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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224233/review-article-methodology-for-the-rapid-review-series-on-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-the-emergency-department
#1
REVIEW
Kirsten Strudwick, Megan McPhee, Anthony Bell, Melinda Martin-Khan, Trevor Russell
Musculoskeletal injuries are a common presentation to the ED, with significant costs involved in the management of these injuries, variances in care within the ED and associated morbidity. A series of rapid review papers were completed to guide best practice for the assessment and management of common musculoskeletal injuries presenting to the ED. This paper presents the methodology used across the rapid reviews. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, TRIP and the grey literature, including relevant organisational websites, were searched in 2015...
December 10, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224221/exploring-the-associations-among-nutrition-science-and-mathematics-knowledge-for-an-integrative-food-based-curriculum
#2
Virginia C Stage, Kathryn M Kolasa, Sebastián R Díaz, Melani W Duffrin
BACKGROUND: Explore associations between nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge to provide evidence that integrating food/nutrition education in the fourth-grade curriculum may support gains in academic knowledge. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study. Sample included 438 students in 34 fourth-grade classrooms across North Carolina and Ohio; mean age 10 years old; gender (I = 53.2% female; C = 51.6% female). Dependent variable = post-test-nutrition knowledge; independent variables = baseline-nutrition knowledge, and post-test science and mathematics knowledge...
January 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#3
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224120/spontaneous-cervical-artery-dissection-is-accompanied-by-a-hypercoagulable-state-and-simultaneous-inflammatory-condition
#4
Johann Otto Pelz, Kristian Harms, Michael Metze, Dominik Michalski
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) are often preceded by infections. However, existing data about inflammatory parameters remained inconsistent. Remarkably, concurrent information about the coagulation system, whose affection seems also reasonable to cause ischaemic events, are still lacking in sCAD patients. Thus, this study explores the association between the inflammatory and coagulation system in patients with sCAD. METHODS: The parameters leukocyte and thrombocyte count, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time were extracted from hospital-based medical records of patients (n = 60) with sCAD and compared with those of a control group (n = 97) from a prospective observational stroke study...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224100/estrogens-and-body-weight-regulation-in-men
#5
Katya B Rubinow
Our understanding of the metabolic roles of sex steroids in men has evolved substantially over recent decades. Whereas testosterone once was believed to contribute to metabolic risk in men, the importance of adequate androgen exposure for the maintenance of metabolic health has been demonstrated unequivocally. A growing body of evidence now also supports a critical role for estrogens in metabolic regulation in men. Recent data from clinical intervention studies indicate that estradiol may be a stronger determinant of adiposity than testosterone in men, and even short-term estradiol deprivation contributes to fat mass accrual...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224055/peri-operative-antibiotic-treatment-of-bacteriuria-reduces-early-deep-surgical-site-infections-in-geriatric-patients-with-proximal-femur-fracture
#6
Ronny Langenhan, Stefanie Bushuven, Niklas Reimers, Axel Probst
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to conduct a re-evaluation of current strategies for peri-operative prophylaxis of infections in orthopaedic surgery of geriatric patients (≥65 years) with proximal femoral fractures (PFF). METHODS: Between 01/2010 and 08/2014 all post-operative infections after stabilization of PFF of 1,089 geriatric patients were recorded retrospectively. All patients pre-operatively received a single dose of 1.5 g cefuroxime (group 1). These were compared to prospectively determined post-operative rates of surgical site infection (SSI) of 441 geriatric patients, which were operated on between 09/2014 and 03/2017 due to PFF...
December 9, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224040/treatment-of-auditory-hallucinations-with-bilateral-theta-burst-stimulation-ctbs-protocol-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicenter-trial
#7
Christian Plewnia, Bettina Brendel, Tobias Schwippel, Peter Martus, Joachim Cordes, Alkomiet Hasan, Andreas J Fallgatter
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AH) are core symptoms of schizophrenia. They are often severely distressing and refractory to therapy. Their perception is associated with increased activity in temporoparietal areas of the brain. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reduce focal brain hyperactivity and has been shown to ameliorate AH. However, controlled multicenter clinical trials are still missing, effect sizes are moderate, and the treatment with rTMS is time consuming. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) is a quicker and potentially more effective technique to reduce cortical hyperactivity...
