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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719975/toxicological-effects-of-aqueous-extract-from-african-walnut-tetracarpidium-conophorum-leaves-in-rats
#1
Seun F Akomolafe, Ganiyu Oboh, Sunday I Oyeleye, Tosin A Olasehinde
Tetracarpidium conophorum leaves are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of male infertility, without considering its toxicity and side effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of T conophorum leaves on some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, albumin, creatinine, and uric acid. Histology of the liver and kidney were also assessed. The result revealed that the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels of the control group were not significantly different from the experimental groups...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690165/p53-mapkapk-2-and-caspases-regulate-nickel-oxide-nanoparticles-induce-cell-death-and-cytogenetic-anomalies-in-rats
#2
Quaiser Saquib, Sabry M Attia, Sabiha M Ansari, Abdullah Al-Salim, Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Javed Musarrat, Xiaowei Zhang, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy
The unique properties of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) distinguish it from traditional nickel containing materials, and enable its industrial application as an advanced nanomaterial. Despite the benefits, the in vivo toxicological studies on NiO-NPs have been mainly focused on its pulmonary pathology. However, NiO-NPs exposure via oral route and its subsequent toxic effects in exposed animals are still lacking. Hence, we evaluated the NiO-NPs oral toxicity in male Wistar rats. NiO-NPs induced significant increase in chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN) formation and, DNA damage in rats...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652743/zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-induced-atherosclerotic-alterations-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Zhen Yan, Wenjun Wang, Yongjun Wu, Wei Wang, Bing Li, Ning Liang, Weidong Wu
Engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are currently being produced in high tonnage. Exposure to ZnO-NPs presents potential risks to cardiovascular system. Thus far, the toxicological effects of ZnO-NPs on cardiovascular system have not been well characterized. In this study, human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were exposed to ZnO-NPs directly or indirectly using a transwell coculture system with human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 to mimic the lung/circulation interaction. It was shown that levels of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-8 [IL-8] and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) and biomarkers of atherosclerogenesis (heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1] and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecules-1 [PECAM-1]) in the supernatants of culture media were significantly increased...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648929/toxicological-effects-of-nux-vomica-in-rats-urine-and-serum-by-means-of-clinical-chemistry-histopathology-and-1-h-nmr-based-metabonomics-approach
#4
Yunfei Fan, Shaofeng Liu, Xiaodong Chen, Meirou Feng, Fenyun Song, Xiaoxia Gao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried ripe seeds of Nux Vomica (Strychnos nux-vomica L.), a traditional Chinese medicine, have been used to treat multifarious symptoms. However, the clinical applications of Nux Vomica are limited by its severe toxicity. In this study, Nux Vomica was subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics and pathological examination to determine relevant biomarkers in target organs and to explain the underlying toxicity mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of twelve rats...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586416/bridging-the-gap-between-reproducibility-and-translation-data-resources-and-approaches
#5
Caroline J Zeiss, Linda K Johnson
Animal research has constituted a fundamental means to achieve groundbreaking therapies for human disease. However, for complex diseases, promising preclinical results have failed to translate to the clinic. Reasons for this disparity are multifactorial. These include the challenges inherent in modeling complex disease in animals, as well issues of study design, reproducibility and operational norms within the biomedical research enterprise. In this issue, we explore the range of information resources available for the comparative study of disease, as well as challenges to the ultimate translation of preclinical findings...
June 6, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462146/comparative-toxicity-study-on-classical-and-modified-version-of-jawarish-jalinoos-a-traditional-unani-formulation-in-rats
#6
Gulam Mohammed Husain, Syed Shoeb Ahmed, Misbahuddin Azhar, Javed Inam Siddiqui, Mohammad Abdul Waheed, Munawwar Husain Kazmi
BACKGROUND: Jawarish Jalinoos (JJ) is a classical semisolid traditional Unani formulation clinically used for the treatment of weakness of vital organs, liver, and stomach. Although JJ has been widely used clinically for several decades, no scientific report is available for its safety. METHODS: JJ and its sugar-free tablet version (SFJJ; formulated to target diabetic population) were assessed for safety in rats. Ninety-day repeated dose oral toxicity study was performed as per the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guideline 408...
March 2017: Integrative medicine research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454766/mixture-effects-of-azole-fungicides-on-the-adrenal-gland-in-a-broad-dose-range
#7
S Rieke, T Heise, F Schmidt, W Haider, H Bednarz, K Niehaus, A Mentz, J Kalinowski, K I Hirsch-Ernst, P Steinberg, L Niemann, P Marx-Stoelting
Consumers are exposed to low concentrations of a variety of pesticide residues in or on food. Some of them might interfere with the endocrine system. While each individual active substance has been extensively tested for toxicity and safety, potential combination effects possibly resulting from combined exposure to different pesticides have seldomly been tested so far, especially in vivo. Since the adrenal gland is a key endocrine organ, we investigated if and how substances of a group of fungicides presumed to interfere with the biosynthesis of steroid hormones affect this organ when applied individually and in combination in a broad dose range...
