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Human embryo implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909687/morphogenesis-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neurons-under-in-vitro-culture-conditions
#1
Geeta Shroff
AIM: To describe the morphogenesis of different neuronal cells from the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line, SCT-N, under in vitro culture conditions. METHODS: The directed neuronal cell line was produced from a single, spare, pre-implantation stage fertilized ovum that was obtained during a natural in vitro fertilization process. The hESCs were cultured and maintained as per our proprietary in-house technology in a Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Laboratory Practice and Good Tissue Practice compliant laboratory...
November 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908602/kisspeptin-and-embryo-implantation-after-icsi
#2
Zehra Jamil, Syeda Sadia Fatima, Sara Arif, Faiza Alam, Rehana Rehman
A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Australian Concept Infertility Medical Centre from June 2014 to June 2015 to relate serum kisspeptin levels on human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) day with pregnancy outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A total of 176 women aged 20 to 42 years, with regular menstrual cycles, normal thyroid function and prolactin levels selected for ICSI were included in the study. Patients with uterine fibroids, metabolic disorders, short agonist and antagonist protocol were excluded...
November 18, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903796/decreased-endometrial-expression-of-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-receptor-disrupts-the-stat3-signaling-in-adenomyosis-during-the-implantation-window
#3
Chih-Feng Yen, Shuen-Kuei Liao, S Joseph Huang, Selcuk Tabak, Felice Arcuri, Chyi-Long Lee, Aydin Arici, Felice Petraglia, Hsin-Shih Wang, Umit A Kayisli
BACKGROUND: Adenomyosis was found to have negative impacts on embryo implantation. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), proposed to be a molecular marker for endometrial receptivity, works through the LIF receptor (LIFR) on both the embryo and the endometrium. We aimed to evaluate the endometrial expression of LIF and LIFR and its subsequent signaling in patients with adenomyosis during the window of implantation (WOI). METHODS: Endometrium was obtained during the WOI from patients with adenomyosis (age <45 years) who underwent hysterectomy and from age-matched controls who had no endometriosis or adenomyosis...
November 30, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875265/oviduct-roles-in-fertilization-and-early-embryo-development
#4
REVIEW
Shuai Li, Wipawee Winuthayanon
Animal oviducts and human Fallopian tubes are a part of the female reproductive tract that hosts fertilization and pre-implantation development of the embryo. With an increasing understanding of roles of the oviduct at the cellular and molecular levels, current research signifies the importance of the oviduct on naturally conceived fertilization and pre-implantation embryo development. This review highlights the physiological conditions within the oviduct during fertilization, environmental regulation, oviductal fluid composition and its role in protecting embryos and supplying nutrients...
January 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858152/effect-of-elevated-estradiol-levels-on-the-hcg-administration-day-on-ivf-pregnancy-and-birth-outcomes-in-the-long-gnrh-agonist-protocol-analysis-of-3393-cycles
#5
Meimei Wang, Cuifang Hao, Hongchu Bao, Xin Huang, Zhenteng Liu, Wei Zhang, Fenghua Li
INTRODUCTION: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the association between elevated serum estradiol (E 2) levels on the human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration day and in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy and birth outcomes in the long GnRH-agonist protocol. METHODS: This study analyzed the data of 3393 infertile women who underwent initial fresh IVF. The patients were categorized into high and low E 2 groups based on their serum E 2 levels on the hCG day...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856159/pre-implantation-genetic-diagnosis
#6
REVIEW
Joanne Traeger-Synodinos
The aim of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is to characterize the genetic status of the cells (usually single cells) that have been biopsied from oocytes/zygotes or embryos created in vitro during assisted reproductive treatment. PGD is a multi-step procedure that requires close collaboration between gynaecologists who are experts in assisted reproduction, embryologists who are experts in micromanipulation of germ cells and in embryo biopsy and geneticists who are experts in genetic analysis at the single-cell level...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843122/allele-specific-methylome-and-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-widespread-imprinting-in-the-human-placenta
#7
Hirotaka Hamada, Hiroaki Okae, Hidehiro Toh, Hatsune Chiba, Hitoshi Hiura, Kenjiro Shirane, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Nobuo Yaegashi, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Takahiro Arima
DNA methylation is globally reprogrammed after fertilization, and as a result, the parental genomes have similar DNA-methylation profiles after implantation except at the germline differentially methylated regions (gDMRs). We and others have previously shown that human blastocysts might contain thousands of transient maternally methylated gDMRs (transient mDMRs), whose maternal methylation is lost in embryonic tissues after implantation. In this study, we performed genome-wide allelic DNA methylation analyses of purified trophoblast cells from human placentas and, surprisingly, found that more than one-quarter of the transient-in-embryo mDMRs maintained their maternally biased DNA methylation...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836961/insights-from-imaging-the-implanting-embryo-and-the-uterine-environment-in-three-dimensions
#8
Ripla Arora, Adam Fries, Karina Oelerich, Kyle Marchuk, Khalida Sabeur, Linda C Giudice, Diana J Laird
Although much is known about the embryo during implantation, the architecture of the uterine environment in which the early embryo develops is not well understood. We employed confocal imaging in combination with 3D analysis to identify and quantify dynamic changes to the luminal structure of murine uterus in preparation for implantation. When applied to mouse mutants with known implantation defects, this method detected striking peri-implantation abnormalities in uterine morphology that cannot be visualized by histology...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829441/characterization-of-exosomal-release-in-bovine-endometrial-intercaruncular-stromal-cells
#9
Yong Qin Koh, Hassendrini N Peiris, Kanchan Vaswani, Sarah Reed, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon, Murray D Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Cell-to-cell communication between the blastocyst and endometrium is critical for implantation. In recent years, evidence has emerged from studies in humans and several other animal species that exosomes are secreted from the endometrium and trophoblast cells and may play an important role in cell-to-cell communication maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy. Exosomes are stable extracellular lipid bilayer vesicles that encapsulate proteins, miRNAs, and mRNAs, with the ability to deliver their cargo to near and distant sites, altering cellular function(s)...
