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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213548/effects-of-gelling-agent-and-extracellular-signaling-molecules-on-the-culturability-of-marine-bacteria
#1
Anita Mac Rygaard, Mariane Schmidt Thøgersen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Lone Gram, Mikkel Bentzon-Tilia
Only 1 % of marine bacteria are currently culturable using standard laboratory procedures and this is a major obstacle for our understanding of the biology of marine microorganisms and for the discovery of novel microbial natural products. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if improved cultivation conditions, including the use of an alternative gelling agent, and supplementation with signaling molecules, could improve the culturability of bacteria from seawater. Substituting agar with gellan gum improved viable counts 3 - 40-fold, depending on medium composition and incubation conditions, with a maximum of 6...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212413/scarless-deletion-of-up-to-seven-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-genes-with-an-optimized-method-highlights-key-function-of-chem-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#2
Stefanie Hoffmann, Christiane Schmidt, Steffi Walter, Jennifer K Bender, Roman G Gerlach
Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211334/adsorption-capacity-of-multiple-dna-sources-to-clay-minerals-and-environmental-soil-matrices-less-than-previously-estimated
#3
Courtney M Gardner, Claudia K Gunsch
The cultivation and consumption of transgenic crops continues to be a widely debated topic, as the potential ecological impacts are not fully understood. In particular, because antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have historically been used as selectable markers in the genetic engineering of transgenic crops, it is important to determine if the genetic constructs found in decomposing transgenic crops persist long enough in the environment and if they can be transferred horizontally to indigenous microorganisms...
February 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211331/sulfamethoxazole-and-cod-increase-abundance-of-sulfonamide-resistance-genes-and-change-bacterial-community-structures-within-sequencing-batch-reactors
#4
Xueping Guo, Weihai Pang, Chunling Dou, Daqiang Yin
The abundant microbial community in biological treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may potentially enhance the horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance genes with the presence of antibiotics. A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor was designed to investigate response of sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI, sulII) and bacterial communities to various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of wastewater. The SMX concentrations (0.001 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L and 10 mg/L) decreased with treatment time and higher SMX level was more difficult to remove...
February 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210466/antimicrobial-effects-of-ferula-gummosa-boiss-gum-against-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-acinetobacter-clinical-isolates
#5
Fatemeh Farid Afshar, Parvaneh Saffarian, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Fereshteh Sattarian, Mohsen Amin, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acinetobacter spp. are important causes of nosocomial infections. They possess various antibiotic resistance mechanisms including extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter clinical isolates especially among ESBL-producing strains and to investigate the antimicrobial effects of oleo-gum-resin extract and essential oil of Ferula gummosa Boiss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 120 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran during 2011-2012...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210464/evaluation-of-efflux-pumps-gene-expression-in-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital
#6
Babak Pourakbari, Sahar Yaslianifard, Somaye Yaslianifard, Shima Mahmoudi, Sepideh Keshavarz-Valian, Setareh Mamishi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections and has an intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Among all the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) pumps of P. aeruginosa, MexAB-OprM is the first efflux pump found to target multiple classes of antibiotics. This study was aimed to evaluate the expression level of genes expressing MexAB-OprM in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 45 P...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210246/prospects-of-in-vivo-incorporation-of-non-canonical-amino-acids-for-the-chemical-diversification-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#7
Tobias Baumann, Jessica H Nickling, Maike Bartholomae, Andrius Buivydas, Oscar P Kuipers, Nediljko Budisa
The incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAA) is an elegant way for the chemical diversification of recombinantly produced antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Residue- and site-specific installation methods in several bacterial production hosts hold great promise for the generation of new-to-nature AMPs, and can contribute to tackle the ongoing emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. Especially from a pharmacological point of view, desirable improvements span pH and protease resistance, solubility, oral availability and circulation half-life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210241/outer-membrane-proteins-form-specific-patterns-in-antibiotic-resistant-edwardsiella-tarda
#8
Bo Peng, Chao Wang, Hui Li, Yu-Bin Su, Jin-Zhou Ye, Man-Jun Yang, Ming Jiang, Xuan-Xian Peng
Outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria play key roles in antibiotic resistance. However, it is unknown whether outer membrane proteins that respond to antibiotics behave in a specific manner. The present study specifically investigated the differentially expressed outer membrane proteins of an antibiotic-resistant bacterium, Edwardsiella tarda, a Gram-negative pathogen that can lead to unnecessary mass medication of antimicrobials and consequently resistance development in aquaculture and a spectrum of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210015/frequency-of-bacterial-samples-from-patients-with-chronic-acquired-nasolacrimal-duct-obstruction
#9
Kourosh Shahraki, Ali Makateb, Keyvan Shirzadi, Keivan Khosravifard
INTRODUCTION: Dacryocystitis is an infection of lacremical sac due to obstruction of nasolacrimal duct which has primary or secondary causes. Idiopathic inflammatory obstruction is the primary cause. Trauma, infection, inflammation, neoplasia, and mechanical obstruction are secondary one. AIM: The objective of this study is determination of bacterial samples from patients with chronic acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was contained 90 patients with dacryocystitis from 2010 to 2011, in Besat hospital...