December 9, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223965/advancing-prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-through-point-of-care-testing-target-product-profiles-and-landscape-analysis
#8
Igor Toskin, Maurine Murtagh, Rosanna W Peeling, Karel Blondeel, Joanna Cordero, James Kiarie
OBJECTIVES: Advancing the field of point-of-care testing (POCT) for STIs can rapidly and substantially improve STI control and prevention by providing targeted, essential STI services (case detection and screening). POCT enables definitive diagnosis and appropriate treatment in a single visit and home and community-based testing. METHODS: Since 2014, the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research, in collaboration with technical partners, has completed four landscape analyses of promising diagnostics for use at or near the point of patient care to detect syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and the human papillomavirus...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223959/performance-and-operational-characteristics-of-point-of-care-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-urogenital-gonococcal-infections
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca J Guy, Louise M Causer, Jeffrey D Klausner, Magnus Unemo, Igor Toskin, Anna M Azzini, Rosanna W Peeling
BACKGROUND: In 2012, there was an estimated 78 million new cases of gonorrhoea globally. Untreated infection may lead to reproductive and neonatal morbidity and facilitate HIV transmission. Diagnosis and treatment are a priority for control and prevention, yet use of point-of-care tests (POCTs) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is limited. OBJECTIVES: To review the performance and operational characteristics of NG POCTs for diagnosis of urogenital gonorrhoea. METHODS: We compiled and synthesised findings from two separate systematic reviews which included evaluations published until August 2015...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223953/potential-role-for-acupuncture-in-the-treatment-of-food-addiction-and-obesity
#10
Jason Aaron Chen, Justin Albert Chen, Sanghoon Lee, Gerard Mullin
Addressing the global obesity epidemic requires innovative approaches that are also acceptable to affected individuals. There is growing evidence suggesting that food addiction, one contributor to obesity, bears many similarities to drug and alcohol addiction, presenting a potential role for addiction-focused acupuncture as a novel treatment modality. In this perspective article, we begin by briefly reviewing the evidence linking food and drug/alcohol addiction. We then describe the development of an acupuncture-based protocol for treating opioid addiction in Hong Kong in the 1970s and discuss the evidence base for acupuncture's efficacy in treating a range of substance use disorders...
December 9, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223933/task-based-and-resting-state-fmri-reveal-compensatory-network-changes-following-damage-to-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus
#11
Glyn P Hallam, Hannah E Thompson, Mark Hymers, Rebecca E Millman, Jennifer M Rodd, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex in stroke aphasia is associated with semantic deficits reflecting poor control over conceptual retrieval, as opposed to loss of knowledge. However, little is known about how functional recruitment within the semantic network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits. The current study acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 14 patients with semantic aphasia, who had difficulty with flexible semantic retrieval following left prefrontal damage, and 16 healthy age-matched controls, allowing us to examine activation and connectivity in the semantic network...
October 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223864/involuntary-top-down-control-by-search-irrelevant-features-visual-working-memory-biases-attention-in-an-object-based-manner
#12
Rebecca M Foerster, Werner X Schneider
Many everyday tasks involve successive visual-search episodes with changing targets. Converging evidence suggests that these targets are retained in visual working memory (VWM) and bias attention from there. It is unknown whether all or only search-relevant features of a VWM template bias attention during search. Bias signals might be configured exclusively to task-relevant features so that only search-relevant features bias attention. Alternatively, VWM might maintain objects in the form of bound features...
December 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223857/when-it-is-apt-to-adapt-flexible-reasoning-guides-children-s-use-of-talker-identity-and-disfluency-cues
#13
Justine M Thacker, Craig G Chambers, Susan A Graham
An eye-tracking methodology was used to examine whether children flexibly engage two voice-based cues, talker identity and disfluency, during language processing. Across two experiments, 5-year-olds (N = 58) were introduced to two characters with distinct color preferences. These characters then used fluent or disfluent instructions to refer to an object in a display containing items bearing either talker-preferred or talker-dispreferred colors. As the utterance began to unfold, the 5-year-olds anticipated that talkers would refer to talker-preferred objects...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223847/funding-breakthrough-therapies-a-systematic-review-and-recommendation
#14
REVIEW
E Hanna, M Toumi, C Dussart, B Borissov, O Dabbous, K Badora, P Auquier
BACKGROUND: Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies likely associated with high prices. Payers need guidance to create a balance between ensuring patient access to breakthrough therapies and maintaining the financial sustainability of the healthcare system. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to identify, define, classify and compare the approaches to funding high-cost medicines proposed in the literature, to analyze their appropriateness for ATMP funding and to suggest an optimal funding model for ATMPs...