November 9, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827961/positive-regulation-of-decidualization-by-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-lat1-in-pregnant-mice
#10
Xiaojie Wang, Dongmei Tan, Jing Ma, Hao Liang, Qian Zhang, Yi Tan, Jiang Wang, Wenping Luo
Amino acids have an important role in the pre and post implantation of placenta and embryo development. l-type amino-acid transporter 1 (lat1) is responsible for the transportation of large neutral amino acids and is mainly expressed in human fetal liver, placenta, brain, etc. This study is the first to investigate the expression of lat1 in the early pregnancy of mouse uteri and its role in the process of decidualization. Endometrial stromal cells of a mouse model were used to evaluate decidualization from Day 4-8 of pregnancy in vitro followed by lat1 knock down by small interfering RNA and by a competitive inhibitor of Leucine transport 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH)...
November 5, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822357/donation-of-surplus-frozen-pre-embryos-to-research-in-israel-underlying-motivations
#11
Aviad Raz, Jonia Amer-Alshiek, Mor Goren-Margalit, Gal Jacobi, Alyssa Hochberg, Ami Amit, Foad Azem, Hadar Amir
BACKGROUND: The high number of IVF procedures performed in Israel has had an unforeseen consequence: accumulation of large amounts of surplus frozen embryos. After five years that the frozen embryos are kept for free, patients need to make an embryo disposition decision. One option is donation for research. The donation rate in Israel is very low. Our aim was to understand the attitudes, values and perceptions of female IVF patients that decided to donate their surplus frozen embryos to research...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821757/nicotinamide-benefits-both-mothers-and-pups-in-two-contrasting-mouse-models-of-preeclampsia
#12
Feng Li, Tomofumi Fushima, Gen Oyanagi, H W Davin Townley-Tilson, Emiko Sato, Hironobu Nakada, Yuji Oe, John R Hagaman, Jennifer Wilder, Manyu Li, Akiyo Sekimoto, Daisuke Saigusa, Hiroshi Sato, Sadayoshi Ito, J Charles Jennette, Nobuyo Maeda, S Ananth Karumanchi, Oliver Smithies, Nobuyuki Takahashi
Preeclampsia (PE) complicates ∼5% of human pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths. The only definitive treatment, induced delivery, invariably results in prematurity, and in severe early-onset cases may lead to fetal death. Many currently available antihypertensive drugs are teratogenic and therefore precluded from use. Nonteratogenic antihypertensives help control maternal blood pressure in PE, but results in preventing preterm delivery and correcting fetal growth restriction (FGR) that also occurs in PE have been disappointing...
November 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821557/telomeres-reproductive-aging-and-genomic-instability-during-early-development
#13
David L Keefe
Implantation rate decreases and miscarriage rate increases with advancing maternal age. The oocyte must be the locus of reproductive aging because donation of oocytes from younger to older women abrogates the effects of aging on fecundity. Nuclear transfer experiments in a mouse model of reproductive aging show that the reproductive aging phenotype segregates with the nucleus rather than the cytoplasm. A number of factors within the nucleus have been hypothesized to mediate reproductive aging, including disruption of cohesions, reduced chiasma, aneuploidy, disrupted meiotic spindles, and DNA damage caused by chronic exposure to reactive oxygen species...
December 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815559/granulosa-cell-biomarkers-to-predict-pregnancy-in-art-pieces-to-solve-the-puzzle
#14
Richard John Kordus, Holly A LaVoie
Cumulus and mural granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle surround and interact with the developing oocyte. These follicular cells reflect the oocyte's overall health and may indicate subsequent developmental competence of embryos. Biomarkers of granulosa cells associated with individual oocytes could potentially be used in assisted reproduction to indicate which embryos have the best chance of implanting in the uterus and completing gestation. In this review, we have performed a comprehensive assessment of the recent literature for human cumulus and mural granulosa cell mRNA biomarkers as they relate to pregnancy and live birth...
