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Matthew Romero, Bridget Peters, Christopher Ballmann, Tiffany Quindry, Emily Gambrell, Justin McCroskey, Matthew Ferguson, Tony Ward, Charles Dumke, John C Quindry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Amy P Heinzerling, Michael J Guarnieri, Jennifer K Mann, Janet V Diaz, Lisa M Thompson, Anaite Diaz, Nigel G Bruce, Kirk R Smith, John R Balmes
RATIONALE: Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion is a major contributor to the global burden of disease, with considerable impact from respiratory infections in children. The impact of HAP on lung function is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) prospective cohort study followed Guatemalan children who participated in the Randomised Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) trial of a chimney stove intervention to determine the effect of early childhood HAP exposure on growth of lung function...
May 2016: Thorax
Ashlinn K Quinn, Kenneth Ayuurebobi Ae-Ngibise, Darby W Jack, Ellen Abrafi Boamah, Yeetey Enuameh, Mohammed Nuhu Mujtaba, Steven N Chillrud, Blair J Wylie, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Patrick L Kinney, Kwaku Poku Asante
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS) is a community-level randomized-controlled trial of cookstove interventions for pregnant women and their newborns in rural Ghana. Given that household air pollution from biomass burning may be implicated in adverse cardiovascular outcomes, we sought to determine whether exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) from woodsmoke was associated with blood pressure (BP) among 817 adult women. METHODS: Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between CO exposure, determined with 72 hour personal monitoring at study enrollment, and BP, also measured at study enrollment...
March 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Michael Guarnieri, Esperanza Diaz, Daniel Pope, Ellen A Eisen, Jennifer Mann, Kirk R Smith, Tone Smith-Sivertsen, Nigel G Bruce, John R Balmes
BACKGROUND: COPD is the third most frequent cause of death globally, with much of this burden attributable to household biomass smoke exposure in developing countries. As biomass smoke exposure is also associated with cardiovascular disease, lower respiratory infection, lung cancer, and cataracts, it presents an important target for public health intervention. METHODS: Lung function in Guatemalan women exposed to wood smoke from open fires was measured throughout the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) stove intervention trial and continued during the Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) cohort study...
November 2015: Chest
Zheng Li, Debra Trinidad, Erin N Pittman, Erin A Riley, Andreas Sjodin, Russell L Dills, Michael Paulsen, Christopher D Simpson
Woodsmoke contains harmful components - such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - and impacts more than half of the global population. We investigated urinary hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as woodsmoke exposure biomarkers in nine non-smoking volunteers experimentally exposed to a wood fire. Individual urine samples were collected from 24-h before to 48-h after the exposure and personal PM2.5 samples were collected during the 2-h woodsmoke exposure. Concentrations of nine OH-PAHs increased by 1...
May 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Bashar Mourad, Hammad Bhatti, James Cury, Adil Shujaat
Miscellaneous Student/Resident Case Report Posters IISESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Cocaine use is widespread in the United States, with 5 to 8 million current abusers. The principal method of intoxication is smoked cocaine, often referred to as "crack". It is the most commonly used illicit drug among patients seen in the emergency department, and the most frequent cause of drug-related deaths. Pulmonary sequelae include respiratory symptoms, such as persistent cough, wheeze, dyspnea and hemoptysis, deterioration in lung function, and pulmonary infiltrates or interstitial pneumonitis...
October 1, 2014: Chest
Amanda L Northcross, Rufus J Edwards, Michael A Johnson, Zhong-Min Wang, Kunning Zhu, Tracy Allen, Kirk R Smith
Exposure to particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm is estimated to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide leading many countries to develop ambient air pollution standards and guidelines. At local scales, community and environmental justice groups are also concerned about PM 2.5 concentrations that may be elevated above regional concentrations typically measured by centrally located monitors and standards as well. In an attempt to develop a low cost, easy to use monitor we evaluated a low-cost optical particle counter, the Dylos™, as a fine particulate mass sensor...
February 2013: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
J M Christensen, M Ryhl-Svendsen
During 13 winter weeks, an experimental archeology project was undertaken in two Danish reconstructed Viking Age houses with indoor open fireplaces. Volunteers inhabited the houses under living conditions similar to those of the Viking Age, including cooking and heating by wood fire. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 ) were measured at varying distances to the fireplace. Near the fireplaces CO (mean) was 16 ppm. PM2.5 (mean) was 3.40 mg/m(3) , however, measured in one house only. The CO:PM mass ratio was found to increase from 6...
June 2015: Indoor Air
Chelsea V Preble, Odelle L Hadley, Ashok J Gadgil, Thomas W Kirchstetter
Cooking in the developing world generates pollutants that endanger the health of billions of people and contribute to climate change. This study quantified pollutants emitted when cooking with a three-stone fire (TSF) and the Berkeley-Darfur Stove (BDS), the latter of which encloses the fire to increase fuel efficiency. The stoves were operated at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory testing facility with a narrow range of fuel feed rates to minimize performance variability. Fast (1 Hz) measurements of pollutants enabled discrimination between the stoves' emission profiles and development of woodsmoke-specific calibrations for the aethalometer (black carbon, BC) and DustTrak (fine particles, PM2...
June 3, 2014: Environmental Science & Technology
Roland Masse, Claude Boudène
Biomass is an important renewable resource of primary energy. Wood burning is expected to expand in future as a cheap means of residential heating, especially in wood-producing rural areas. The health consequences of wood smoke are taken in account far less actively in Europe than in North America, where stringent limitations have been introduced, such as those of the EPA Burnwise project. Recently, wildfires were estimated to release 2 petagrams of carbon into the atmosphere worldwide, contributing to more than 300 000 deaths annually...
