Read by QxMD icon Read

evidence base

Jacob Robson, Molly O'Gorman, Amber McClain, Krishna Mutyala, Cassandra Davis, Carlos Barbagelata, Justin Wheeler, Rafael Firszt, Ken Smith, Raza Patel, Kathryn Peterson, Amy Lowichik, Stephen Guthery
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is often detected in children and is considered to be a rare disease, with prevalence values reported to be below 60 cases per 100,000 persons. To determine whether the incidence of EoE in children in Utah exceeds estimates from regional reports, we calculated incidence and prevalence values over a 5-year period. METHODS: Using consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of EoE, we reviewed pathology records from in the Intermountain Healthcare pathology database, from July 1, 2011 through June 31, 2016...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Alexandre Roux, Céline Botella, Megan Still, Marc Zanello, Frédéric Dhermain, Philippe Metellus, Johan Pallud
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus concerning the management of adult posterior fossa metastasis-associated obstructive hydrocephalus patients, especially regarding surgical procedures. OBJECTIVES: Literature review to assess the surgical strategy in the management of metastatic brain tumor patients. DATA SOURCES: Literature search conducted on PubMed in November 2017 to identify all studies concerning brain metastases and obstructive hydrocephalus in the English language...
June 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Bruno F Melo, Brian L Sidlauskas, Kendra Hoekzema, Richard P Vari, Casey B Dillman, Claudio Oliveira
Curimatidae, the fourth largest family of detritivorous Neotropical characiform fishes, encompasses eight extant genera and over 110 species dwelling in diverse freshwater habitats from Costa Rica to Argentina. Extensive phylogenetic analyses of soft anatomy and osteology provided evidence for intergeneric and most interspecific relationships, and formed the basis of curimatid taxonomy for nearly 40 years. However, that morphological phylogeny demonstrated incomplete phylogenetic resolution at various scales and has never been tested with extensive molecular data...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ana Simões, Francisco Veiga, Carla Vitorino, Ana Figueiras
The pharmaceutical industry has entered in a new era, as there is a growing interest in increasing the quality standards of dosage forms, through the implementation of more structured development and manufacturing approaches. For many decades, the manufacturing of drug products was controlled by a regulatory framework to guarantee the quality of the final product through a fixed process and exhaustive testing. Limitations related to the Quality by Test (QbT) system have been widely acknowledged. The emergence of Quality by Design (QbD) as a systematic and risk-based approach introduced a new quality concept based on a good understanding of how raw materials and process parameters influence the final quality profile...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Andrew Jones, Eric Robinson, Jay Duckworth, Inge Kersbergen, Natasha Clarke, Matt Field
Inhibitory control refers to the ability to stop, change or delay a response, and is often used in order to protect higher order goals. Theoretical models suggest that appetitive cues such as pictures of alcoholic drinks or food evoke strong automatic appetitive responses which lead to transient impairments in inhibitory control, and that these effects of cues may be related to individual differences (e.g. in body mass index, or alcohol consumption). In order to investigate these claims we conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 66 effect sizes (35 alcohol, 31 food) from 37 articles that tested the effect of exposure to appetitive (alcohol/food) cues on indices of inhibitory control...
June 20, 2018: Appetite
Lana Fani, Frank J Wolters, M Kamran Ikram, Marco J Bruno, Albert Hofman, Peter J Koudstaal, Sarwa Darwish Murad, M Arfan Ikram
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection might increase risk of dementia, but available evidence is inconsistent, and longitudinal studies are sparse. We investigated the association between H. pylori serology and dementia risk in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2002, we measured H. pylori serum IgG titers in 4215 nondemented participants of the Rotterdam Study with a mean age of 69 years. We determined the association between H. pylori at baseline and dementia incidence until 2015, per natural log (U/mL) increase in titer, and for seropositive/seronegative, using Cox models adjusting for cohort, sex, age, education, and cardiovascular risk factors...