June 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433587/pharmacokinetic-and-toxicology-comparator-testing-of-biosimilar-drugs-assessing-need
#8
Paul Baldrick
A key element in the development of a biosimilar molecule is the comparability of the biological activity/nonclinical similarity to the innovator drug. Although some regulatory guidelines are encouraging little or no in vivo testing, currently a common practice is to perform at least one toxicology and/or one pharmacokinetic (PK) study to assess if any different findings occur for in-life, clinical pathology and histopathological parameters or in exposure. An exercise was performed in which the results of such testing were evaluated...
June 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421968/chronic-toxicology-studies-of-basal-insulin-peglispro-in-rats-and-dogs-a-novel-pegylated-insulin-lispro-analog-with-a-prolonged-duration-of-action
#9
Richard A Byrd, Jamie L Blackbourne, Mary Pat Knadler, Albert E Schultze, John L Vahle
Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) consists of insulin lispro with a 20-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety covalently attached to lysine B28. Because chronic parenteral administration of PEGylated proteins to animals has sometimes resulted in PEG vacuolation of tissue macrophages, renal tubular cells, and choroid plexus ependymal cells, we investigated whether chronic subcutaneous (sc) injection of BIL in rats (52 weeks) and dogs (39 weeks) was associated with systemic toxicities or other changes, including vacuolation of tissue macrophages, renal tubular cells, and ependymal cells...
April 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416568/pharmacological-and-toxicological-properties-of-the-potent-oral-%C3%AE-secretase-modulator-bpn-15606
#10
Steven L Wagner, Kevin D Rynearson, Steven K Duddy, Can Zhang, Phuong D Nguyen, Ann Becker, Uyen Vo, Deborah Masliah, Louise Monte, Justin B Klee, Corinne M Echmalian, Weiming Xia, Luisa Quinti, Graham Johnson, Jiunn H Lin, Doo Y Kim, William C Mobley, Robert A Rissman, Rudolph E Tanzi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized neuropathologically by an abundance of 1) neuritic plaques, which are primarily composed of a fibrillar 42-amino-acid amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), as well as 2) neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregates of hyperphosporylated tau. Elevations in the concentrations of the Aβ42 peptide in the brain, as a result of either increased production or decreased clearance, are postulated to initiate and drive the AD pathologic process. We initially introduced a novel class of bridged aromatics referred tγ-secretase modulatoro as γ-secretase modulators that inhibited the production of the Aβ42 peptide and to a lesser degree the Aβ40 peptide while concomitantly increasing the production of the carboxyl-truncated Aβ38 and Aβ37 peptides...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345450/erratum
#11
(no author information available yet)
Weber, K. (2017). Differences in Types and Incidence of Neoplasms in Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley Rats. J Toxicol Pathol45, 64-75. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0192623316672075) In the January 2017 issue of Toxicologic Pathology, a number of in text Table citations were incorrectly labeled. The following are the sentences with corrected Table number (this has also been corrected in the online version): Many fewer neoplasms are recorded for the endocrine pancreas compared with islet cell tumor incidences (Table 3)...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341569/oral-exposure-of-pregnant-rats-to-toxic-doses-of-methylmercury-alters-fetal-accumulation
#12
Cláudia Oliveira, Lucy Joshee, Hannah George, Sanya Nijhara, Christy Bridges
Methylmercury (CH3Hg(+)) is an environmental toxicant that may lead to significant pathologies in exposed individuals. The current study assessed the disposition and toxicological effects of 2.5 or 7.5mgkg(-1) CH3Hg(+), conjugated to cysteine (Cys; Cys-S-CH3Hg) and administered orally to pregnant and non-pregnant Wistar and TR(-) rats. Rats were euthanized on gestational day 20 and the content of mercury in each fetus, amniotic sac, and placenta was determined. The brain, liver, and kidneys were removed from each fetus for estimation of mercury content...