January 2013: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Michael J Guarnieri, Janet V Diaz, Chandreyi Basu, Anaite Diaz, Daniel Pope, Kirk R Smith, Tone Smith-Sivertsen, Nigel Bruce, Colin Solomon, John McCracken, John R Balmes
BACKGROUND: More than two-fifths of the world's population uses solid fuels, mostly biomass, for cooking. The resulting biomass smoke exposure is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among women in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether lower woodsmoke exposure from use of a stove with a chimney, compared to open fires, is associated with lower markers of airway inflammation in young women. DESIGN: We carried out a cross-sectional analysis on a sub-cohort of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in rural Guatemala, RESPIRE...
2014: PloS One
Luke P Naeher, Dana Boyd Barr, Olorunfemi Adetona, Christopher D Simpson
BACKGROUND: Levoglucosan, a sugar anhydride and a combustion breakdown product of cellulose is a dominant organic constituent of particles in woodsmoke. After exposure, levoglucosan is excreted unmetabolized in urine. OBJECTIVE: Urinary levoglucosan was assessed as a biomarker of occupational woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from wildland firefighters before and after their work-shifts on days when they worked at prescribed burns...
October 2013: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Adwoa A Commodore, Stella M Hartinger, Claudio F Lanata, Daniel Mäusezahl, Ana I Gil, Daniel B Hall, Manuel Aguilar-Villalobos, Luke P Naeher
Nearly half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. We aimed to use PM2.5 and CO measurements to characterize exposure to cookstove generated woodsmoke in real time among control (n=10) and intervention (n=9) households in San Marcos, Cajamarca Region, Peru. Real time personal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and personal and kitchen carbon monoxide (CO) samples were taken. Control households used a number of stoves including open fire and chimney stoves while intervention households used study-promoted chimney stoves...
November 2013: Atmospheric Environment
Adwoa A Commodore, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Yan Chang, Stella M Hartinger, Claudio F Lanata, Daniel Mäusezahl, Ana I Gil, Daniel B Hall, Manuel Aguilar-Villalobos, John E Vena, Jia-Sheng Wang, Luke P Naeher
Nearly half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. The effect of woodsmoke exposure on oxidative stress was examined by investigating the association between woodsmoke exposure and biomarkers of DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) and lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane) among control and intervention stove users. HAP exposure assessment was conducted within the framework of a community-randomized controlled trial of 51 communities in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru...
October 2013: Environment International
Donee Alexander, Jacqueline Callihan Linnes, Susan Bolton, Timothy Larson
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) from combustion of biomass fuels worldwide is linked to asthma, respiratory infections and chronic pulmonary diseases. Implementation of ventilated cookstoves significantly reduces exposure to HAP. However, improvements in concurrent respiratory health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have not been previously evaluated with a standardized questionnaire. METHODS: The association between woodsmoke exposure and respiratory HRQoL outcomes was evaluated using an intervention study in a rural community in Bolivia...
September 2014: Journal of Public Health
Olorunfemi Adetona, Christopher D Simpson, Gretchen Onstad, Luke P Naeher
Wildland firefighters are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. Eighteen wildland firefighters were monitored for their personal exposure to particulate matter with median aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns (PM2.5), levoglucosan (LG), and carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 prescribed burns at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate the effect on exposure of various factors and to examine whether the firefighters were able to qualitatively estimate their own exposures...
October 2013: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Adwoa A Commodore, Stella M Hartinger, Claudio F Lanata, Daniel Mäusezahl, Ana I Gil, Daniel B Hall, Manuel Aguilar-Villalobos, Corey J Butler, Luke P Naeher
BACKGROUND: Nearly half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to biomass-fueled fires. OBJECTIVE: We compare CO exposures and concentrations among study promoted intervention stove users and control stove users in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca region, Peru. METHODS: Passive CO diffusion tubes were deployed over a 48-hour sampling period to measure kitchen CO concentrations and personal mother and child CO exposures in 197 control and 182 intervention households...
January 2013: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Olorunfemi Adetona, Jim Junfeng Zhang, Daniel B Hall, Jia-Sheng Wang, John E Vena, Luke P Naeher
Experimental studies indicate that exposure to woodsmoke could induce oxidative stress. However studies have not been conducted among the general population and specialized occupational groups despite the existence of elevated woodsmoke exposure situations. Therefore, we investigated whether there were across workshift changes in oxidative stress biomarkers among wildland firefighters who are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. We collected pre- and post-workshift urine samples from 19 wildland firefighters before and after prescribed burns...
April 1, 2013: Science of the Total Environment
Wen Qi Gan, J Mark FitzGerald, Chris Carlsten, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Michael Brauer
RATIONALE: Ambient air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies to support this assertion. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to elevated traffic-related air pollution and woodsmoke pollution with the risk of COPD hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period...
April 1, 2013: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Anna M Hejl, Olorunfemi Adetona, David Diaz-Sanchez, Jacqueline D Carter, Adwoa A Commodore, Stephen L Rathbun, Luke P Naeher
Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsmoke exposure on inflammatory biomarkers in firefighters working at prescribed burns. Twelve U.S. Forest Service wildland firefighters at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, volunteered to give blood samples during four prescribed burns between February and March 2011...
2013: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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