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Human embryo implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045437/microencapsulated-fluorescent-ph-probe-as-implantable-sensor-for-monitoring-the-physiological-state-of-fish-embryos
#1
Anton Gurkov, Anton Sadovoy, Ekaterina Shchapova, Cathleen Teh, Igor Meglinski, Maxim Timofeyev
In vivo physiological measurement is a major challenge in modern science and technology, as is environment conservation at the global scale. Proper toxicological testing of widely produced mixtures of chemicals is a necessary step in the development of new products, allowing us to minimize the human impact on aquatic ecosystems. However, currently available bioassay-based techniques utilizing small aquatic organisms such as fish embryos for toxicity testing do not allow assessing in time the changes in physiological parameters in the same individual...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039764/human-chorionic-gonadotropin-as-a-pivotal-endocrine-immune-regulator-initiating-and-preserving-fetal-tolerance
#2
REVIEW
Anne Schumacher
The pregnancy hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), is crucially involved in processes such as implantation and placentation, two milestones of pregnancy whose successful progress is a prerequisite for adequate fetal growth. Moreover, hCG determines fetal fate by regulating maternal innate and adaptive immune responses allowing the acceptance of the foreign fetal antigens. As one of the first signals provided by the embryo to its mother, hCG has the potential to regulate very early pregnancy-driven immune responses, allowing the establishment and preservation of fetal tolerance...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031908/intrauterine-air-impairs-embryonic-postimplantation-development-in-mice
#3
Ruonan Liu, Yimeng Li, Yanping Miao, Yanhui Wei, Mo Guan, Rongyan Zhou, Xiangyun Li
OBJECTIVE: Although most embryologists load air bubbles into the catheter along with embryos during embryo transfer, the effects of these air bubbles on embryo transfer success rate are not clear. STUDY DESIGN: Air bubbles were nonsurgically injected into unilateral uterine horns of mice to demonstrate the negative effects of intrauterine air bubbles on embryonic development. RESULTS: Our data showed that when air bubbles are nonsurgically injected into unilateral uterine horns of pregnant 4days mice the litter size is significantly decreased...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030490/early-sex-dependent-differences-in-response-to-environmental-stress
#4
Serafin Pérez-Cerezales, Priscila Ramos-Ibeas, Dimitrios Rizos, Pat Lonergan, Pablo Bermejo-Alvarez, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan
Developmental plasticity enables the appearance of long-term effects in offspring caused by exposure to environmental stressors during embryonic and foetal life. These long-term effects can be traced to pre- and post-implantation development, and in both cases the effects are usually sex-specific. During preimplantation development, male and female embryos exhibit an extensive transcriptional dimorphism mainly driven by incomplete X-chromosome inactivation. These early developmental stages are crucial for the establishment of epigenetic marks that will be conserved throughout development, making it a particularly susceptible period for the appearance of long-term epigenetic-based phenotypes...
October 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029020/the-endometrial-polarity-paradox-differential-regulation-of-polarity-within-secretory-phase-human-endometrium
#5
Sarah Whitby, Lois A Salamonsen, Jemma Evans
A major cause of infertility in normal and assisted reproduction cycles is failure of the endometrium to undergo appropriate changes during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle as it acquires receptivity for an implanting blastocyst. Current dogma states that loss of epithelial polarity in the luminal epithelial cells, the point of first contact between maternal endometrium and blastocyst, may facilitate embryo implantation. Loss of polarity is likely an important change during the secretory phase to overcome mutual repulsion between otherwise polarised epithelial surfaces...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026720/efficacy-of-embryo-transfer-on-day-2-versus-day-3-according-to-maternal-age-in-patients-with-normal-ovarian-response
#6
Jung-Woo Lee, Jeong-Ho Cha, Sun-Hee Shin, Yun-Jeong Kim, Seul-Ki Lee, Choon-Keun Park, Kyung-Ah Pak, Ji-Sung Yoon, Seo-Young Park
OBJECTIVE: Delaying embryo transfer (ET) enables us to select among the embryos available for transfer and is associated with positive effects on implantation and pregnancy outcomes. However, the optimal day for ET of human cleavage-stage embryos remains controversial. METHODS: A retrospective study of 3,124 in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (2,440 patients) was conducted. We compared the effects of day 2 and 3 ET on rates of implantation and pregnancy outcomes between young maternal age (YMA; <38 years old, n=2,295) and old maternal age (OMA; ≥38 years old, n=829) patient groups...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993105/dual-trigger-of-final-oocyte-maturation-in-poor-ovarian-responders-undergoing-ivf-icsi-cycles
#7
Jie Zhang, Yun Wang, Xiaoyan Mao, Qiuju Chen, Qingqing Hong, Renfei Cai, Shaozhen Zhang, Yanping Kuang
Previous studies show that a dual trigger ovulation regimen significantly improves number and maturity of retrieved oocytes for normal ovarian responders or patients with history of low oocyte yield. The current retrospective cohort study investigated whether dual trigger of final oocyte maturation may benefit IVF outcomes for poor ovarian responders fulfilling the Bologna criteria. Undertaken between May 2014 and August 2016, the study involved 1350 patients undergoing 1389 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment cycles...
