors-ensures-acentriolar-spindle-stability-during-c-elegans-oocyte-meiosis
#2
Timothy J Mullen, Sarah M Wignall
In many species, oocyte meiosis is carried out in the absence of centrioles. As a result, microtubule organization, spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation proceed by unique mechanisms. Here, we report insights into the principles underlying this specialized form of cell division, through studies of C. elegans KLP-15 and KLP-16, two highly homologous members of the kinesin-14 family of minus-end-directed kinesins. These proteins localize to the acentriolar oocyte spindle and promote microtubule bundling during spindle assembly; following klp-15/16 depletion, microtubule bundles form but then collapse into a disorganized array...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900001/samd7-is-a-cell-type-specific-prc1-component-essential-for-establishing-retinal-rod-photoreceptor-identity
#3
Yoshihiro Omori, Shun Kubo, Tetsuo Kon, Mayu Furuhashi, Hirotaka Narita, Taro Kominami, Akiko Ueno, Ryotaro Tsutsumi, Taro Chaya, Haruka Yamamoto, Isao Suetake, Shinji Ueno, Haruhiko Koseki, Atsushi Nakagawa, Takahisa Furukawa
Precise transcriptional regulation controlled by a transcription factor network is known to be crucial for establishing correct neuronal cell identities and functions in the CNS. In the retina, the expression of various cone and rod photoreceptor cell genes is regulated by multiple transcription factors; however, the role of epigenetic regulation in photoreceptor cell gene expression has been poorly understood. Here, we found that Samd7, a rod-enriched sterile alpha domain (SAM) domain protein, is essential for silencing nonrod gene expression through H3K27me3 regulation in rod photoreceptor cells...
September 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900000/correction-for-lecona-et-al-usp7-cooperates-with-scml2-to-regulate-the-activity-of-prc1
#4
Emilio Lecona, Varun Narendra, Danny Reinberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855339/role-of-remodeling-and-spacing-factor-1-in-histone-h2a-ubiquitination-mediated-gene-silencing
#5
Zhuo Zhang, Amanda E Jones, Wei Wu, Jinman Kim, Yue Kang, Xiaobao Bi, Yue Gu, Ivan K Popov, Matthew B Renfrow, Marina N Vassylyeva, Dmitry G Vassylyev, Keith E Giles, Dongquan Chen, Ashwath Kumar, Yuhong Fan, Yufeng Tong, Chuan-Fa Liu, Woojin An, Chenbei Chang, Jianjun Luo, Louise T Chow, Hengbin Wang
Posttranslational histone modifications play important roles in regulating chromatin-based nuclear processes. Histone H2AK119 ubiquitination (H2Aub) is a prevalent modification and has been primarily linked to gene silencing. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely obscure. Here we report the identification of RSF1 (remodeling and spacing factor 1), a subunit of the RSF complex, as a H2Aub binding protein, which mediates the gene-silencing function of this histone modification. RSF1 associates specifically with H2Aub, but not H2Bub nucleosomes, through a previously uncharacterized and obligatory region designated as ubiquitinated H2A binding domain...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840006/protein-regulator-of-cytokinesis-1-expression-prognostic-value-in-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients
#6
Ping Zhan, Guang-Min Xi, Hong-Bing Liu, Ya-Fang Liu, Wu-Jian Xu, Qingqing Zhu, Ze-Jun Zhou, Ying-Ying Miao, Xiao-Xia Wang, Jia-Jia Jin, Tang-Feng Lv, Yong Song
BACKGROUND: Protein regulator of cytokinesis-1 (PRC1) has been shown to participate in the completion of cytokinesis, and it is dysregulated in cancer processes. However, its relevance in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remained largely unknown. We aimed to study the expression pattern of PRC1 and assess its clinical significance in lung SCC. METHODS: PRC1 protein expression in human lung SCC and adjacent normal lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839133/usp26-functions-as-a-negative-regulator-of-cellular-reprogramming-by-stabilising-prc1-complex-components
#7
Bo Ning, Wei Zhao, Chen Qian, Pinghua Liu, Qingtian Li, Wenyuan Li, Rong-Fu Wang
Despite much progress in the comprehension of the complex process of somatic cell reprogramming, many questions regarding the molecular mechanism of regulation remain to be answered. At present, the knowledge on the negative regulation of reprogramming process is indeed poor in contrary to the identification of positive regulators. Here we report for the first time that ubiquitin-specific protease 26 negatively regulates somatic cell-reprogramming process by stabilizing chromobox (CBX)-containing proteins CBX4 and CBX6 of polycomb-repressive complex 1 through the removal of K48-linked polyubiquitination...