March 21, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341247/toxicological-evaluation-of-oviductus-ranae-acute-sub-acute-and-genotoxicity-studies-in-mice-and-rats
#13
Yang Zhang, Kun Zhu, Hao Cui, Yang Liu, Ye-Fang Lu, Hong-Wei Pan, He-Peng Zhao, Ling Qi, Xiu-Dong Yang, Hong-Li Zhou
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Oviductus ranae (OR) is a traditional animal-based Chinese medicine, which has been listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia since 1985 edition. Although its medicinal application has been widely acknowledged, there is little available information on its potential toxicity. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute, sub-acute, and genetic toxicities of OR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In acute toxicity evaluation, OR was administered orally to mice at doses of 2...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249224/a-moderate-metal-binding-hydrazone-meets-the-criteria-for-a-bioinorganic-approach-towards-parkinson-s-disease-therapeutic-potential-blood-brain-barrier-crossing-evaluation-and-preliminary-toxicological-studies
#14
Daphne Schneider Cukierman, Ana Beatriz Pinheiro, Sergio L P Castiñeiras-Filho, Anastácia Sá P da Silva, Marco C Miotto, Anna De Falco, Thales de P Ribeiro, Silvia Maisonette, Alessandra L M C da Cunha, Rachel A Hauser-Davis, J Landeira-Fernandez, Ricardo Q Aucélio, Tiago F Outeiro, Marcos D Pereira, Claudio O Fernández, Nicolás A Rey
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases share similar amyloidogenic mechanisms, in which metal ions might play an important role. In this last neuropathy, misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein (α-Syn) are crucial pathological events. A moderate metal-binding compound, namely, 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (INHHQ), which was previously reported as a potential 'Metal-Protein Attenuating Compound' for Alzheimer's treatment, is well-tolerated by healthy Wistar rats and does not alter their major organ weights, as well as the tissues' reduced glutathione and biometal levels, at a concentration of 200mgkg(-1)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239534/transcriptome-and-metabolome-analysis-of-liver-and-kidneys-of-rats-chronically-fed-nk603-roundup-tolerant-genetically-modified-maize
#15
Robin Mesnage, Matthew Arno, Gilles-Eric Séralini, Michael N Antoniou
BACKGROUND: A previous 2-year rat feeding trial assessing potential toxicity of NK603 Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize revealed blood and urine biochemical changes indicative of liver and kidney pathology. In an effort to obtain deeper insight into these findings, molecular profiling of the liver and kidneys from the same animals was undertaken. RESULTS: Transcriptomics showed no segregation of NK603 maize and control feed groups with false discovery rates ranging from 43 to 83% at a cut-off p value of 1%...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185575/integration-of-metabolomics-lipidomics-and-clinical-data-using-a-machine-learning-method
#16
Animesh Acharjee, Zsuzsanna Ament, James A West, Elizabeth Stanley, Julian L Griffin
BACKGROUND: The recent pandemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has led to the realisation that new drug targets are needed to either reduce obesity or the subsequent pathophysiological consequences associated with excess weight gain. Certain nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) play a pivotal role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and have been highlighted as potential treatments for obesity. This realisation started a search for NR agonists in order to understand and successfully treat MetS and associated conditions such as insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and cardiovascular disease...
November 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058783/characterization-of-phase-i-and-phase-ii-hepatic-metabolism-and-reactive-intermediates-of-larrea-nitida-cav-and-its-lignan-compounds
#17
Hyesoo Jeong, Soolin Kim, Jimin Lee, Jin Young Park, Wenmei Zhou, Xiyuan Liu, So Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song, Chang-Young Jang, Sei-Ryang Oh, Sangho Choi, Minsun Chang
Larrea nitida Cav. (LNC), which belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae, is widely indigenous and used in South America to treat various pathological conditions. It contains the antioxidant and antiinflammatory but toxic nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) as well as O-methylated metabolite of NDGA (MNDGA) as bioactive compounds. The hepatic metabolism-based toxicological potential of extracts of LNC (LNE), NDGA, and MNDGA has not previously been reported. The present study aimed to characterize the phase I and phase II hepatic metabolism and reactive intermediates of LNE, NDGA, and MNDGA and their effects on the major drug-metabolizing enzymes in vitro and ex vivo...
January 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879439/interpreting-and-integrating-clinical-and-anatomic-pathology-results-pulling-it-all-together
#18
Lila Ramaiah, Mary Jane Hinrichs, Elizabeth V Skuba, William O Iverson, Daniela Ennulat
The continuing education course on integrating clinical and anatomical pathology data was designed to communicate the importance of using a weight of evidence approach to interpret safety findings in toxicology studies. This approach is necessary, as neither clinical nor anatomic pathology data can be relied upon in isolation to fully understand the relationship between study findings and the test article. Basic principles for correlating anatomic pathology and clinical pathology findings and for integrating these with other study end points were reviewed...
November 13, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825753/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-coagulant-activity-and-toxicological-studies-of-marine-sulfated-glycosaminoglycans
#19
Fatma Krichen, Zohra Ghlissi, Ikram Ben Amor, Nadhem Sayari, Rim Kallel, Jalel Gargouri, Zouheir Sahnoun, Tahia Boudawara, Ali Bougatef
The present study aimed to characterize and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anticoagulant activity of sulfated glycosaminoglycans from the skins of smooth hound (SHSG) and grey triggerfish (GTSG). The analysis of SHSG and GTSG with acetate cellulose electrophoresis in Zn-acetate revealed the presence of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS). Both glycosaminoglycans were evaluated for their in vitro anticoagulant activities using activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombine time (PT) tests...
January 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821915/histopathological-localization-of-cadmium-in-rat-placenta-by-la-icp-ms-analysis
#20
Yoshikazu Yamagishi, Satoshi Furukawa, Ayano Tanaka, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Akihiko Sugiyama
In order to clarify the histological localization of cadmium (Cd) in the placenta, we analyzed paraffin sections of placentas from rats with a single Cd exposure on gestation day 18 by the LA-ICP-MS imaging method compared with the histopathological changes. The placentas were sampled at 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after treatment. Histopathologically, the trophoblasts in the labyrinth zone of the Cd group showed swelling at 1 hour. At 2 and 3 hours, the trophoblasts showed swelling and vacuolar degeneration...
October 2016: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
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