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Human embryo implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671256/effects-of-growth-hormone-on-pregnancy-rates-of-patients-with-thin-endometrium
#1
N Cui, A-M Li, Z-Y Luo, Z-M Zhao, Y-M Xu, J Zhang, A-M Yang, L-L Wang, G-M Hao, B-L Gao
PURPOSE: To investigate whether growth hormone (GH) could improve pregnancy rates of patients with thin endometrium by clinical study and laboratory experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three patients were randomized to either the GH-received group (40) or the routine exogenous administration of estrogens control group (53) for clinical study. The human endometrial carcinoma cell line RL95-2 was used for testing the role of GH with Western blot and real-time PCR by exposure to various concentrations of GH (0...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664793/extracellular-vesicles-a-promising-tool-for-assessment-of-embryonic-competence
#2
Diego Marin, Richard T Scott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular vesicles have recently emerged as a promising field of research due to their pivotal roles in intercellular communication and potential to serve as biomarkers. This review focuses on extracellular vesicles secreted by the human preimplantation embryo. The most recent findings on embryo-derived extracellular vesicles are described and discussed, as well as current technical challenges to study them. RECENT FINDINGS: So far, only a few studies have addressed extracellular vesicles of embryonic origin and explored their potential as biomarkers for embryo selection...
April 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664791/embryo-morphokinetic-characteristics-and-euploidy
#3
Francesca Pennetta, Cristina Lagalla, Andrea Borini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the current review is to provide an update on time-lapse morphokinetic assessment related to embryo ploidy status. RECENT FINDINGS: The main limitation of the available studies regarding correlation between morphokinetic variables and ploidy is that each embryo is considered as an independent unit whereas recent findings show that embryo kinetics may be affected by patient and ovarian stimulation-related factors, so that clustered data analysis is more appropriate...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656071/-natural-cycle-for-frozen-thawed-embryo-transfer-spontaneous-ovulation-or-triggering-by-hcg
#4
S Huberlant, M Vaast, T Anahory, M L Tailland, N Rougier, N Ranisavljevic, S Hamamah
OBJECTIVE: To compare frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) outcomes in natural cycles according to ovulation induction: spontaneous versus recombinant human chorionic gonadotrophin (r-hCG) triggering. METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients monitored for natural cycle FET during one year. When serial monitoring were performed until spontaneous LH rise, patients were included in group A (n=38) whereas those receiving r-hCG for ovulation triggering formed group B (n=43)...
April 11, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651940/proteomics-in-human-assisted-reproduction
#5
Mauro Bibancos De Rose, Mariana Moraes Piccolomini
Assisted reproduction techniques (ART) have significantly advanced since the first successful in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, most in vitro-produced embryos fail to implant. Key steps in ART are the correct infertility diagnosis, in order to manage the individual treatments, and the assessment of gamete and embryo viability, to identify the embryo with the best implantation potential. Non-invasive approaches to correctly diagnose infertility and to access embryo development potential have the advantages of increasing the knowledge of embryo physiology, therefore allowing the development of methods to predict developmental competence and viability...
April 12, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625822/comparing-36-5%C3%A2-c-with-37%C3%A2-c-for-human-embryo-culture-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Mohamed Fawzy, Mai Emad, Mostafa A Gad, Mohamed Sabry, Hesham Kasem, Manar Mahmoud, Mohamed A Bedaiwy
This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a culture temperature of 36.5°C versus 37°C on human embryo development in vitro. A total of 412 women undergoing IVF were randomized to two groups: the oocytes and embryos of the intervention group were cultured at 36.5°C; those of the control group were cultured at 37°C. Although no significant effect of culture temperature was observed on pregnancy or implantation rates, differences were found in embryo development...
March 27, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625802/cryosurvival-of-rabbit-embryos-obtained-after-superovulation-with-corifollitropin-alfa-with-or-without-lh
#7
José Salvador Vicente, María Pilar Viudes-de-Castro, José Isaí Cedano-Castro, Francisco Marco-Jiménez
The efficiency of an embryo bank depends on provision of optimal conditions for recovery, cryopreservation and transfer to a breed or strain. In this sense, increasing the number of embryos available using superovulation should improve the cryobank efficiency. However, vagueness of response to conventional protocols to control or increase ovarian response and the quality of oocytes and embryos and their cryotolerance remain a challenge. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of corifollitropin alpha (CTP) and a recombinant human FSH (rhFSH), alone or supplemented with rhLH, on embryo cryosurvival by in vitro development and OCT4 and NANOG mRNA abundance at blastocyst stage and offspring rate...
