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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938220/metabolic-correlate-of-memory-deficit-awareness-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-implication-in-cortical-midline-structure
#1
Tomomichi Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
The neural substrate of memory-deficit awareness has been studied in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about that in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). To determine the neural substrates of memory-deficit awareness in DLB, we investigated the relationship between awareness of memory-deficit and glucose metabolism in DLB. Thirty-four patients with DLB were assessed by (18)F-FDG-PET and dopamine transporter (DAT)-SPECT. The awareness was evaluated using an awareness index that represents the discrepancy between objective and subjective memory scores...
September 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934619/distinct-brain-metabolic-patterns-separately-associated-with-cognition-motor-function-and-aging-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#2
Ji Hyun Ko, Audrey Katako, Maram Aljuaid, Andrew L Goertzen, Andrew Borys, Douglas E Hobson, Seok Min Kim, Chong Sik Lee
We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis...
August 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931543/the-effects-of-intravenous-low-dose-dopamine-infusion-on-glucose-regulation-during-prolonged-aerobic-exercise
#3
Blair D Johnson, Ana B Peinado, Sushant M Ranadive, Timothy B Curry, Michael J Joyner
The carotid body chemoreceptors are activated during hypoglycemia and contribute to glucoregulation during prolonged exercise in dogs. Low dose intravenous infusions of dopamine have been shown to blunt the activation of the carotid body chemoreceptors during hypoxia. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that dopamine would blunt glucoregulatory responses and attenuate plasma glucose during prolonged aerobic exercise in healthy participants. Twelve healthy participants completed two randomized exercise sessions at 65% peak oxygen consumption for up to 120 minutes...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892416/roman-high-and-low-avoidance-rats-differ-in-their-response-to-chronic-olanzapine-treatment-at-the-level-of-body-weight-regulation-glucose-homeostasis-and-cortico-mesolimbic-gene-expression
#4
Simon S Evers, Gretha J Boersma, Kellie Lk Tamashiro, Anton Jw Scheurink, Gertjan van Dijk
Olanzapine, an antipsychotic agent mainly used for treating schizophrenia, is frequently associated with body weight gain and diabetes mellitus. Nonetheless, studies have shown that not every individual is equally susceptible to olanzapine's weight-gaining effect. Therefore, Roman high and low avoidance rat strains were examined on their responsiveness to olanzapine treatment. The Roman high avoidance rat shares many behavioral and physiological characteristics with human schizophrenia, such as increased central dopaminergic sensitivity, whereas the Roman low avoidance rat has been shown to be prone to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892404/mechanisms-underlying-metabolic-disturbances-associated-with-psychosis-and-antipsychotic-drug-treatment
#5
Gavin P Reynolds, Olga O McGowan
The increase in cardiovascular disease and reduced life expectancy in schizophrenia likely relate to an increased prevalence of metabolic disturbances. Such metabolic risk factors in schizophrenia may result from both symptom-related effects and aetiological factors. However, a major contributory factor is that of treatment with antipsychotic drugs. These drugs differ in effects on body weight; the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood and may vary between drugs, but may include actions at receptors associated with the hypothalamic control of food intake...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889722/effects-of-central-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-in-energy-balance
#6
L Recinella, S Leone, C Ferrante, A Chiavaroli, C Di Nisio, S Martinotti, M Vacca, L Brunetti, G Orlando
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a major metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of FGF21 was found to modulate feeding and energy expenditure in rats with diet-induced obesity, suggesting a central effect by the peptide. In this context, in the present work, we studied the effects of a single central FGF21 administration (0.5-5 µg) on feeding and energy expenditure by evaluating locomotor activity, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in BAT and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels in Sprague-Dawley fed rats...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889093/striatal-molecular-alterations-in-hd-gene-carriers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pet-studies
#7
REVIEW
Flavia Niccolini, Gennaro Pagano, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Andrew Wood, Ladislav Mrzljak, Cristina Sampaio, Marios Politis
BACKGROUND: Over the past years, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies have investigated striatal molecular changes in premanifest and manifest Huntington's disease (HD) gene expansion carriers (HDGECs), but they have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: To systematically examine the evidence of striatal molecular alterations in manifest and premanifest HDGECs as measured by PET imaging studies. METHODS: MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases were searched for articles published until 7 June 2017 that included PET studies in manifest and premanifest HDGECs...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885682/selective-targeting-of-m-type-potassium-channel-kv7-4-demonstrates-its-key-role-in-regulating-of-dopaminergic-neuronal-excitability-and-depression-like-behaviour
#8
Li Li, Hui Sun, Jie Ding, Chenxu Niu, Min Su, Ludi Zhang, Yingmin Li, Chuan Wang, Nikita Gamper, Xiaona Du, Hailin Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is implicated in the development of depression, and firing patterns of VTA DA neurons are key determinants in this process. Here, we describe a crucial role of the M-type potassium channel Kv7.4 in modulation of VTA DA neuronal excitability and in the development of depressive behaviour in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used Kv7.4 knock-out mice and a social defeat model of depression in combination with various electrophysiological techniques (patch clamp recording and in vivo single unit recordings), immunohistochemistry, single-cell PCR and behavioural analyses (social interaction time and glucose preference tests) to investigate VTA circuits involved in development of depression-like behaviour...
