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M A Olude, S T Bello, O A Mustapha, F E Olopade, J Plendl, A O Ihunwo, J O Olopade
Oligodendrocyte and myelin-related studies have been pivotal in understanding disruption of central nervous system (CNS) myelin through injury, toxicological, pathological degeneration or genetic intervention. The African giant rat (AGR) has been postulated as an indigenous wild-type model within the African context. This work thus describes oligodendrocyte morphologies and myelin components of the developing African giant rat brain using histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Five types, precursor-progenitor oligodendrocytes, pre-oligodendrocytes, immature oligodendrocytes, mature non-myelinating oligodendrocytes and mature myelinating oligodendrocytes, were identified...
March 1, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Marine L Croze, Luc Zimmer
Atmospheric pollution is a well-known environmental hazard, especially in developing countries where millions of people are exposed to airborne pollutant levels above safety standards. Accordingly, several epidemiological and animal studies confirmed its role in respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies and identified a strong link between ambient air pollution exposure and adverse health outcomes such as hospitalization and mortality. More recently, the potential deleterious effect of air pollution inhalation on the central nervous system was also investigated and mounting evidence supports a link between air pollution exposure and neurodegenerative pathologies, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kazeem K Olatoye, Gibson L Arueya
In this study, safety of novel food from aerial yam and Treculia africana, underutilized food materials with high-nutritive value and health benefits were investigated. Animal experiment involving the use of thirty (30) male albino rats was conducted for 28 days.Thereafter, rats in all groups were sacrificed and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis and hematological assay. Some vital organs were harvested and used for histological analysis. Biochemical and hematological parameters were not significantly p ≤ ...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Jia Choi, Su-Jung Ryu, Kui-Jin Kim, Hyung-Min Kim, Hee-Chul Chung, Boo-Yong Lee
Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia-Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg...
January 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
S N Chen, C S Chang, S Chen, Madhu Soni
Antrodia cinnamomea is one of the most highly valued mushrooms utilized in traditional Taiwanese therapeutic practices. Its neutral monosaccharides (mannose, glucose and xylose) linked by a β-D-glucan chain have been claimed to be responsible for its health benefits. The objective of the present study was to investigate adverse effects, if any, of β-glucan (∼65% pure) from A. cinnamomea in subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies. In the subchronic toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were followed Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) application, and were administered (gavage) Antrodia mushroom β-glucan preparation at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90 days...
December 26, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Qili He, Guoming Su, Keliang Liu, Fangcheng Zhang, Yong Jiang, Jun Gao, Lida Liu, Zhongren Jiang, Minwu Jin, Huiping Xie
BACKGROUND: Hematologic and biochemical analytes of Sprague-Dawley rats are commonly used to determine effects that were induced by treatment and to evaluate organ dysfunction in toxicological safety assessments, but reference intervals have not been well established for these analytes. Reference intervals as presently defined for these analytes in Sprague-Dawley rats have not used internationally recommended statistical method nor stratified by sex. Thus, we aimed to establish sex-specific reference intervals for hematologic and biochemical parameters in Sprague-Dawley rats according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute C28-A3 and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guideline...
2017: PloS One
Benjamin Wong, Rebecca Lewandowski, Justin Tressler, Katherine Sherman, Jaclynn Andres, Jennifer Devorak, Cristin Rothwell, Tracey Hamilton, Heidi Hoard-Fruchey, Alfred M Sciuto
Phosphine (PH3) is a toxidrome-spanning chemical that is widely used as an insecticide and rodenticide. Exposure to PH3 causes a host of target organ and systemic effects, including oxidative stress, cardiopulmonary toxicity, seizure-like activity and overall metabolic disturbance. A custom dynamic inhalation gas exposure system was designed for the whole-body exposure of conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) to PH3. An integrated plethysmography system was used to collect respiratory parameters in real-time before, during and after PH3 exposure...
