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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513584/kinesin-5-independent-mitotic-spindle-assembly-requires-the-antiparallel-microtubule-crosslinker-ase1-in-fission-yeast
#1
Sergio A Rincon, Adam Lamson, Robert Blackwell, Viktoriya Syrovatkina, Vincent Fraisier, Anne Paoletti, Meredith D Betterton, Phong T Tran
Bipolar spindle assembly requires a balance of forces where kinesin-5 produces outward pushing forces to antagonize the inward pulling forces from kinesin-14 or dynein. Accordingly, Kinesin-5 inactivation results in force imbalance leading to monopolar spindle and chromosome segregation failure. In fission yeast, force balance is restored when both kinesin-5 Cut7 and kinesin-14 Pkl1 are deleted, restoring spindle bipolarity. Here we show that the cut7Δpkl1Δ spindle is fully competent for chromosome segregation independently of motor activity, except for kinesin-6 Klp9, which is required for anaphase spindle elongation...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505103/neuronal-migration-and-auts2-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Kei Hori, Mikio Hoshino
Neuronal migration is one of the pivotal steps to form a functional brain, and disorganization of this process is believed to underlie the pathology of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy. However, it is not clear how abnormal neuronal migration causes mental dysfunction. Recently, a key gene for various psychiatric diseases, the Autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2), has been shown to regulate neuronal migration, which gives new insight into understanding this question...
May 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491069/characterization-of-the-polycomb-group-mark-h3k27me3-in-unicellular-algae
#3
Pawel Mikulski, Olga Komarynets, Fabio Fachinelli, Andreas P M Weber, Daniel Schubert
Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins mediate chromatin repression in plants and animals by catalyzing H3K27 methylation and H2AK118/119 mono-ubiquitination through the activity of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and PRC1, respectively. PcG proteins were extensively studied in higher plants, but their function and target genes in unicellular branches of the green lineage remain largely unknown. To shed light on PcG function and modus operandi in a broad evolutionary context, we demonstrate phylogenetic relationship of core PRC1 and PRC2 proteins and H3K27me3 biochemical presence in several unicellular algae of different phylogenetic subclades...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483375/mechanisms-regulating-prc2-recruitment-and-enzymatic-activity
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Holoch, Raphaël Margueron
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and its histone H3 lysine-27 methylation activity are crucial for multicellular development by virtue of their role in maintaining transcriptional repression patterns. The recruitment and enzymatic activity of PRC2 are controlled by a series of intricate mechanisms whose molecular details have been emerging at a rapid pace. Recent studies have uncovered intriguing modes of PRC2 regulation by facultative PRC2 subunits, PRC1, and specific features of the chromatin environment...
May 5, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440749/correction-pcgf6-prc1-suppresses-premature-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-by-regulating-germ-cell-related-genes
#5
Mitsuhiro Endoh, Takaho A Endo, Jun Shinga, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Anca Farcas, Kit-Wan Ma, Shinsuke Ito, Jafar Sharif, Tamie Endoh, Naoko Onaga, Manabu Nakayama, Tomoyuki Ishikura, Osamu Masui, Benedikt M Kessler, Toshio Suda, Osamu Ohara, Akihiko Okuda, Robert J Klose, Haruhiko Koseki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429652/atypical-regulators-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Jianxiang Chen, Muthukumar Rajasekaran, Kam M Hui
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma development depends on the inhibition and activation of multiple vital pathways, including the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway lies at the center of various signaling pathways that regulate embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and cancers. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been observed frequently in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, activating mutations in β-catenin, Axin and Adenomatous Polyposis Coli only contribute to a portion of the Wnt signaling hyper-activation observed in hepatocellular carcinoma...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422978/the-escrt-regulator-did2-maintains-the-balance-between-long-distance-endosomal-transport-and-endocytic-trafficking
#7
Carl Haag, Thomas Pohlmann, Michael Feldbrügge
In highly polarised cells, like fungal hyphae, early endosomes function in both endocytosis as well as long-distance transport of various cargo including mRNA and protein complexes. However, knowledge on the crosstalk between these seemingly different trafficking processes is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates endosomal transport in fungal hyphae of Ustilago maydis. Loss of Did2 results in defective vacuolar targeting, less processive long-distance transport and abnormal shuttling of early endosomes...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412742/association-of-the-long-non-coding-rna-malat1-with-the-polycomb-repressive-complex-pathway-in-t-and-nk-cell-lymphoma
#8
Soo Hee Kim, Se Hoon Kim, Woo Ick Yang, Soo Jeong Kim, Sun Och Yoon
Recently, various long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to have significant therapeutic or prognostic value. However, the expression of lncRNAs has not been investigated in T and NK cell lymphoma. Thus, we evaluated the biological and prognostic role of lncRNAs related to the polycomb repressive complex (PRC) and PRC markers in tissue samples and cell lines of T and NK cell lymphoma. Among the tested lncRNAs, MALAT1 was most highly expressed in clinical samples and cell lines. High expression of MALAT1 as well as BMI1 was related to poor prognosis in patients with mature T cell lymphoma...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403905/h2a-monoubiquitination-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-is-generally-independent-of-lhp1-and-prc2-activity
#9
Yue Zhou, Francisco J Romero-Campero, Ángeles Gómez-Zambrano, Franziska Turck, Myriam Calonje
BACKGROUND: Polycomb group complexes PRC1 and PRC2 repress gene expression at the chromatin level in eukaryotes. The classic recruitment model of Polycomb group complexes in which PRC2-mediated H3K27 trimethylation recruits PRC1 for H2A monoubiquitination was recently challenged by data showing that PRC1 activity can also recruit PRC2. However, the prevalence of these two mechanisms is unknown, especially in plants as H2AK121ub marks were examined at only a handful of Polycomb group targets...