June 20, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Unal Mutlu, Mohammad K Ikram, Gennady V Roshchupkin, Pieter W M Bonnemaijer, Johanna M Colijn, Johannes R Vingerling, Wiro J Niessen, Mohammad A Ikram, Caroline C W Klaver, Meike W Vernooij
Increasing evidence shows that thinner retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), assessed on optical coherence tomography (OCT), are reflecting global brain atrophy. Yet, little is known on the relation of these layers with specific brain regions. Using voxel-based analysis, we aimed to unravel specific brain regions associated with these retinal layers. We included 2,235 persons (mean age: 67.3 years, 55% women) from the Rotterdam Study (2007-2012) who had gradable retinal OCT images and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, including diffusion tensor (DT) imaging...
June 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Elizabeth M Everson, Jonah D Hocum, Grant D Trobridge
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that foamy viral (FV) vectors are a promising alternative to gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors and insulators can improve FV vector safety. However, in a previous analysis of insulator effects on FV vector safety, strong viral promoters were used to elicit genotoxic events. Here we developed and analyzed the efficacy and safety of a high-titer, clinically relevant FV vector driven by the housekeeping promoter elongation factor-1α and insulated with an enhancer blocking A1 insulator (FV-EGW-A1)...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
Milad Azami, G Holamreza Badfar, Akram Mansouri, Mohammad Hossein Yekta Kooshali, Wesam Kooti, Zeinab Tardeh, Ali Soleymani, S Hamsi Abbasalizadeh
Several studies have been conducted regarding the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pregnant Iranian women. However, it is necessary to combine the previous results to present a general assessment. We conducted the present study based on systematic review and meta-analysis studies according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We searched the national and international online databases of MagIran, IranMedex, SID, MedLib, IranDoc, Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar search engine for certain MeSH keywords until June 16, 2017...
June 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Junhua Gong, Sirong He, Yao Cheng, Nansheng Cheng, Jianping Gong, Zhong Zeng
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pancreatic fistula is one of the most frequent and potentially life-threatening complications following pancreatic resections. Fibrin sealants are introduced to reduce postoperative pancreatic fistula by some surgeons. However, the use of fibrin sealants during pancreatic surgery is controversial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review last published in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety, effectiveness, and potential adverse effects of fibrin sealants for the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreatic surgery...
June 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Haley Jackson, John Baker, Kathyrn Berzins
Mental health policy stipulates seclusion should only be used as an intervention of last resort and for the minimum possible duration. Current evidence details which service users are more likely to be secluded, why they are secluded, and what influences the decision to seclude them. However, very little is known about the decision to release service users from seclusion. An integrative review was undertaken to explore the decision-making processes of mental health professionals which guide the ending of seclusion...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Stasia Rouse, Matthew Wodziak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hiccups are a common problem that crosses multiple disciplines including neurology, gastroenterology and pulmonology, and primary care. There are no formal guidelines to the treatment of intractable hiccups and treatment is based on experience and anecdotal evidence often relying on older medications. We have reviewed the relevant literature with an emphasis on the last five years or so in management of intractable hiccups. RECENT FINDINGS: The production of hiccups is a complex mechanism which involves multiple neurotransmitters and anatomical structure within the central and peripheral nervous system...
June 22, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Lucas Morin, Marie-Laure Laroche, Davide L Vetrano, Johan Fastbom, Kristina Johnell
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidance is needed to initiate, continue, and discontinue drug treatments near the end of life. AIM: To identify drugs and drug classes most often adequate, questionable, or inadequate for older people at the end of life. DESIGN: Delphi consensus survey. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Forty European experts in geriatrics, clinical pharmacology, and palliative medicine from 10 different countries. Panelists were asked to characterize drug classes as "often adequate," "questionable," or "often inadequate" for use in older adults aged 75 years or older with an estimated life expectancy of ≤ 3 months...