December 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Janice A Lansita, Kirsten M Mease, Haiyan Qiu, Ted Yednock, Sethu Sankaranarayanan, Susan Kramer
ANX005 is a humanized immunoglobulin G4 recombinant antibody against C1q that inhibits its function as the initiating molecule of the classical complement cascade. The safety and tolerability of ANX005 are currently being evaluated in a phase I trial in healthy volunteers ( Identifier: NCT03010046). Inhibition of C1q can be applied therapeutically in a broad spectrum of diseases, including acute antibody-mediated autoimmune disease, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and in chronic diseases of the central nervous system involving complement-mediated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
November 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
Sang-Jin Park, JeongHo Noh, Eun Ju Jeong, Yong-Soon Kim, Byung-Cheol Han, Seung-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Sik Moon
Ginseng is a major herbal remedy used in Asian countries for thousands of years and known to restore and enhance vital energy. Korean red ginseng, which is processed by steaming and drying fresh Panax ginseng, is most popular and contains unique ginsenosides, which have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the repeated oral dose toxicity of Korean red ginseng extract. The test article was administered orally once a day to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 consecutive weeks (15 animals/sex/group in the vehicle control and 2000 mg/kg/day groups, and 10 animals/sex/group in the 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day groups)...
February 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Yi-Chen, Min-Xuan Wu, Jie-Liu, Xiao-Jie Ma, Jin-Li Shi, Sheng-Nan Wang, Zhi-Quan Zheng, Jian-You Guo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Psammosilene tunicoides is one of the important ingredients of a famous Chinese traditional medicine formulation "Yunnan Baiyao". Also, this plant is commonly used as an anodyne and hemostatic agent in southwest China. Currently, little toxicological information is available on its safety following prolonged use. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we sought to evaluate the toxicity of the three different parts of Psammosilene tunicoides: Psammosilenes Radix (PR), Psammosilenes Radix with Cortex (PRC) and Psammosilenes Cortex (PC) by acute and sub-acute toxicity studies...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Xiaona Liu, Xiaoting Jin, Ruijun Su, Zhuoyu Li
Evidence has shown that exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) contributed to poor semen quality in males. However, the reproductive toxicity and relevant molecular mechanisms of Particular Matter 2.5 (PM2.5) from different seasons are not well understood. In the present work, we intend to investigate the toxic effects of PM2.5 during summer and winter on reproductive cells and tissues and focus on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) to illustrate the possible molecular mechanisms. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to PM2...
September 20, 2017: Chemosphere
Julien Mamet, David C Yeomans, Tony L Yaksh, Donald C Manning, Scott Harris
The longevity of pain after surgery is debilitating and limits the recovery of patients. AYX1 is a double-stranded, unprotected, 23 base-pair oligonucleotide designed to reduce acute post-surgical pain and prevent its chronification with a single intrathecal perioperative dose. AYX1 mimics the DNA sequence normally bound by EGR1 on chromosomes, a transcription factor transiently induced in the dorsal root ganglia-spinal cord network following a noxious input. AYX1 binds to EGR1 and prevents it from launching waves of gene regulation that are necessary to maintain pain over time...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Shital S Panchal, Somsuvra B Ghatak, Abhishek B Jha, Raoul Onattu
In recent years, naturally occurring phytochemicals with antioxidant capacity have generated surmount interest in their therapeutic usage against a wide range of pathological and toxicological conditions. The present study was designed to evaluate potential of ɣ-oryzanol (OZ), a bio-active natural antioxidant against hepatocellular carcinoma effect of the carcinogen N-nitrosodiethylamine in Balb/c mice. OZ inhibited the proliferation of Hep-3B cell line in concentration dependent manner. Administration of OZ to N-nitrosodiethylamine induced Balb/c mice for 16 and 32 weeks showed reduction in levels of liver injury markers, restored the levels of liver tumor markers, suppressed the hepatic nodular incidence and multiplicity, and favorably modulated the liver antioxidant status in a time dependent manner...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
David Adenuga, Katy Goyak, R Jeffrey Lewis