April 12, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394257/cooperative-gene-activation-by-af4-and-dot1l-drives-mll-rearranged-leukemia
#10
Hiroshi Okuda, Boban Stanojevic, Akinori Kanai, Takeshi Kawamura, Satoshi Takahashi, Hirotaka Matsui, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Akihiko Yokoyama
The eleven-nineteen leukemia (ENL) protein family, composed of ENL and AF9, is a common component of 3 transcriptional modulators: AF4-ENL-P-TEFb complex (AEP), DOT1L-AF10-ENL complex (referred to as the DOT1L complex) and polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Each complex associates with chromatin via distinct mechanisms, conferring different transcriptional properties including activation, maintenance, and repression. The mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene often fuses with ENL and AF10 family genes in leukemia...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393894/loss-of-polycomb-group-protein-pcgf1-severely-compromises-proper-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Yun Yan, Wukui Zhao, Yikai Huang, Huan Tong, Yin Xia, Qing Jiang, Jinzhong Qin
The Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is essential for fate decisions of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Emerging evidence suggests that six major variants of PRC1 complex, defined by the mutually exclusive presence of Pcgf subunit, regulate distinct biological processes, yet very little is known about the mechanism by which each version of PRC1 instructs and maintains cell fate. Here, we disrupted the Pcgf1, also known as Nspc1 and one of six Pcgf paralogs, in mouse ES cells by the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We showed that although these mutant cells were viable and retained normal self-renewal, they displayed severe defects in differentiation in vitro...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388433/rna-helicase-ddx5-inhibits-reprogramming-to-pluripotency-by-mirna-based-repression-of-rybp-and-its-prc1-dependent-and-independent-functions
#12
Huanhuan Li, Ping Lai, Jinping Jia, Yawei Song, Qing Xia, Kaimeng Huang, Na He, Wangfang Ping, Jiayu Chen, Zhongzhou Yang, Jiao Li, Mingze Yao, Xiaotao Dong, Jicheng Zhao, Chunhui Hou, Miguel A Esteban, Shaorong Gao, Duanqing Pei, Andrew P Hutchins, Hongjie Yao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382142/protein-regulator-of-cytokinesis-prc1-confers-chemoresistance-and-predicts-an-unfavorable-postoperative-survival-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients
#13
Yu Wang, Feng Shi, Guo-Hui Xing, Ping Xie, Na Zhao, Yu-Feng Yin, Shu-Yan Sun, Jing He, Ying Wang, Shi-Ying Xuan
Background: PRC1, a microtubules(MTs)-associated protein, is essential in the mitosis and cell cycle regulation. It has been recently linked to chemoresistance and tumorigenesis. The current study sought to explore the role of PRC1 on chemoresistance and postoperative prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). Methods: PRC1 was transfected into HCC cells to detect its effects of chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil in vitro and in vivo. This study also investigated the impact of PRC1 on 5-FU-induced G2/M phase arrest and the potential molecular mechanism...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329686/demethylated-hsatii-dna-and-hsatii-rna-foci-sequester-prc1-and-mecp2-into-cancer-specific-nuclear-bodies
#14
Lisa L Hall, Meg Byron, Dawn M Carone, Troy W Whitfield, Gayle P Pouliot, Andrew Fischer, Peter Jones, Jeanne B Lawrence
This study reveals that high-copy satellite II (HSATII) sequences in the human genome can bind and impact distribution of chromatin regulatory proteins and that this goes awry in cancer. In many cancers, master regulatory proteins form two types of cancer-specific nuclear bodies, caused by locus-specific deregulation of HSATII. DNA demethylation at the 1q12 mega-satellite, common in cancer, causes PRC1 aggregation into prominent Cancer-Associated Polycomb (CAP) bodies. These loci remain silent, whereas HSATII loci with reduced PRC1 become derepressed, reflecting imbalanced distribution of UbH2A on these and other PcG-regulated loci...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304275/pcgf6-prc1-suppresses-premature-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-by-regulating-germ-cell-related-genes
#15
Mitsuhiro Endoh, Takaho A Endo, Jun Shinga, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Anca Farcas, Kit-Wan Ma, Shinsuke Ito, Jafar Sharif, Tamie Endoh, Naoko Onaga, Manabu Nakayama, Tomoyuki Ishikura, Osamu Masui, Benedikt M Kessler, Toshio Suda, Osamu Ohara, Akihiko Okuda, Robert Klose, Haruhiko Koseki
The ring finger protein PCGF6 (polycomb group ring finger 6) interacts with RING1A/B and E2F6 associated factors to form a non-canonical PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) known as PCGF6-PRC1. Here, we demonstrate that PCGF6-PRC1 plays a role in repressing a subset of PRC1 target genes by recruiting RING1B and mediating downstream mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A. PCGF6-PRC1 bound loci are highly enriched for promoters of germ cell-related genes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Conditional ablation of Pcgf6 in ESCs leads to robust de-repression of such germ cell-related genes, in turn affecting cell growth and viability...
