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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679936/controversies-in-monitoring-metastatic-breast-cancer-during-systemic-treatment-results-of-a-gim-gruppo-italiano-mammella-survey
#1
Bonotto Marta, Basile Debora, Gerratana Lorenzo, Pelizzari Giacomo, Bartoletti Michele, Vitale Maria Grazia, Fanotto Valentina, Lisanti Camilla, Mansutti Mauro, Minisini Alessandro Marco, Aprile Giuseppe, De Laurentiis Michele, Montemurro Filippo, Del Mastro Lucia, Puglisi Fabio
BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy for monitoring metastatic breast cancer (M-MBC) is unclear. Nevertheless, M-MBC influences patient's quality of life and it affects the use of resources in terms of both drugs and diagnostic exam prescription. We aim to disclose oncologists' approach on M-MBC, identifying controversial areas. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was conducted among GIM members who, based on their on-field experience, shared their own method for M-MBC planning...
April 18, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679833/the-contribution-of-cattle-urine-and-dung-to-nitrous-oxide-emissions-quantification-of-country-specific-emission-factors-and-implications-for-national-inventories
#2
D R Chadwick, L M Cardenas, M S Dhanoa, N Donovan, T Misselbrook, J R Williams, R E Thorman, K L McGeough, C J Watson, M Bell, S G Anthony, R M Rees
Urine patches and dung pats from grazing livestock create hotspots for production and emission of the greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O), and represent a large proportion of total N2 O emissions in many national agricultural greenhouse gas inventories. As such, there is much interest in developing country specific N2 O emission factors (EFs) for excretal nitrogen (EF3, pasture, range and paddock) deposited during gazing. The aims of this study were to generate separate N2 O emissions data for cattle derived urine and dung, to provide an evidence base for the generation of a country specific EF for the UK from this nitrogen source...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679754/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-breast-cancer-risk-by-pathological-subtype-mcc-spain
#3
Virginia Lope, Adela Castelló, Antonio Mena-Bravo, Pilar Amiano, Nuria Aragonés, Tania Fernández-Villa, Marcela Guevara, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Guillermo Fernandez-Tardón, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Rafael Marcos-Gragera, Víctor Moreno, Dolores Salas-Trejo, Marian Diaz-Santos, Madalen Oribe, Isabel Romieu, Manolis Kogevinas, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Marina Pollán
Epidemiologic evidence on the association between vitamin D and breast cancer is still inconclusive. This study analyzes the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and breast cancer risk by pathologic subtype, stage at diagnosis and specific breast cancer risk factors. We conducted a population-based multicase-control study where 546 histologically-confirmed breast cancer cases and 558 population controls, frequently matched by geographic area, age and body mass index, were recruited in 12 Spanish provinces (MCC-Spain)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679735/age-dependent-effects-of-brain-stimulation-on-network-centrality
#4
Daria Antonenko, Till Nierhaus, Marcus Meinzer, Kristin Prehn, Axel Thielscher, Bernd Ittermann, Agnes Flöel
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that advanced age may mediate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on brain function. However, studies directly comparing neural tDCS effects between young and older adults are scarce and limited to task-related imaging paradigms. Resting-state (rs-) fMRI, that is independent of age-related differences in performance, is well suited to investigate age-associated differential neural tDCS effects. Three "online" tDCS conditions (anodal, cathodal, sham) were compared in a cross-over, within-subject design, in 30 young and 30 older adults...
April 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679729/a-longitudinal-study-of-disc-height-narrowing-and-facet-joint-osteoarthritis-at-the-thoracic-and-lumbar-spine-evaluated-by-computed-tomography-the-framingham-study
#5
Mohamed Jarraya, Ali Guermazi, Amanda L Lorbergs, Elana Brochin, Douglas P Kiel, Mary L Bouxsein, L Adrienne Cupples, Elizabeth J Samelson
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Prevalence and progression of disc height narrowing (DHN) and facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) in the thoracic and lumbar regions in non-clinical populations are not well-established. PURPOSE: Use computed tomography (CT) images to determine prevalence and progression of DHN and FJOA according to age, sex, and spinal region. STUDY DESIGN: Six-year longitudinal study SAMPLE: 1,196 members of the Framingham Study (mean baseline age 61 ±9 years) OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared prevalence and progression (new or worsening) of moderate-to-severe DHN and FJOA by age, sex, and spinal region...