August 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782042/polycomb-repressive-complex-1-modifies-transcription-of-active-genes
#8
Michelle Pherson, Ziva Misulovin, Maria Gause, Kathie Mihindukulasuriya, Amanda Swain, Dale Dorsett
This study examines the role of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) at active genes. The PRC1 and PRC2 complexes are crucial for epigenetic silencing during development of an organism. They are recruited to Polycomb response elements (PREs) and establish silenced domains over several kilobases. Recent studies show that PRC1 is also directly recruited to active genes by the cohesin complex. Cohesin participates broadly in control of gene transcription, but it is unknown whether cohesin-recruited PRC1 also plays a role in transcriptional control of active genes...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765367/polycomb-mediated-chromatin-loops-revealed-by-a-subkilobase-resolution-chromatin-interaction-map
#9
Kyle P Eagen, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Roger D Kornberg
The locations of chromatin loops in Drosophila were determined by Hi-C (chemical cross-linking, restriction digestion, ligation, and high-throughput DNA sequencing). Whereas most loop boundaries or "anchors" are associated with CTCF protein in mammals, loop anchors in Drosophila were found most often in association with the polycomb group (PcG) protein Polycomb (Pc), a subunit of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Loops were frequently located within domains of PcG-repressed chromatin. Promoters located at PRC1 loop anchors regulate some of the most important developmental genes and are less likely to be expressed than those not at PRC1 loop anchors...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758948/polycomb-repressor-complex-2-in-genomic-instability-and-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Zoe Veneti, Kalliopi K Gkouskou, Aristides G Eliopoulos
Polycomb repressor complexes PRC1 and PRC2 regulate chromatin compaction and gene expression, and are widely recognized for their fundamental contributions to developmental processes. Herein, we summarize the existing evidence and molecular mechanisms linking PRC-mediated epigenetic aberrations to genomic instability and malignancy, with a particular focus on the role of deregulated PRC2 in tumor suppressor gene expression, the DNA damage response, and the fidelity of DNA replication. We also discuss some of the recent advances in the development of pharmacological and dietary interventions affecting PRC2, which point to promising applications for the prevention and management of human malignancies...
July 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690110/mapping-load-bearing-in-the-mammalian-spindle-reveals-local-kinetochore-fiber-anchorage-that-provides-mechanical-isolation-and-redundancy
#11
Mary Williard Elting, Manu Prakash, Dylan B Udy, Sophie Dumont
Active forces generated at kinetochores move chromosomes, and the dynamic spindle must robustly anchor kinetochore fibers (k-fibers) to bear this load. The mammalian spindle bears the load of chromosome movement far from poles, but we do not know where and how-physically and molecularly-this load distributes across the spindle. In part, this is because probing spindle mechanics in live cells is difficult. Yet answering this question is key to understanding how the spindle generates and responds to force and performs its diverse mechanical functions...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670392/interactome-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-of-cervical-cancer-reveals-dysregulated-mitotic-gene-clusters
#12
Jing Cheng, Xiaosheng Lu, Jianguang Wang, Huina Zhang, Ping Duan, Chunyang Li
Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. HPV infections are the leading cause of cervical cancer. Although progress has been made in understanding cervical cancer, knowledge of oncogenic gene clusters that participate in squamous-cell mitosis is still lacking. We performed a computational analysis with qRT-PCR validation of gene expression profiles of cervical cancer tissues. Genes involved in muscle contraction and development were downregulated in cervical cancer tissues, suggesting decreased muscle function in cervical cancer...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646916/prc1-contributes-to-tumorigenesis-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-in-association-with-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#13
Ping Zhan, Bin Zhang, Guang-Min Xi, Ying Wu, Hong-Bing Liu, Ya-Fang Liu, Wu-Jian Xu, Qing-Qing Zhu, Feng Cai, Ze-Jun Zhou, Ying-Ying Miu, Xiao-Xia Wang, Jia-Jia Jin, Qian Li, Li-Ping Qian, Tang-Feng Lv, Yong Song
BACKGROUND: Protein regulator of cytokinesis-1 (PRC1) belongs to the microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) family, and is involved in cytokinesis. Recent investigations suggest PRC1 involvement in human carcinogenesis, including breast carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and etc. However, whether PRC1 contributes to lung adenocarcinoma tumorigenesis remains unknown. METHODS: Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blotting and Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were used to evaluate and contrast the PRC1 expression profile in lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal lung tissues...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602614/mir-203-interplays-with-polycomb-repressive-complexes-to-regulate-the-proliferation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#14
Pei-Pei Liu, Gang-Bin Tang, Ya-Jie Xu, Yu-Qiang Zeng, Shuang-Feng Zhang, Hong-Zhen Du, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