March 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617817/decreased-pecam1-mediated-tgf-%C3%AE-1-expression-in-the-mid-secretory-endometrium-in-women-with-recurrent-implantation-failure
#8
Feng Guo, Chenchen Si, Mingjuan Zhou, Jingwen Wang, Dan Zhang, Peter C K Leung, Bufang Xu, Aijun Zhang
STUDY QUESTION: Is recurrent implantation failure (RIF) associated with decreased expression of platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the endometrium during the implantation window? SUMMARY ANSWER: The present study demonstrates that the expression of PECAM1 and TGF-β1 is significantly decreased in the mid-secretory endometrium in women with RIF, which may account for embryo implantation failure...
March 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614240/expression-of-enpp3-in-human-cyclic-endometrium-a-novel-molecule-involved-in-embryo-implantation
#9
Qianqian Chen, Aijie Xin, Ronggui Qu, Wenbi Zhang, Lu Li, Junling Chen, Xiang Lu, Yongwei Gu, Jing Li, Xiaoxi Sun
Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 3 (ENPP3), a protein detected in the human uterus, has been found to play an important role in the development and invasion of tumours. It was recently discovered that ENPP3 was upregulated during the window of implantation in the human endometrium but its functional relevance remains elusive. The objective was to determine ENPP3 expression in human endometrium and its roles in endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. ENPP3 expression was analysed using immunohistochemistry and western blot assay...
April 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596569/interferon-gamma-inhibits-seminal-plasma-induction-of-colony-stimulating-factor-2-in-mouse-and-human-reproductive-tract-epithelial-cells
#10
David J Sharkey, Danielle J Glynn, John E Schjenken, Kelton P Tremellen, Sarah A Robertson
Seminal fluid interacts with the female reproductive tract to initiate a permissive immune response that facilitates embryo implantation and pregnancy success. The immune-regulatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFNG), which can be elevated in seminal plasma and is associated with reduced fertility. Here we investigated how IFNG influences the female immune response to seminal fluid. In human Ect1 cervical epithelial cells, IFNG added at physiologically relevant concentrations substantially impaired seminal plasma-induced synthesis of key cytokines colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) and interleukin-6 (IL6)...
March 27, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579154/specification-of-trophoblast-from-embryonic-stem-cells-exposed-to-bmp4
#11
R Michael Roberts, Toshihiko Ezashi, Megan Sheridan, Ying Yang
Trophoblast (TB) comprises the outer cell layers of the mammalian placenta that make direct contact with the maternal uterus and, in species with a highly invasive placenta, maternal blood. It has its origin as trophectoderm, a single epithelial layer of extra-embryonic ectoderm that surrounds the embryo proper at the blastocyst stage of development. Here, we briefly compare the features of TB specification and determination in the mouse and the human. We then review research on a model system that has been increasingly employed to study TB emergence, namely the BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein-4)-directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCd) and discuss why outcomes using it have proved so uneven...
March 22, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564316/human-chorionic-gonadotropin-administered-natural-cycle-versus-spontaneous-ovulatory-cycle-in-patients-undergoing-two-pronuclear-zygote-frozen-thawed-embryo-transfer
#12
You-Jung Lee, Chung-Hoon Kim, Do-Young Kim, Jun-Woo Ahn, Sung-Hoon Kim, Hee-Dong Chae, Byung-Moon Kang
Objective: To compare human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-administered natural cycle with spontaneous ovulatory cycle in patients undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FTET) in natural cycles. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the clinical outcome of a total of 166 consecutive FTET cycles that were performed in either natural cycle controlled by HCG for ovulation triggering (HCG group, n=110) or natural cycle with spontaneous ovulation (control group, n=56) in 166 infertile patients between January 2009 and November 2013...
March 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551013/the-interval-transfer-of-a-frozen-thawed-embryo-is-more-successful-than-a-fresh-embryo-transfer-for-women-undergoing-ivf-with-recurrent-implantation-failure-after-cleavage-stage-embryo-biopsy
#13
Jennifer C Pontré, John P Ryan, Andy Tan, Roger J Hart
BACKGROUND: Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is repeated unsuccessful embryo transfers (ETs). AIMS: To identify predictive embryonic markers of implantation in RIF, following pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) of cleavage stage embryos, after accounting for male and female factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of RIF patients undergoing PGS after correction of modifiable causes. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients underwent 140 in vitro ferilisation cycles...
