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Review infertility

Hossein Yazdekhasti, Zahra Rajabi, Soraya Parvari, Mehdi Abbasi
Although existence of ovarian stem cells (OSCs) in mammalian postnatal ovary is still under controversy, however, it has been almost accepted that OSCs are contributing actively to folliculogenesis and neo-oogenesis. Recently, various methods with different efficacies have been employed for OSCs isolation from ovarian tissue, which these methods could be chosen depends on aim of isolation and accessible equipments and materials in lab. Although isolated OSCs from different methods have various traits and characterizations, which might become from their different nature and origin, however these stem cells are promising source for woman infertility treatment or source of energy for women with a history of repeat IVF failure in near future...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
P Li, H X Chen, Y H Huang, E L Zhi, R H Tian, H Zhao, F Yang, H F Sun, Y H Gong, Z J Zhu, Y Hong, Y D Liu, S J Xia, Z Li
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of microsurgical crossover vasovasostomy in treating complicated obstructive azoospermia. Methods: The data of 14 patients with complicated obstructive azoospermia treated with microsurgical crossover vasovasostomy were reviewed from October 2012 to March 2016.Ten of them underwent microsurgical crossover vasovasostomy. Intraoperative exploration revealed that 2 patients had vas deferens injury and contralateral testicular atrophy or epididymal obstruction due to previous hernia repair; 7 patients had obstruction of intracorporeal vas deferens on one side and epididymal obstruction on the other side; the other 1 patient had unilateral vasal obstruction with contralateral epididymal obstruction...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Nicole Yoder, Reshef Tal, J Ryan Martin
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality during the first trimester and the incidence increases dramatically with assisted-reproductive technology (ART), occurring in approximately 1.5-2.1 % of patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Abdominal ectopic pregnancy is a rare yet clinically significant form of ectopic pregnancy due to potentially high maternal morbidity. While risk factors for ectopic pregnancy after IVF have been studied, very little is known about risk factors specific for abdominal ectopic pregnancy...
October 19, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Hilary Jericho, Naire Sansotta, Stefano Guandalini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the GFD on extra-intestinal symptoms in pediatric and adult celiac populations at the University of Chicago (UofC). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of the UofC Celiac Center clinic charts from January 2002 to October 2014. Demographics, serologic testing, intestinal biopsies, and extra-intestinal symptoms at presentation, 12, 24, and greater than 24 months were recorded. Extra-intestinal symptoms included: abnormal liver enzymes, arthralgia/arthritis, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), alopecia, fatigue, headache, anemia, stomatitis, myalgias, psychiatric disorders, rashes, seizures, neuropathy, short stature, delayed puberty, osteoporosis and infertility...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Bruno Borghese, Krina T Zondervan, Mauricio S Abrao, Charles Chapron, Daniel Vaiman
Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease affecting up to 10% of the women and a major cause of pain and infertility. It is characterized by the implantation of functional endometrial tissue at ectopic positions generally within the peritoneum. This complex disease has an important genetic component with a heritability estimated at around 50%. This review aims at providing recent insights into the genetic bases of endometriosis, and present a detailed overview of evidence of epigenetic alterations specific to this disease...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Jason R Kovac, Ryan P Smith, Miguel Cajipe, Dolores J Lamb, Larry I Lipshultz
In couples with infertility, abnormal strict morphology of 0% normal forms (NF) is a criterion to proceed rapidly to in vitro fertilization (IVF). Since no data currently exist, we investigated the outcomes for men with 0% NF to determine reproductive success without the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A cohort of 24 men with 0% NF were identified (2010-2013) with 27 randomly selected men with ≥4% NF as controls. Patient charts were reviewed with men contacted and administered an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved telephone questionnaire to ascertain outcomes...
September 30, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Marco D'Aurora, Samantha Sperduti, Giovanna Di Emidio, Liborio Stuppia, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Valentina Gatta
The somatic component of follicular structure is a mixture of different cell types, represented by Granulosa cells (GCs) that are the paracrine regulators of the oocyte growth. GCs finely support this process by a continuous bidirectional talk with oocyte, which ensure oocyte quality and competence. Specific pathways are involved in the cross-talk and in both GCs and oocyte development. This review summarizes data from GCs gene expression analysis concerning both their physiological role and their interaction with oocyte...