September 8, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860992/rewarding-effects-of-operant-dry-licking-behavior-on-neuronal-firing-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#9
Enrico Patrono, Jumpei Matsumoto, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Yusaku Takamura, Ikhruud C Chinzorig, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
Certain eating behaviors are characterized by a trend of elevated food consumption. However, neural mechanisms mediating the motivation for food consumption are not fully understood. Food impacts the brain-rewarding-system via both oral-sensory and post-ingestive information. Recent studies have reported an important role of visceral gut information in mediating dopamine (DA) release in the brain rewarding system. This is independent of oral sensation, suggesting a role of the gut-brain-DA-axis in feeding behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857071/oleic-acid-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-inhibits-feeding-food-reward-and-dopamine-tone
#10
Cecile Hryhorczuk, Zhenyu Sheng, Léa Décarie-Spain, Nicolas Giguère, Charles Ducrot, Louis-Éric Trudeau, Vanessa Routh, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
Long-chain fatty acids (FA) act centrally to decrease food intake and hepatic glucose production and alter hypothalamic neuronal activity in a manner that depends on FA type and cellular transport proteins. However, it is not known if FA are sensed by ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons to control food-motivated behavior and DA neurotransmission. We investigated the impact of the monounsaturated FA oleate in the VTA on feeding, locomotion, food reward and DA neuronal activity and DA neuron expression of FA handling proteins and FA uptake...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834321/fabrication-of-mesoporous-cu-films-on-cu-foils-and-their-applications-to-dopamine-sensing
#11
Daisuke Baba, Cuiling Li, Victor Malgras, Bo Jiang, Hatem R Alamri, Zeid A Alothman, Md Shahriar A Hossain, Yusuke Yamauchi, Toru Asahi
We previously succeeded to prepare stable mesoporous Cu films on Au-coated conductive working electrodes by using polystyrene-b-poly(oxyethylene) (PS63 000 -b-PEO26 000 ) micelles as template and sulfuric acid to increase ionic conductivity. In the present study, we report the preparation of mesoporous Cu films on Cu foil. By changing the Cu salts and electrodeposition potentials, we discuss how these parameters influence the final product. Without having to filtrate interefering species, such as uric acid, ascorbic acid and glucose, the dopamine concentration can be precisely determined by applying a suitable potential...
August 21, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822313/a-selective-glucose-sensor-based-on-direct-oxidation-on-a-bimetal-catalyst-with-a-molecular-imprinted-polymer
#12
Seong Je Cho, Hui-Bog Noh, Mi-Sook Won, Chul-Ho Cho, Kwang Bok Kim, Yoon-Bo Shim
A selective nonenzymatic glucose sensor was developed based on the direct oxidation of glucose on hierarchical CuCo bimetal-coated with a glucose-imprinted polymer (GIP). Glucose was introduced into the GIP composed of Nafion and polyurethane along with aminophenyl boronic acid (APBA), which was formed on the bimetal electrode formed on a screen-printed electrode. The extraction of glucose from the GIP allowed for the selective permeation of glucose into the bimetal electrode surface for oxidation. The GIP-coated bimetal sensor probe was characterized using electrochemical and surface analytical methods...
August 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818421/erbb-signaling-antagonist-ameliorates-behavioral-deficit-induced-by-phencyclidine-pcp-in-mice-without-affecting-metabolic-syndrome-markers
#13
Hagar Tadmor, Idit Golani, Ravid Doron, Ilana Kremer, Alon Shamir
Schizophrenia is a severe syndrome that affects about 1% of the world population. Since the mid-1950s, antipsychotics have been used to treat schizophrenia with preference for treating positive symptoms; however, their tolerance level is low, there are numerous side effects, and only some patients respond to the treatment. Antipsychotic medications that are more effective, better tolerated, and with fewer adverse effects are urgently needed. Given the accumulating evidence of the role filled by the ErbB signaling network in the biology of the dopamine, GABA, and glutamate systems, and in the etiology of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that the ErbB network is a candidate for development of a novel agent through which various symptoms of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders might be treated...