September 21, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974690/loss-of-endometrial-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-sglt1-is-detrimental-to-embryo-survival-and-fetal-growth-in-pregnancy
#8
Madhuri S Salker, Yogesh Singh, Ni Zeng, Hong Chen, Shaqiu Zhang, Anja T Umbach, Hajar Fakhri, Ursula Kohlhofer, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Ruban R Peter Durairaj, Flavio S V Barros, Pavle Vrljicak, Sascha Ott, Sara Y Brucker, Diethelm Wallwiener, Ivana Vrhovac Madunić, Davorka Breljak, Ivan Sabolić, Hermann Koepsell, Jan J Brosens, Florian Lang
Embryo implantation requires a hospitable uterine environment. A key metabolic change that occurs during the peri-implantation period, and throughout early pregnancy, is the rise in endometrial glycogen content. Glycogen accumulation requires prior cellular uptake of glucose. Here we show that both human and murine endometrial epithelial cells express the high affinity Na(+)-coupled glucose carrier SGLT1. Ussing chamber experiments revealed electrogenic glucose transport across the endometrium in wild type (Slc5a1 (+/+)) but not in SGLT1 deficient (Slc5a1 (-/-)) mice...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974230/effect-of-day-3-embryo-morphometrics-and-morphokinetics-on-survival-and-implantation-after-slow-freezing-thawing-and-after-vitrification-warming-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Elia Fernandez Gallardo, Carl Spiessens, Thomas D'Hooghe, Sophie Debrock
BACKGROUND: Morphometric and morphokinetic evaluation of in vitro cultured human embryos allows evaluation without time restriction and reduces intra- and inter-observer variability. Even though these technologies have been reported to improve the quality of cleavage stage embryo evaluation during fresh culture, possible advantages in the evaluation of cryopreserved embryos have been scarcely explored. This study aims to compare morphometric and morphokinetic parameters between slow frozen and vitrified embryos and to determine their relationship to embryo survival and implantation rate (IR) after thawing/warming...
October 3, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969693/effects-of-melatonin-administration-on-embryo-implantation-and-offspring-growth-in-mice-under-different-schedules-of-photoperiodic-exposure
#10
Lu Zhang, Zhenzhen Zhang, Feng Wang, Xiuzhi Tian, Pengyun Ji, Guoshi Liu
BACKGROUND: Embryo implantation is crucial for animal reproduction. Unsuccessful embryo implantation leads to pregnancy failure, especially in human-assisted conception. Environmental factors have a profound impact on embryo implantation. Because people are being exposed to more light at night, the influence of long-term light exposure on embryo implantation should be explored. METHODS: The effects of long photoperiodic exposure and melatonin on embryo implantation and offspring growth were examined...
October 2, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960429/the-effects-of-low-dose-hcg-combined-with-hmg-protocol-on-women-with-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-undergoing-ovarian-stimulation-for-in-vitro-fertilization
#11
Shutian Jiang, Yanping Kuang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) protocol on cycle characteristics and outcomes of infertile women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary-care academic medical centre. PATIENT(S): Forty-six infertile patients with HH and seventy-one infertile patients with tubal factor (TF) infertility undergoing IVF...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960412/description-of-post-implantation-embryonic-stages-in-european-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus-after-embryonic-diapause
#12
M Beyes, N Nause, M Bleyer, F-J Kaup, S Neumann
The embryonic stage of development is defined as the period between fertilization and the establishment of most of the organ systems by the end of this period. Development in this stage is rapid. In many mammalian species, particularly in humans, the interval between fertilization and implantation is exactly determined and continuous without intermission. However, European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) embryos undergo a reversible retardation of development. This interesting reproduction strategy is called embryonic diapause (delayed implantation)...