June 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Ciro Franzese, Tiziana Comito, Elena Clerici, Lucia Di Brina, Stefano Tomatis, Pierina Navarria, Giacomo Reggiori, Luca Viganò, Dario Poretti, Vittorio Pedicini, Guido Torzilli, Luigi Solbiati, Marta Scorsetti
PURPOSE: The study aim was to compare the disease control in two groups of patients affected by liver metastases from CRC treated with microwave ablation (MWA) or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). METHODS: We extracted data of patients treated between 2009 and 2016. Inclusion criteria were: (1) maximum diameter of the liver lesions less than 4 cm; (2) no more than three liver lesions; (3) no evidence of progressive or untreated gross disease outside the liver; (4) adequate liver function; (5) no concurrent chemotherapy; (6) minimum age of 18...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Mandy Gutknecht, Marthe-Lisa Schaarschmidt, Marion Danner, Marina Otten, Matthias Augustin
In psoriasis, several patient-relevant treatment goals must be met to be able to consider a treatment beneficial. To assess treatment benefit, the validated questionnaire Patient Benefit Index (PBI) can be used. Its global score summarizes the degree of patient-relevant treatment goals achieved after treatment, weighted by their individual importance on rating scales. These treatment goals have empirically been assigned to five dimensions. While the weighting procedure of the PBI provides information about the importance patients attach to treatment goals on a rating scale from 0 to 4, methods of preference elicitation provide information on how patients would trade off certain treatment goals against each other...
June 23, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Zdeněk Lajbner, Reuven Pnini, M Florencia Camus, Jonathan Miller, Damian K Dowling
Mitochondria are essential organelles, found within eukaryotic cells, which contain their own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has traditionally been used in population genetic and biogeographic studies as a maternally-inherited and evolutionary-neutral genetic marker. However, it is now clear that polymorphisms within the mtDNA sequence are routinely non-neutral, and furthermore several studies have suggested that such mtDNA polymorphisms are also sensitive to thermal selection. These observations led to the formulation of the "mitochondrial climatic adaptation" hypothesis, for which all published evidence to date is correlational...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric Courchesne, Tiziano Pramparo, Vahid H Gazestani, Michael V Lombardo, Karen Pierce, Nathan E Lewis
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has captured the attention of scientists, clinicians and the lay public because of its uncertain origins and striking and unexplained clinical heterogeneity. Here we review genetic, genomic, cellular, postmortem, animal model, and cell model evidence that shows ASD begins in the womb. This evidence leads to a new theory that ASD is a multistage, progressive disorder of brain development, spanning nearly all of prenatal life. ASD can begin as early as the 1st and 2nd trimester with disruption of cell proliferation and differentiation...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Stephen Mullen, Roisin Begley, Zoe Roberts, Alison Mary Kemp
Burns are a relatively common injury in children accounting for over 50 000 emergency department attendances each year. An estimated 1 in 10 of these are due to maltreatment. These may present in the form of physical abuse or neglect with a reported ratio of 1:9. A burn associated with maltreatment may be a marker for future abuse or neglect and it is paramount that concerns are identified and addressed at the initial visit. Paediatricians need to be confident to identify safeguarding concerns specific to childhood burns and investigate accordingly...
June 22, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Alec M Judd, Melinda K Matthews, Rachel Hughes, Madeline Veloz, Corinne E Sexton, John M Chaston
Animal-associated microorganisms ('microbiota') dramatically influence nutritional and physiological traits of their hosts. To expand our understanding of such influences, we predicted bacterial genes that influence a quantitative animal trait by a comparative genomic approach and extended these predictions via mutant analysis. We focus on D. melanogaster starvation resistance (SR). We first confirmed that D. melanogaster SR responds to the microbiota by demonstrating that bacteria-free flies have greater SR than flies bearing a standard 5-species microbial community, and extended this analysis by revealing species-specific influence of 38 genome-sequenced bacterial species on D...
June 22, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Percy Tumbale, Matthew J Schellenberg, Geoffrey A Mueller, Emma Fairweather, Mandy Watson, Jessica N Little, Juno Krahn, Ian Waddell, Robert E London, R Scott Williams
The failure of DNA ligases to complete their catalytic reactions generates cytotoxic adenylated DNA strand breaks. The APTX RNA-DNA deadenylase protects genome integrity and corrects abortive DNA ligation arising during ribonucleotide excision repair and base excision DNA repair, and APTX human mutations cause the neurodegenerative disorder ataxia with oculomotor ataxia 1 (AOA1). How APTX senses cognate DNA nicks and is inactivated in AOA1 remains incompletely defined. Here, we report X-ray structures of APTX engaging nicked RNA-DNA substrates that provide direct evidence for a wedge-pivot-cut strategy for 5'-AMP resolution shared with the alternate 5'-AMP processing enzymes POLβ and FEN1...
June 22, 2018: EMBO Journal
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"