April 18, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679714/population-genetics-phylogenomics-and-hybrid-speciation-of-juglans-in-china-determined-from-whole-chloroplast-genomes-transcriptomes-and-genotyping-by-sequencing-gbs
#6
Peng Zhao, Hui-Juan Zhou, Daniel Potter, Yi-Heng Hu, Xiao-Jia Feng, Meng Dang, Li Feng, Saman Zulfiqar, Wen-Zhe Liu, Guifang Zhao, Keith Woeste
Genomic data are a powerful tool for elucidating the processes involved in the evolution and divergence of species. The speciation and phylogenetic relationships among Chinese Juglans remain unclear. Here, we used results from phylogenomic and population genetic analyses, transcriptomics, Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS), and whole chloroplast genomes (Cp genome) data to infer processes of lineage formation among the five native Chinese species of the walnut genus (Juglans, Juglandaceae), a widespread, economically important group...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679706/an-elemental-impurities-excipient-database-a-viable-tool-for-ich-q3d-drug-product-risk-assessment
#7
Ruth Boetzel, Agnieszka Ceszlak, Christopher Day, Patrick Drumm, Joan Gil Bejar, John Glennon, Laurence Harris, Crina I Heghes, Radu Horga, Peter L Jacobs, Wilfried J T M Keurentjes, Fiona King, Carlos W Lee, Nancy Lewen, Carol A Marchant, Frans A Maris, William Nye, Samuel Powell, Helmut Rockstroh, Laura Rutter, Mark Schweitzer, Elaine Shannon, Lance Smallshaw, Andrew Teasdale, Sarah Thompson, David Wilkinson
To support the practical implementation of the ICH Q3D guideline, which describes a risk-based approach to the control of elemental impurities in drug products, a consortium of pharmaceutical companies has established a database to collate the results of analytical studies of the levels of elemental impurities within pharmaceutical excipients. This database currently includes the results of 26723 elemental determinations for 201 excipients and represents the largest known, and still rapidly expanding, collection of data of this type...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679657/eleven-loci-with-new-reproducible-genetic-associations-with-allergic-disease-risk
#8
Manuel Ar Ferreira, Judith M Vonk, Hansjörg Baurecht, Ingo Marenholz, Chao Tian, Joshua D Hoffman, Quinta Helmer, Annika Tillander, Vilhelmina Ullemar, Yi Lu, Franz Rüschendorf, David A Hinds, Norbert Hübner, Stephan Weidinger, Patrik Ke Magnusson, Eric Jorgenson, Young-Ae Lee, Dorret I Boomsma, Robert Karlsson, Catarina Almqvist, Gerard H Koppelman, Lavinia Paternoster
BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 99 loci that contain genetic risk variants shared between asthma, hay fever and eczema. Many more risk loci shared between these common allergic diseases remain to be discovered, which could point to new therapeutic opportunities. OBJECTIVE: To identify novel risk loci shared between asthma, hay fever and eczema by applying a gene-based test of association to results from a published GWAS that included data from 360,838 individuals...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679574/evidence-of-demyelination-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-using-a-direct-and-specific-magnetic-resonance-imaging-measure-of-myelin-content
#9
Mustapha Bouhrara, David A Reiter, Christopher M Bergeron, Linda M Zukley, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick, Richard G Spencer
INTRODUCTION: We investigated brain demyelination in aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia using magnetic resonance imaging of myelin. METHODS: Brains of young and old controls and old subjects with MCI, Alzheimer's disease, or vascular dementia were scanned using our recently developed myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping technique, which provides greatly improved accuracy over previous comparable methods. Maps of MWF, a direct and specific myelin measure, and relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratio, indirect and nonspecific measures, were constructed...
April 18, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679513/weight-suppression-as-a-predictor-variable-in-the-treatment-of-eating-disorders-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Paul E Jenkins, Jocelyn Lebow, Renee D Rienecke
INTRODUCTION: Weight suppression (WS - the difference between highest body weight and current body weight) has been proposed as a predictor of treatment outcome within eating disorders (EDs), although this hypothesis has not been consistently supported. AIM/QUESTION: Review the association between pre-treatment WS and outcome following psychological treatment for EDs. METHOD: A comprehensive electronic database search for published and unpublished literature from 1979 to 2017...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679481/prevalence-and-predictors-of-overweight-and-obesity-among-kenyan-women
#11
Rahma S Mkuu, Katrina Epnere, Muhammad Abdul Baker Chowdhury
INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity are associated with increased rates of chronic disease and death globally. In Kenya, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women is high and may be growing. This study aimed to determine the national prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among women in Kenya. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Data on body mass index for 13,048 women (aged 15-49 y) were analyzed by using multivariable logistic regression models...
April 19, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679441/feasibility-safety-and-outcome-of-recanalisation-treatment-in-childhood-stroke
#12
Sandra Bigi, Andrea Dulcey, Jan Gralla, Corrado Bernasconi, Amber Melliger, Alexandre N Datta, Marcel Arnold, Johannes Kaesmacher, Joel Fluss, Annette Hackenberg, Oliver Maier, Johannes Weber, Claudia Poloni, Urs Fischer, Maja Steinlin
Objective Intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy (IVT/EVT) are evidence-based treatments for adults with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). However, randomized controlled trials in pediatric patients are lacking. This study aimed to describe feasibility, safety, and outcome of IVT/EVT in children with AIS. Methods Retrospective study (01/2000-12/2015) of a multicenter, population-based consecutive cohort of patients aged 1 month - 16 years diagnosed with AIS presenting with a pedNIHSS ≥4. Clinical and radiological data of patients receiving IVT/EVT were compared to those receiving standard care (SC) using linear regression to adjust for potential confounders...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679430/is-mri-targeted-biopsy-a-useful-addition-to-systematic-confirmatory-biopsy-in-men-on-active-surveillance-for-low-risk-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Ivo G Schoots, Daan Nieboer, Francesco Giganti, Caroline M Moore, Chris H Bangma, Monique J Roobol
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance of prostate cancer is recommended for men with Gleason 3+3 on standard TRUS-guided biopsy. Confirmatory assessment can include repeat standard TRUS-guided biopsy, and/or MRI with targeted biopsy when indicated. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyse evidence regarding the additional value of MRI and MRI-targeted biopsies to confirmatory systematic biopsies in identifying high-grade prostate cancer in men with low-risk disease on TRUS biopsy...