Toxicology feeding studies of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), within the carbon number range C22-C28, results in species-specific epithelioid granulomas in the liver of F-344 rats but not in other rat strains, or species. While MOH has been detected, and some pathological effects have been shown to occur in other organs/tissues of F-344 rats and other rat strains/species, it is generally accepted that the effect of toxicological concern is species-specific inflammatory liver granuloma. As oil retention and other MOH-related nontoxic pathological changes in the liver are observed in humans, some have hypothesized that the potential for oil accumulation over a lifetime, through dietary sources, may predispose humans to similar liver effects as observed in F-344 rats...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Utkarsh A Reddy, P V Prabhakar, M Mahboob
Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-IONPs) have revolutionized the industry by significant economic and scientific impacts. Enormous increase in the usage of IONPs has raised concerns about their unseen adverse effects. In the current study, we investigated the effects of IONPs and its bulk on oxidative stress biomarkers, histopathology and biodistribution in rats after 28 days repeated oral treatment at 30, 300 and 1000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). IONPs size in dry, wet forms and crystallinity was determined using TEM, DLS and XRD...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Seun F Akomolafe, Ganiyu Oboh, Sunday I Oyeleye, Tosin A Olasehinde
Tetracarpidium conophorum leaves are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of male infertility, without considering its toxicity and side effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of T conophorum leaves on some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, albumin, creatinine, and uric acid. Histology of the liver and kidney were also assessed. The result revealed that the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels of the control group were not significantly different from the experimental groups...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Quaiser Saquib, Sabry M Attia, Sabiha M Ansari, Abdullah Al-Salim, Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Javed Musarrat, Xiaowei Zhang, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy
The unique properties of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) distinguish it from traditional nickel containing materials, and enable its industrial application as an advanced nanomaterial. Despite the benefits, the in vivo toxicological studies on NiO-NPs have been mainly focused on its pulmonary pathology. However, NiO-NPs exposure via oral route and its subsequent toxic effects in exposed animals are still lacking. Hence, we evaluated the NiO-NPs oral toxicity in male Wistar rats. NiO-NPs induced significant increase in chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN) formation and, DNA damage in rats...
December 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zhen Yan, Wenjun Wang, Yongjun Wu, Wei Wang, Bing Li, Ning Liang, Weidong Wu
Engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are currently being produced in high tonnage. Exposure to ZnO-NPs presents potential risks to cardiovascular system. Thus far, the toxicological effects of ZnO-NPs on cardiovascular system have not been well characterized. In this study, human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were exposed to ZnO-NPs directly or indirectly using a transwell coculture system with human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 to mimic the lung/circulation interaction. It was shown that levels of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-8 [IL-8] and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) and biomarkers of atherosclerogenesis (heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1] and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecules-1 [PECAM-1]) in the supernatants of culture media were significantly increased...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Yunfei Fan, Shaofeng Liu, Xiaodong Chen, Meirou Feng, Fenyun Song, Xiaoxia Gao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried ripe seeds of Nux Vomica (Strychnos nux-vomica L.), a traditional Chinese medicine, have been used to treat multifarious symptoms. However, the clinical applications of Nux Vomica are limited by its severe toxicity. In this study, Nux Vomica was subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics and pathological examination to determine relevant biomarkers in target organs and to explain the underlying toxicity mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of twelve rats...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Caroline J Zeiss, Linda K Johnson
Animal research has constituted a fundamental means to achieve groundbreaking therapies for human disease. However, for complex diseases, promising preclinical results have failed to translate to the clinic. Reasons for this disparity are multifactorial. These include the challenges inherent in modeling complex disease in animals, as well issues of study design, reproducibility and operational norms within the biomedical research enterprise. In this issue, we explore the range of information resources available for the comparative study of disease, as well as challenges to the ultimate translation of preclinical findings...
July 1, 2017: ILAR Journal
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