November 4, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810339/novel-immunotherapeutic-approaches-for-treatment-of-infertility
#15
REVIEW
Samaneh Abdolmohammadi-Vahid, Shahla Danaii, Kobra Hamdi, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Majid Ahmadi, Mehdi Yousefi
One of the most important reasons of infertility and human reproductive failure is related to uncontrolled immunological response of maternal immune system to early embryo or fetus, that cause rejection of this semi-allograft. Therefore, a tolerance in the immune system is essential to modulate the reactions against the fetus to avoid rejection. The immune system imbalance during implantation or pregnancy may lead to implantation failure or miscarriage. So, use of immunosuppressive or immunomodulator agents can be helpful to prevent immunological attack...
October 31, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807664/intercellular-crosstalk-in-human-malignant-melanoma
#16
REVIEW
Barbora Dvořánková, Pavol Szabo, Ondřej Kodet, Hynek Strnad, Michal Kolář, Lukáš Lacina, Eliška Krejčí, Ondřej Naňka, Aleksi Šedo, Karel Smetana
Incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing globally. While the initial stages of tumors can be easily treated by a simple surgery, the therapy of advanced stages is rather limited. Melanoma cells spread rapidly through the body of a patient to form multiple metastases. Consequently, the survival rate is poor. Therefore, emphasis in melanoma research is given on early diagnosis and development of novel and more potent therapeutic options. The malignant melanoma is arising from melanocytes, cells protecting mitotically active keratinocytes against damage caused by UV light irradiation...
November 3, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798285/endocannabinoid-system-and-pregnancy
#17
REVIEW
Fernando Correa, Manuel L Wolfson, Paula Valchi, Julieta Aisemberg, Ana María Franchi
The endocannabinoid system (eCS), is a complex system, comprising the main endogenous ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and the biosynthetic and degrading enzymes. Cumulative evidence shows that the eCS plays an important role in reproduction, from egg fertilization to parturition. Therefore, alterations in this system, either by recreation/therapeutic use of cannabis or deregulation of the endogenous cannabinoids, might lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including retardation in embryo development, poor blastocyst implantation, inhibition of decidualization, miscarriage and compromised placentation...
December 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796003/long-cut-straw-provides-stable-the-rates-of-survival-pregnancy-and-live-birth-for-vitrification-of-human-blasotcysts
#18
Jung-Woo Lee, Jeong-Ho Cha, Sun-Hee Shin, Yun-Jeong Kim, Seul-Ki Lee, Hye-Jin Cha, Ji-Hae Kim, Ji-Hyun Ahn, Hye-Young Kim, Kyung-Ah Pak, Ji-Sung Yoon, Seo-Young Park, Choon-Keun Park
Most of the commercial devices for vitrification are directly immersed into the warming solution (WS) for increasing of warming rate. However, the previous modified cut standard straw (MCS) which has reported is difficult to immerse into the WS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long cut straw (LCS) could be useful as a stable tool for vitrified-warmed human blastocysts. A total of 138 vitrified-warmed cycles were performed between November 2013 and November 2014 (exclusion criteria: women ≥38 years old, poor responder, surgical retrieval sperm, and severe male factor)...
September 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793366/accurate-quantitation-of-mitochondrial-dna-reveals-uniform-levels-in-human-blastocysts-irrespective-of-ploidy-age-or-implantation-potential
#19
Andrea R Victor, Alan J Brake, Jack C Tyndall, Darren K Griffin, Christo G Zouves, Frank L Barnes, Manuel Viotti
OBJECTIVE: To accurately determine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels in human blastocysts. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: IVF clinic. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,396 embryos derived from 259 patients. INTERVENTION(S): Blastocyst-derived trophectoderm biopsies were tested by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): For each sample the mtDNA value was divided by the nuclear DNA value, and the result was further subjected to mathematical analysis tailored to the genetic makeup of the source embryo...
October 25, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792143/self-organization-of-stem-cell-colonies-and-of-early-mammalian-embryos-recent-experiments-shed-new-light-on-the-role-of-autonomy-vs-external-instructions-in-basic-body-plan-development
#20
REVIEW
Hans-Werner Denker
"Organoids", i.e., complex structures that can develop when pluripotent or multipotent stem cells are maintained in three-dimensional cultures, have become a new area of interest in stem cell research. Hopes have grown that when focussing experimentally on the mechanisms behind this type of in vitro morphogenesis, research aiming at tissue and organ replacements can be boosted. Processes leading to the formation of organoids in vitro are now often addressed as self-organization, a term referring to the formation of complex tissue architecture in groups of cells without depending on specific instruction provided by other cells or tissues...
October 25, 2016: Cells
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