December 2, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223766/developing-a-value-proposition-for-high-sensitive-troponin-testing
#15
Andrew St John, Louise Cullen, Paul Jülicher, Christopher P Price
Laboratories are looking for ways that they can identify and deliver value through their service rather than just provide high quality test results. One way to demonstrate value has been described in the form of a value proposition where the application of a laboratory test is described explicitly in terms of the process of care and the patient outcomes. We have applied this concept to the use of high sensitive troponin assays for the assessment of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. From a previously described framework we use a checklist to describe the various steps in the complete intervention or clinical pathway, demonstrating how the test should be used, highlighting key evidence in the literature that supports the intervention and list some of the measures which can be used to assess how well the intervention is being adopted and implemented...
December 6, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223750/choosing-pre-conception-planning-for-women-families-counselling-and-informed-consent-part-2-pre-conception-reproductive-planning-lifestyle-immunization-and-psychosocial-issues
#16
REVIEW
R Douglas Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To inform reproductive and other health care providers about pre-conception evaluation, including considerations for reproductive planning, lifestyle modification, immunization status and attitudes, and psychosocial issues. OPTIONS: This counselling information can be used for patient education and planning and possible pre-conception and/or prenatal testing. OUTCOMES: This information may allow for improved risk assessment when pre-conception counselling for individual patients and their families is used...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223749/egg-freezing-for-age-related-fertility-decline
#17
Julio Saumet, Angel Petropanagos, Karen Buzaglo, Eileen McMahon, Gunwant Warraich, Neal Mahutte
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review and evidence based recommendations for Canadian fertility centres that offer social egg freezing. OUTCOMES: In social egg freezing cycles we evaluated thawed oocyte survival rates, fertilization rates, embryo quality, pregnancy rates, and live birth rates. We also review how these outcomes are impacted by age, ovarian reserve, and the number of eggs cryopreserved. Finally, we discuss the risks of social egg freezing, the alternatives, the critical elements for counselling and informed consent, and future reporting of egg freezing outcome data...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223679/striking-a-chord-with-healthy-aging-memory-system-cooperation-is-related-to-preserved-configural-response-learning-in-older-adults
#18
Michelle W Voss, Rachel Clark, Michael Freedberg, Timothy Weng, Eliot Hazeltine
Evidence from tasks that primarily tap either hippocampal- or striatal-based memory systems suggests that although these systems often compete for control of behavior, aging is associated with greater cooperation between them. This may stem from altered prefrontal cortex function. Here, we use a configural response task designed to engage both memory systems to test how age affects their interaction with cortical regions including the prefrontal cortex. We found that although older and younger adults learned just as well, older adults showed greater initial activation in cortical networks associated with visuospatial-action mapping and resolving conflict for competing memory representations...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223658/can-technology-really-help-to-reduce-underage-drinking-new-evidence-on-the-effects-of-false-id-laws-with-scanner-provisions
#19
Emily Yiying Zheng
In Volume 36 of this journal, Yoruk (2014) uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and finds that false ID laws with scanner provisions have large impacts on binge drinking participation, frequency of alcohol consumption and binge drinking frequency among minors. This paper reexamines how false ID laws with scanner provisions affect underage drinking. I first demonstrate that analyses based on NLSY97 data fail falsification exercises testing for significant pre-intervention effects, and that the estimated effects based on these data are highly sensitive to the inclusion of a lead term and to sample selection, which weakens confidence in the large estimated effects reported in Yoruk (2014)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223522/custom-made-titanium-3d-printed-interbody-cages-for-treatment-of-osteoporotic-fracture-related-spinal-deformity
#20
Timothy Siu, Jeffrey M Rogers, Kainu Lin, Robert Thompson, Mark Owbridge
BACKGROUND: Advances in minimally invasive interbody fusion have greatly enhanced surgeons' capability to correct adult spinal deformity with reduced morbidity. However, the feasibility of such approaches is limited in patients with previous osteoporotic fractures as the resultant vertebral deformity renders the endplate geometry incongruous with conventional interbody implants. Current 3D printing technology offers a novel solution by fabricating custom-made implants tailored to individual anatomy...
December 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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