September 27, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957685/dual-trigger-of-final-oocyte-maturation-with-a-combination-of-gnrh-agonist-and-hcg-versus-a-hcg-alone-trigger-in-gnrh-antagonist-cycle-for-in-vitro-fertilization-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Nan Ding, Xingchen Liu, Qiliang Jian, Zhongzhen Liang, Fang Wang
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence indicates that a dual trigger (a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist [GnRH-a] with a human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG] trigger) is the best choice for final oocyte maturation in the GnRH antagonist (GnRH-ant) cycle. However, this conclusion remains controversial. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the efficacy of a GnRH-a combined with a standard hCG trigger in comparison with hCG alone for final oocyte maturation in the GnRH-ant cycle for in vitro fertilization...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948440/should-intrauterine-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-infusions-ever-be-used-prior-to-embryo-transfer
#14
Michelle Volovsky, Martin Healey, Vivien MacLachlan, Beverley J Vollenhoven
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence the outcome of intrauterine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) infusion at the time of embryo transfer (ET), in particular, the effect of hCG infusions on fresh and frozen embryo transfers (FETs) and whether prior recurrent implantation failure (RIF) impacts upon outcomes. METHOD: This was a case-control study based on a standardized database from a multi-site in vitro fertilization clinic...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947660/regulation-of-x-chromosome-dosage-compensation-in-human-mechanisms-and-model-systems
#15
REVIEW
Anna Sahakyan, Kathrin Plath, Claire Rougeulle
The human blastocyst forms 5 days after one of the smallest human cells (the sperm) fertilizes one of the largest human cells (the egg). Depending on the sex-chromosome contribution from the sperm, the resulting embryo will either be female, with two X chromosomes (XX), or male, with an X and a Y chromosome (XY). In early development, one of the major differences between XX female and XY male embryos is the conserved process of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), which compensates gene expression of the two female X chromosomes to match the dosage of the single X chromosome of males...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938408/pioneer-factors-foxa1-and-foxa2-assist-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-in-human-endometrial-cells
#16
Shannon Whirledge, Edwina P Kisanga, Robert N Taylor, John A Cidlowski
Successful pregnancy relies on dynamic control of cell signaling in order to achieve uterine receptivity and the necessary biological changes required for endometrial decidualization, embryo implantation, and fetal development. Glucocorticoids are master regulators of intracellular signaling and can directly regulate embryo implantation and endometrial remodeling during murine pregnancy. In immortalized human uterine cells, we have shown that glucocorticoids and estradiol co-regulate thousands of genes. Recently, glucocorticoids and estradiol were shown to co-regulate the expression of Left-right determination factor 1 (LEFTY1), previously implicated in the regulation of decidualization...
August 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911212/apposition-to-endometrial-epithelial-cells-activates-mouse-blastocysts-for-implantation
#17
Peter T Ruane, Stéphane C Berneau, Rebekka Koeck, Jessica Watts, Susan J Kimber, Daniel R Brison, Melissa Westwood, John D Aplin
STUDY QUESTION: How do interactions between blastocyst-stage embryos and endometrial epithelial cells regulate the early stages of implantation in an in vitro model? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mouse blastocyst apposition with human endometrial epithelial cells initiates trophectoderm differentiation to trophoblast, which goes on to breach the endometrial epithelium. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro models using mouse blastocysts and human endometrial cell lines have proven invaluable in the molecular characterisation of embryo attachment to endometrial epithelium at the onset of implantation...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904504/role-of-serpine-gene-polymorphism-in-recurrent-implantation-failure-and-preeclampsia
#18
Nidhi Sharma, Jayashree K Srinivasan, Margeret Harriet Priya, Venkatachalam Sibiya
This is a rare case of serpine gene polymorphism causing thrombophilia and recurrent implantation failure following intrauterine insemination. SERPINE1 gene encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and inhibits fibrinolysis, or clot dissolution. The 4G variant results in increased expression of SERPINE1 and consequently higher inhibition of fibrinolysis, thus leading to thrombophilia. The patient had unexplained primary infertility for 9 years. Ovulation induction was done with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist long protocol...
April 2017: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886319/morphokinetic-analysis-of-human-embryo-development-and-its-relationship-to-the-female-age-a-retrospective-time-lapse-imaging-study
#19
N Akhter, M Shahab
Time-lapse imaging technique has provided embryologists with a unique chance of studying the embryo morphokineticsto select the most viable embryos for implantation in the field of IVF (In vitro fertilization).The conventional method of morphological evaluations has proved that maternal age affects the human embryo quality. This retrospective study carried out at Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples, Islamabad, Pakistan mainly focuses on the effect of female age on human embryo morphokinetics. A total number of 200 patients undergoing ICSI treatment cycles at the clinic were selected for the study and divided into five age groups (< 26, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40, and > 40 years)...
August 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869587/epigenetic-foundations-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-that-recapitulate-in-vivo-pluripotency
#20
REVIEW
Masaki Yagi, Shinya Yamanaka, Yasuhiro Yamada
In mammalian development, dynamic epigenetic reprogramming occurs in pre-implantation embryos and primordial germ cells and plays a critical role in conferring pluripotency on embryonic cells. Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, have been derived and maintained in vitro under culture conditions that include stimulators and inhibitors of extrinsic signaling. Recent advances in stem cell cultivation have opened the possibility of capturing naive pluripotency, which is reminiscent of the pluripotency of inner cell mass cells, in vitro...
October 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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