March 18, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546412/the-moral-status-of-the-human-embryo
#14
Mark T Brown
Moral status ascribes equal obligations and rights to individuals on the basis of membership in a protected group. Substance change is an event that results in the origin or cessation of individuals who may be members of groups with equal moral status. In this paper, two substance changes that affect the moral status of human embryos are identified. The first substance change begins with fertilization and ends with the formation of the blastocyst, a biological individual with moral status comparable to that ascribed to human organs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546322/idiopathic-infertility-in-women-is-associated-with-distinct-changes-in-proliferative-phase-uterine-fluid-proteins
#15
Harriet C Fitzgerald, Jemma Evans, Nicholas Johnson, Giuseppe Infusini, Andrew Webb, Luk J R Rombauts, Beverley J Vollenhoven, Lois A Salamonsen, Tracey A Edgell
The regenerative, proliferative phase of a woman's menstrual cycle is a critical period which lays the foundation for the subsequent, receptive secretory phase. Although endometrial glands and their secretions are essential for embryo implantation and survival, the proliferative phase, when these glands form, has been rarely examined. We hypothesized that alterations in the secreted proteome of the endometrium of idiopathic infertile women would reflect a disturbance in proliferative phase endometrial regeneration...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538677/critical-role-of-mtor-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-in-regulating-early-pregnancy-decidual-function-embryo-viability-and-feto-placental-growth
#16
Sabrina L Roberti, Romina Higa, Verónica White, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson, Alicia Jawerbaum
STUDY QUESTION: What are the consequences of inhibiting mTOR, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and PPARδ pathways in the early post-implantation period on decidual function, embryo viability and feto-placental growth in the rat? SUMMARY ANSWER: mTOR inhibition from day 7 to day 9 of pregnancy in rats caused decidual PPARγ and PPARδ upregulation on day 9 of pregnancy and resulted in embryo resorption by day 14 of pregnancy...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529985/why-human-germline-editing-is-more-problematic-than-selecting-between-embryos-ethically-considering-intergenerational-relationships
#17
Christoph Rehmann-Sutter
Do we have a moral obligation to genetically cure embryos rather than selecting between them? Such an obligation would be an ethical argument for human germline gene editing (hGGE) to avoid the inheritance of genetic conditions instead of using pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). In this article, the intuition that we do have such a moral obligation is critically evaluated. The article first develops a theoretical framework for discussing the ethical questions of hGGE. This framework is based on an exploration of the phenomenology of the germline, from both biological and philosophical points of view...
April 2018: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528446/characterization-of-migratory-primordial-germ-cells-in-the-aorta-gonad-mesonephros-of-a-4-5-week-old-human-embryo-a-toolbox-to-evaluate-in-vitro-early-gametogenesis
#18
Maria Gomes Fernandes, Monika Bialecka, Daniela C F Salvatori, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
STUDY QUESTION: Which set of antibodies can be used to identify migratory and early post-migratory human primordial germ cells (hPGCs)? STUDY FINDING: We validated the specificity of 33 antibodies for 31 markers, including POU5F1, NANOG, PRDM1 and TFAP2C as specific markers of hPGCs at 4.5 weeks of development of Carnegie stage (CS12-13), whereas KIT and SOX17 also marked the intra-aortic hematopoietic stem cell cluster in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The dynamics of gene expression during germ cell development in mice is well characterized and this knowledge has proved crucial to allow the development of protocols for the in-vitro derivation of functional gametes...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525505/pregnancy-and-perinatal-outcomes-after-transfer-of-binucleated-or-multinucleated-frozen-thawed-embryos-a-case-control-study
#19
Jaana Seikkula, Sanna Oksjoki, Saija Hurme, Harri Mankonen, Päivi Polo-Kantola, Varpu Jokimaa
Blastomere multinucleation in human embryos is a common phenomenon, but data on its effect on pregnancy outcome and the health of newborns are scarce. In this case-control study, we assessed pregnancy and perinatal outcomes from 136 binucleated and multinucleated frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles against a control group of 136 non-binucleated and multinucleated frozen embryo transfer cycles. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were lower among the case group (29.4% versus 44.1%, P = 0.012; 22.1% versus 36...
February 26, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516855/dual-trigger-with-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-and-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-for-poor-responders
#20
Ahmet Eser, Belgin Devranoğlu, Evrim Bostancı Ergen, Ciğdem Yayla Abide
OBJECTIVE: To compare metaphase II (MII) rate, fertilization rate and embryo quality with dual trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH) and normal dose human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) versus normal dose hCG trigger in antagonist intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles of poor ovarian responders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients defined poor ovarian responder according to Bologna criteria who underwent ICSI with GnRH antagonist protocol and triggered with dual trigger or hCG alone for oocyte maturation...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
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