The polycomb repressive complexes 1 (PRC1) and 2 (PRC2) are two distinct polycomb group (PcG) proteins that maintain the stable silencing of specific sets of genes through chromatin modifications. Although the PRC2 component EZH2 has been known as an epigenetic regulator in promoting the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the regulatory network that controls this process remains largely unknown. Here we show that miR-203 is repressed by EZH2 in both embryonic and adult NSPCs. MiR-203 negatively regulates the proliferation of NSPCs...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598616/identification-of-bmi1-promoter-inhibitors-from-beaumontia-murtonii-and-eugenia-operculata
#15
Yui Kaneta, Midori A Arai, Naoki Ishikawa, Kazufumi Toume, Takashi Koyano, Thaworn Kowithayakorn, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Atsushi Iwama, Masami Ishibashi
B-Cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region 1 (BMI1) is a core component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Abnormal expression of BMI1 is associated with a number of human malignances and cancer stem cells (CSCs), which cause chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, small molecules that inhibit BMI1 expression are potential candidates for cancer therapy. In this study, a cell-based reporter gene assay was developed that allowed BMI1 promoter activity to be measured in 293T human embryonic kidney cells based on luciferase expression levels...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596365/pcgf3-5-prc1-initiates-polycomb-recruitment-in-x-chromosome-inactivation
#16
Mafalda Almeida, Greta Pintacuda, Osamu Masui, Yoko Koseki, Michal Gdula, Andrea Cerase, David Brown, Arne Mould, Cassandravictoria Innocent, Manabu Nakayama, Lothar Schermelleh, Tatyana B Nesterova, Haruhiko Koseki, Neil Brockdorff
Recruitment of the Polycomb repressive complexes PRC1 and PRC2 by Xist RNA is an important paradigm for chromatin regulation by long noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that the noncanonical Polycomb group RING finger 3/5 (PCGF3/5)-PRC1 complex initiates recruitment of both PRC1 and PRC2 in response to Xist RNA expression. PCGF3/5-PRC1-mediated ubiquitylation of histone H2A signals recruitment of other noncanonical PRC1 complexes and of PRC2, the latter leading to deposition of histone H3 lysine 27 methylation chromosome-wide...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588451/neurogenic-to-gliogenic-fate-transition-perturbed-by-loss-of-hmgb2
#17
Robert Bronstein, Jackson Kyle, Ariel B Abraham, Stella E Tsirka
Mouse cortical development relies heavily on a delicate balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis. The lateral ventricular zone produces different classes of excitatory pyramidal cells until just before birth, when the production of astroglia begins to prevail. Epigenetic control of this fate shift is of critical importance and chromatin regulatory elements driving neuronal or astroglial development play an vital role. Different classes of chromatin binding proteins orchestrate the transcriptional repression of neuronal-specific genes, while allowing for the activation of astrocyte-specific genes...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580277/expression-and-functional-assessment-of-candidate-type-2-diabetes-susceptibility-genes-identify-four-new-genes-contributing-to-human-insulin-secretion
#18
Fatou K Ndiaye, Ana Ortalli, Mickaël Canouil, Marlène Huyvaert, Clara Salazar-Cardozo, Cécile Lecoeur, Marie Verbanck, Valérie Pawlowski, Raphaël Boutry, Emmanuelle Durand, Iandry Rabearivelo, Olivier Sand, Lorella Marselli, Julie Kerr-Conte, Vikash Chandra, Raphaël Scharfmann, Odile Poulain-Godefroy, Piero Marchetti, François Pattou, Amar Abderrahmani, Philippe Froguel, Amélie Bonnefond
OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 loci independently contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, translational implications for precision medicine and for the development of novel treatments have been disappointing, due to poor knowledge of how these loci impact T2D pathophysiology. Here, we aimed to measure the expression of genes located nearby T2D associated signals and to assess their effect on insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577303/hhex-regulates-hematopoietic-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-stress-hematopoiesis-via-repression-of-cdkn2a
#19
Jacob T Jackson, Benjamin J Shields, Wei Shi, Ladina Di Rago, Donald Metcalf, Nicos A Nicola, Matthew P McCormack
The hematopoietically expressed homeobox transcription factor (Hhex) is important for the maturation of definitive hematopoietic progenitors and B-cells during development. We have recently shown that in adult hematopoiesis, Hhex is dispensable for maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid lineages but essential for the commitment of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) to lymphoid lineages. Here, we show that during serial bone marrow transplantation, Hhex-deleted HSCs are progressively lost, revealing an intrinsic defect in HSC self-renewal...
August 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513584/kinesin-5-independent-mitotic-spindle-assembly-requires-the-antiparallel-microtubule-crosslinker-ase1-in-fission-yeast
#20
Sergio A Rincon, Adam Lamson, Robert Blackwell, Viktoriya Syrovatkina, Vincent Fraisier, Anne Paoletti, Meredith D Betterton, Phong T Tran
Bipolar spindle assembly requires a balance of forces where kinesin-5 produces outward pushing forces to antagonize the inward pulling forces from kinesin-14 or dynein. Accordingly, Kinesin-5 inactivation results in force imbalance leading to monopolar spindle and chromosome segregation failure. In fission yeast, force balance is restored when both kinesin-5 Cut7 and kinesin-14 Pkl1 are deleted, restoring spindle bipolarity. Here we show that the cut7Δpkl1Δ spindle is fully competent for chromosome segregation independently of motor activity, except for kinesin-6 Klp9, which is required for anaphase spindle elongation...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
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