October 18, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Elena Ricci, Paola Viganò, Sonia Cipriani, Francesca Chiaffarino, Stefano Bianchi, Giorgia Rebonato, Fabio Parazzini
BACKGROUND: The potential association between endometriosis and physical activity (PA) has been suggested in several epidemiological studies.We aimed to establish whether PA influences endometriosis risk. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using "physical activity" OR "exercise" combined with "endometriosis," in Medical Subject Headings and free text. We selected original articles in English, published up to April 2016, evaluating the association between endometriosis and recent or past PA (case-control or cohort studies)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Leigh A M Demain, Gerard S Conway, William G Newman
Increasingly, mitochondria are being recognised as having an important role in fertility. Indeed in assisted reproductive technologies mitochondrial function is a key indicator of sperm and oocyte quality. Here, we review the literature regarding mitochondrial genetics and infertility. In many multisystem disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction death occurs prior to sexual maturity, or the clinical features are so severe that infertility may be under-reported. Interestingly, many of the genes linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and infertility have roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial translation...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Liying Ying, Xiaomin Chen, Lai Har Wu, Jing Shu, Xiangli Wu, Alice Yuen Loke
PURPOSE: Couples as dyads suffer from the diagnosis of infertility and related treatment. These couples commonly experience emotional and physical pain and tension in their marital lives. The purpose of this study is to report on the process of developing a potentially feasible and effective complex intervention for couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in China. METHODS: The Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating the complex intervention was adopted to guide the development of the Partnership and Coping Enhancement Programme (PCEP)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Yumei Jiang, Dong Cui, Yuefeng Du, Jun Lu, Lin Yang, Jinmei Li, Jing Zhang, Xiaojing Bai
Chronic prostatitis is a risk factor for impaired male fertility potential, and anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) cause the autoimmune disease immune infertility, which has a negative effect on semen parameters. Current studies have investigated the ASA-positive relationship between chronic prostatitis versus normal controls, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematic searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up to October 2015 for case-control studies that involved the ASA-positive relationship between chronic prostatitis patients versus normal controls...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Veronica Gomez-Lobo, Anne-Marie Amies Oelschlager
Disorders (differences) of sexual development encompass a variety of conditions with atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex. Three of the most common differences of sex development conditions include congenital adrenal hyperplasia, complete androgen insensitivity, and Turner syndrome. Obstetrician-gynecologists who care for affected individuals in their practice must be familiar with the genetic, endocrine, and anatomic considerations of the most common conditions to provide optimal care...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jessica E Miller, Soo Hyun Ahn, Stephany P Monsanto, Kasra Khalaj, Madhuri Koti, Chandrakant Tayade
Endometriosis is a complex, inflammatory disease that affects 6-10% of reproductive-aged women. Almost half of the women with endometriosis experience infertility. Despite the excessive prevalence, the pathogenesis of endometriosis and its associated infertility is unknown and a cure is not available. While many theories have been suggested to link endometriosis and infertility, a consensus among investigators has not emerged. In this extensive review of the literature as well as research from our laboratory, we provide potential insights into the role of immune dysfunction in endometriosis associated infertility...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Shane C Quinonez, Thomas D Gelehrter, Wendy R Uhlmann
Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are abnormal chromosomes that cannot be characterized by standard banding cytogenetic techniques. A minority of sSMC contain a neocentromere, which is an ectopic centromere lacking the characteristic alpha-satellite DNA. The phenotypic manifestations of sSMC and neocentromeric sSMC are variable and range from severe intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies to a normal phenotype. Here we report a patient with a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome and infertility found to have an abnormal karyotype consisting of a chromosome 15 deletion and a ring-type sSMC likely stabilized by a neocentromere derived via a mechanism initially described by Barbara McClintock in 1938...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Rachel Busuttil Leaver
It is estimated that 3.5 million people in the UK, that is one in every seven couples, have fertility problems. In the past, it was assumed that the cause always lay with the woman. However, developments in science brought a greater understanding of the process of sperm production and conception. It is now known that up to 30% of fertility problems may be because of the man alone and up to 90% of these are down to low sperm count or low sperm quality or both. This paper offers a review of the causes and potential factors that affect male fertility together with an overview of diagnosis, investigation and current treatment options for these men...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Daniele Mandrioli, Fiorella Belpoggi, Ellen K Silbergeld, Melissa J Perry
Aneuploidy, defined as structural and numerical aberrations of chromosomes, continues to draw attention as an informative effect biomarker for carcinogens and male reproductive toxicants. It has been well documented that aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer. Aneuploidies in oocytes and spermatozoa contribute to infertility, pregnancy loss and a number of congenital abnormalities, and sperm aneuploidy is associated with testicular cancer. It is striking that several carcinogens induce aneuploidy in somatic cells, and also adversely affect the chromosome compliment of germ cells...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Sara Mostafalou, Mohammad Abdollahi
Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Xiangrong Cui, Xuan Jing, Xueqing Wu, Meiqin Yan, Qiang Li, Yan Shen, Zhenqiang Wang
Infertility is a significant problem for human reproduction, with males and females equally affected. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unclear. Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving mitotic cell division, meiosis cell division and spermiogenesis; during this period, unique and extensive chromatin and epigenetic modifications occur to bring about specific epigenetic profiles in spermatozoa. It has recently been suggested that the dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, in particular the methylation of sperm genomic DNA, may serve an important role in the development of numerous diseases...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hatem Abu Hashim
Orally active aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have gained attention for treatment of infertile women with endometriosis in whom aromatase p450 is aberrantly expressed. This review aimed to critically appraise and summarize the available evidence concerning the use of AIs for management of endometriosis-associated infertility. PubMed was searched to May 2015 with the following key words: endometriosis, infertility and aromatase. Priority was given for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) followed by other study designs...
October 2016: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Ida Marie Boisen, Lasse Bøllehuus Hansen, Li Juel Mortensen, Beate Lanske, Anders Juul, Martin Blomberg Jensen
Vitamin D is a versatile signaling molecule with an established role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone health. In recent years the spectrum of vitamin D target organs has expanded and a reproductive role is supported by the presence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the gonads, reproductive tract, and human spermatozoa. Interestingly, expression levels of VDR and the vitamin D inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 in human spermatozoa serve as positive predictive markers of semen quality and are higher expressed in spermatozoa from normal than infertile men...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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