August 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806657/two-dimensional-metal-chalcogenides-analogous-nise2-nanosheets-and-its-efficient-electrocatalytic-performance-towards-glucose-sensing
#14
Sakthivel Mani, Sukanya Ramaraj, Shen-Ming Chen, Bose Dinesh, Tse-Wei Chen
Recently, 2D layered transition-metal dichalcogenide materials have received great consideration because of their unique electronic properties, large surface area and high electrocatalytic activity. In this connection, for the first time the similar nanostructured material of NiSe2 nanosheets (NiSe2-NS) has been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method for electrocatalytic applications. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD) results confirmed the formation of NiSe2-NS with required stoichiometry and morphology...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805131/brain-positron-emission-tomography-with-2-18-f-2-deoxi-d-glucose-of-patients-with-dystonia-and-essential-tremor-detects-differences-between-these-disorders
#15
Vadim Belenky, Andrei Stanzhevsky, Olga Klicenko, Alexandr Skoromets
We studied patients with dystonia (D) and essential tremor (ET) using positron emission tomography (PET) equipped with Cortex ID software. This allowed PET brain visualisation to be compared to scans of a control group by means of the z-score. The study revealed hypo-metabolism in both D and ET groups, and additionally revealed a difference between these two groups of patients in certain areas of the brain. These two nosological forms overlap in clinical features and are difficult to differentiate. The PET picture may help to provide a differential diagnosis in addition to the biochemical difference in dopamine exchange previously revealed by us in this group of patients...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774501/synaptic-vesicle-2c-and-its-synaptic-related-function
#16
REVIEW
Yan-Wei Hu, Lei Xiao, Lei Zheng, Qian Wang
Synaptic vesicle 2 C (SV2C) is a novel isoform belonging to the synaptic vesicle 2 (SV2) protein superfamily; a family of proteins known to have roles in vesicle trafficking, exocytosis and neurotransmission. In humans, SV2C is expressed in evolutionarily older brain regions, and is a known receptor for botulinum neurotoxin/A (BoNT/A), controlling glucose-evoked granule recruitment and regulating dopamine release, thus serving as a potential target molecule in the treatment of psychosis. In addition, recent researches have shown that SV2C regulates hypertension and accelerates venous thromboembolism (VTE) and coagulation pathways and may play roles in several non-nervous system diseases...
July 31, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750240/high-performance-electrochemical-glucose-sensor-based-on-three-dimensional-mos2-graphene-aerogel
#17
Jae-Min Jeong, MinHo Yang, Dong Seok Kim, Tae Jae Lee, Bong Gill Choi, Do Hyun Kim
Two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets have been extensively explored as electrode materials for the development of high-performance electrochemical biosensors due to their unique structural characteristics. Nevertheless, 2D nanosheets suffer from sheet aggregation issues limiting the electrical conductivity of layered metal sulfides or hydroxides. Here, we report high-performance glucose biosensors based on a three-dimensional (3D) aerogel composed of interconnected 2D MoS2 and graphene sheet. 3D MoS2/graphene aerogel (MGA) provides a large surface area for the effective immobilization of enzymes, and continuous framework of electrically conductive graphene sheets...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743458/s-phenylpiracetam-a-selective-dat-inhibitor-reduces-body-weight-gain-without-influencing-locomotor-activity
#18
Liga Zvejniece, Baiba Svalbe, Edijs Vavers, Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Elina Makarova, Vilnis Liepins, Ivars Kalvinsh, Edgars Liepinsh, Maija Dambrova
S-phenylpiracetam is an optical isomer of phenotropil, which is a clinically used nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. Recently, it was shown that S-phenylpiracetam is a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor that does not influence norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of S-phenylpiracetam treatment on body weight gain, blood glucose and leptin levels, and locomotor activity. Western diet (WD)-fed mice and obese Zucker rats were treated daily with peroral administration of S-phenylpiracetam for 8 and 12weeks, respectively...
July 22, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732957/sonochemical-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-anchored-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanosheets-for-selective-and-sensitive-detection-of-glutathione
#19
Victor Vinoth, Jerry J Wu, Abdullah M Asiri, Sambandam Anandan
Developed here an eco-friendly, one-pot approach toward rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles anchored reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs(TMSPED)-rGO) nanosheets via sonochemical irradiation method, using an aqueous solution mixture of GO and AgNO3 in the presence of N-[3(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] ethylenediamine (TMSPED) without any reducing agent. As synthesized decorated nanosheets was thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693727/one-step-synthesis-of-functional-pnr-rgo-composite-as-a-building-block-for-enhanced-ascorbic-acid-biosensing
#20
Ling Liu, Junfeng Zhai, Chengzhou Zhu, Lei Han, Wen Ren, Shaojun Dong
An electrochemical sensor for ascorbic acid (AA) was prepared via an one-step electrochemical approach by reducing graphene oxide (rGO) and co-polymerizing neutral red (NR) and rGO to form a pNR/rGO hybrid film on the glassy carbon electrode (pNR/rGO-GCE). Structures and properties of the obtained pNR/rGO film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-vis techniques. A significant decrease of charge-transfer resistance (Rct) from over 20,000 Ω for pNR-GCE to 130 Ω for pNR/rGO-GCE was validated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement...
August 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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