March 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262675/genomic-characterisation-of-e%C3%AE-myc-mouse-lymphomas-identifies-bcor-as-a-myc-co-operative-tumour-suppressor-gene
#16
Marcus Lefebure, Richard W Tothill, Elizabeth Kruse, Edwin D Hawkins, Jake Shortt, Geoffrey M Matthews, Gareth P Gregory, Benjamin P Martin, Madison J Kelly, Izabela Todorovski, Maria A Doyle, Richard Lupat, Jason Li, Jan Schroeder, Meaghan Wall, Stuart Craig, Gretchen Poortinga, Don Cameron, Megan Bywater, Lev Kats, Micah D Gearhart, Vivian J Bardwell, Ross A Dickins, Ross D Hannan, Anthony T Papenfuss, Ricky W Johnstone
The Eμ-Myc mouse is an extensively used model of MYC driven malignancy; however to date there has only been partial characterization of MYC co-operative mutations leading to spontaneous lymphomagenesis. Here we sequence spontaneously arising Eμ-Myc lymphomas to define transgene architecture, somatic mutations, and structural alterations. We identify frequent disruptive mutations in the PRC1-like component and BCL6-corepressor gene Bcor. Moreover, we find unexpected concomitant multigenic lesions involving Cdkn2a loss and other cancer genes including Nras, Kras and Bcor...
March 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202673/molecular-architecture-of-polycomb-repressive-complexes
#17
REVIEW
Emily C Chittock, Sebastian Latwiel, Thomas C R Miller, Christoph W Müller
The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are a large and diverse family that epigenetically repress the transcription of key developmental genes. They form three broad groups of polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) known as PRC1, PRC2 and Polycomb Repressive DeUBiquitinase, each of which modifies and/or remodels chromatin by distinct mechanisms that are tuned by having variable compositions of core and accessory subunits. Until recently, relatively little was known about how the various PcG proteins assemble to form the PRCs; however, studies by several groups have now allowed us to start piecing together the PcG puzzle...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157505/polycomb-repressive-complex-1-generates-discrete-compacted-domains-that-change-during-differentiation
#18
Sharmistha Kundu, Fei Ji, Hongjae Sunwoo, Gaurav Jain, Jeannie T Lee, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Job Dekker, Robert E Kingston
Master regulatory genes require stable silencing by the polycomb group (PcG) to prevent misexpression during differentiation and development. Some PcG proteins covalently modify histones, which contributes to heritable repression. The role for other effects on chromatin structure is less understood. We characterized the organization of PcG target genes in ESCs and neural progenitors using 5C and super-resolution microscopy. The genomic loci of repressed PcG targets formed discrete, small (20-140 Kb) domains of tight interaction that corresponded to locations bound by canonical polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157500/a-finer-print-than-tads-prc1-mediated-domains
#19
Elena Torlai Triglia, Tiago Rito, Ana Pombo
Polycomb proteins are well-known epigenetic repressors with unexplained roles in chromatin folding. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Kundu et al. (2017) investigate the structures of PRC1-mediated domains in stem cells and probe their changes upon differentiation and in PRC knockouts.
February 2, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111200/rna-helicase-ddx5-inhibits-reprogramming-to-pluripotency-by-mirna-based-repression-of-rybp-and-its-prc1-dependent-and-independent-functions
#20
Huanhuan Li, Ping Lai, Jinping Jia, Yawei Song, Qing Xia, Kaimeng Huang, Na He, Wangfang Ping, Jiayu Chen, Zhongzhou Yang, Jiao Li, Mingze Yao, Xiaotao Dong, Jicheng Zhao, Chunhui Hou, Miguel A Esteban, Shaorong Gao, Duanqing Pei, Andrew P Hutchins, Hongjie Yao
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), in addition to their functions in cellular homeostasis, play important roles in lineage specification and maintaining cellular identity. Despite their diverse and essential functions, which touch on nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism, the roles of RBPs in somatic cell reprogramming are poorly understood. Here we show that the DEAD-box RBP DDX5 inhibits reprogramming by repressing the expression and function of the non-canonical polycomb complex 1 (PRC1) subunit RYBP. Disrupting Ddx5 expression improves the efficiency of iPSC generation and impedes processing of miR-125b, leading to Rybp upregulation and suppression of lineage-specific genes via RYBP-dependent ubiquitination of H2AK119...
April 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
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