April 21, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679410/associations-of-ultra-processed-food-and-drink-products-with-asthma-and-wheezing-among-brazilian-adolescents
#14
B Melo, L Rezende, P Machado, N Gouveia, R Levy
BACKGROUND: Although both consumption of ultra-processed products and asthma are common during adolescence, the epidemiological evidence in regarding their association is unclear. We investigated the associations of ultra-processed products consumption with asthma and wheezing in a representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: We used data from a representative sample of 109,104 Brazilian adolescents enrolled in the National Survey of School Health, 2012...
April 21, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679409/increased-care-demand-and-medical-costs-after-falls-in-nursing-homes-a-delphi-study
#15
Carolyn Shanty Sterke, Martien J Panneman, Vicki Erasmus, Suzanne Polinder, Ed F van Beeck
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To estimate the increased care demand and medical costs caused by falls in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence that falls in nursing homes are preventable. However, proper implementation of evidence-based guidelines to prevent falls are often hindered by insufficient management support, staff time, and funding. DESIGN: A three-round Delphi study. METHODS: A panel of 41 experts, all working in nursing homes in the Netherlands, received three online questionnaires to estimate the extra hours of care needed during the first year after the fall...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679383/shortened-courses-of-antibiotics-for-bacterial-infections-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Alexandra M Hanretty, Jason C Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Commonly prescribed durations of therapy for many, if not most, bacterial infections are not evidence-based. Misunderstandings by clinicians and patients alike influence perspectives on antibiotic use, including duration of therapy and its role in antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that shorter durations of antibiotic therapy are as efficacious as longer durations for many infections. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of English language articles using PubMed were identified for inclusion...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679298/future-of-treatment-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-can-the-use-of-safe-evidence-based-clinically-proven-supplements-provide-the-answer-to-the-unmet-need
#17
REVIEW
Yaron Ilan
The epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has created a real and unmet therapeutic need. The long regulatory pathway and the focus on selected subsets of patients with established and advanced disease are some of the current obstacles to providing effective treatment for the majority of NAFLD patients. The complexity of the disease pathogenesis, which involves multiple mechanisms, requires targeting of more than one pathway or a combination-based therapy. Although the drugs being developed may prevent progression to cirrhosis or may decrease negative liver outcomes, their effects on cardiometabolic health and cancer prevention remain unknown...
April 20, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679217/spatiotemporal-imaging-of-cellular-energy-metabolism-with-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-sensors-in-brain
#18
REVIEW
Zhuo Zhang, Weicai Chen, Yuzheng Zhao, Yi Yang
The brain has very high energy requirements and consumes 20% of the oxygen and 25% of the glucose in the human body. Therefore, the molecular mechanism underlying how the brain metabolizes substances to support neural activity is a fundamental issue for neuroscience studies. A well-known model in the brain, the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle, postulates that glucose uptake and glycolytic activity are enhanced in astrocytes upon neuronal activation and that astrocytes transport lactate into neurons to fulfill their energy requirements...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679129/-operative-treatment-of-degenerative-diseases-of-the-lumbar-spine
#19
REVIEW
M Czabanka, C Thomé, F Ringel, B Meyer, S-O Eicker, V Rohde, M Stoffel, P Vajkoczy
BACKGROUND: Degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine and associated lower back pain represent a major epidemiological and health-related economic challenge. A distinction is made between specific and unspecific lower back pain. In specific lower back pain lumbar disc herniation and spinal canal stenosis with or without associated segment instability are among the most frequent pathologies. Diverse conservative and operative strategies for treatment of these diseases are available. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to present an overview of current data and an evidence-based assessment of the possible forms of treatment...
April 20, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679104/local-action-on-outdoor-air-pollution-to-improve-public-health
#20
REVIEW
Sotiris Vardoulakis, Rachel Kettle, Paul Cosford, Paul Lincoln, Stephen Holgate, Jonathan Grigg, Frank Kelly, David Pencheon
OBJECTIVES: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, jointly with Public Health England, have developed a guideline on outdoor air pollution and its links to health. The guideline makes recommendations on local interventions that can help improve air quality and prevent a range of adverse health outcomes associated with road-traffic-related air pollution. METHODS: The guideline was based on a rigorous assessment of the scientific evidence by an independent advisory committee, with input from public health professionals and other professional groups...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
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