December 2016: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209973/structural-basis-for-fragmenting-the-exopolysaccharide-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-by-bacteriophage-%C3%AE-ab6-tailspike-protein
#10
I-Ming Lee, I-Fan Tu, Feng-Ling Yang, Tzu-Ping Ko, Jiahn-Haur Liao, Nien-Tsung Lin, Chung-Yi Wu, Chien-Tai Ren, Andrew H-J Wang, Ching-Ming Chang, Kai-Fa Huang, Shih-Hsiung Wu
With an increase in antibiotic-resistant strains, the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii has become a serious threat to global health. Glycoconjugate vaccines containing fragments of bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) are an emerging therapeutic to combat bacterial infection. Herein, we characterize the bacteriophage ΦAB6 tailspike protein (TSP), which specifically hydrolyzed the EPS of A. baumannii strain 54149 (Ab-54149). Ab-54149 EPS exhibited the same chemical structure as two antibiotic-resistant A...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209778/role-for-dithiolopyrrolones-in-disrupting-bacterial-metal-homeostasis
#11
Andrew N Chan, Anthony L Shiver, Walter J Wever, Sayyeda Zeenat A Razvi, Matthew F Traxler, Bo Li
Natural products harbor unique and complex structures that provide valuable antibiotic scaffolds. With an increase in antibiotic resistance, natural products once again hold promise for new antimicrobial therapies, especially those with unique scaffolds that have been overlooked due to a lack of understanding of how they function. Dithiolopyrrolones (DTPs) are an underexplored class of disulfide-containing natural products, which exhibit potent antimicrobial activities against multidrug-resistant pathogens...
February 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209468/characteristics-of-nontyphoidal-salmonella-gastroenteritis-in-taiwanese-children-a-9-year-period-retrospective-medical-record-review
#12
Yeh-Ting Hung, Chorng-Jang Lay, Chun-Lung Wang, Malcolm Koo
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is among the most common causes of acute pediatric gastroenteritis in Taiwan. It is important to study antibiotic resistance patterns in nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of serogroups and susceptibility to antimicrobial nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from Taiwanese children with gastroenteritis. A retrospective review of the medical records of patients aged under 18 years with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis at a regional hospital located in southern Taiwan from August 2000 to August 2009 was conducted...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209403/small-molecules-that-sabotage-bacterial-virulence
#13
REVIEW
Benjamin K Johnson, Robert B Abramovitch
The continued rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections has motivated alternative strategies for target discovery and treatment of infections. Antivirulence therapies function through inhibition of in vivo required virulence factors to disarm the pathogen instead of directly targeting viability or growth. This approach to treating bacteria-mediated diseases may have advantages over traditional antibiotics because it targets factors specific for pathogenesis, potentially reducing selection for resistance and limiting collateral damage to the resident microbiota...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209400/multidrug-resistant-enterococcal-infections-new-compounds-novel-antimicrobial-therapies
#14
REVIEW
Roel M van Harten, Rob J L Willems, Nathaniel I Martin, Antoni P A Hendrickx
Over the past two decades infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have escalated world-wide, affecting patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Among these bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis represent opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that cause difficult-to-treat infections because of intrinsic and acquired resistance to a plethora of antibiotics. In recent years, a number of novel antimicrobial compound classes have been discovered and developed that target Gram-positive bacteria, including E...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208218/antibiotic-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-in-husbandry-animals-the-african-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Carla Andrea Alonso, Myriam Zarazaga, Rym Ben Sallem, Ahlem Jouini, Karim Ben Slama, Carmen Torres
In the last years different surveillances have been published in Africa, especially in Northern countries, regarding antimicrobial resistance among husbandry animals. Information is still scarce, but the available data shows a worrying picture. Although the highest resistance rates have been described against tetracycline, penicillins and sulphonamides, prevalence of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are being increasingly reported. Among ESBLs, the CTX-M-1 group was dominant in most African surveys, being CTX-M-15 the main variant both in animals and humans, except in Tunisia where CTX-M-1 was more frequently detected among E...
February 16, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207825/discovery-of-a-new-family-of-relaxases-in-firmicutes-bacteria
#16
Gayetri Ramachandran, Andrés Miguel-Arribas, David Abia, Praveen K Singh, Isidro Crespo, César Gago-Córdoba, Jian An Hao, Juan Roman Luque-Ortega, Carlos Alfonso, Ling J Wu, D Roeland Boer, Wilfried J J Meijer
Antibiotic resistance is a serious global problem. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), which are widespread in environmental bacteria, can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Gut microbiomes are especially apt for the emergence and dissemination of ARG. Conjugation is the HGT route that is predominantly responsible for the spread of ARG. Little is known about conjugative elements of Gram-positive bacteria, including those of the phylum Firmicutes, which are abundantly present in gut microbiomes...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207813/interacting-networks-of-resistance-virulence-and-core-machinery-genes-identified-by-genome-wide-epistasis-analysis
#17
Marcin J Skwark, Nicholas J Croucher, Santeri Puranen, Claire Chewapreecha, Maiju Pesonen, Ying Ying Xu, Paul Turner, Simon R Harris, Stephen B Beres, James M Musser, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D Bentley, Erik Aurell, Jukka Corander
Recent advances in the scale and diversity of population genomic datasets for bacteria now provide the potential for genome-wide patterns of co-evolution to be studied at the resolution of individual bases. Here we describe a new statistical method, genomeDCA, which uses recent advances in computational structural biology to identify the polymorphic loci under the strongest co-evolutionary pressures. We apply genomeDCA to two large population data sets representing the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus)...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207768/prevalence-of-mdr-pathogens-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-egypt-and-new-synergistic-antibiotic-combinations
#18
Mona M Abdelkader, Khaled M Aboshanab, Marwa A El-Ashry, Mohammad M Aboulwafa
The aim of this study was identifying bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis, studying their antibiotic resistance profiles, investigating the antibiotic resistance genes as well as evaluating the use of various antibiotic combinations. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were evaluated according to CLSI guidelines. Antibiotic combinations were evaluated by calculating the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index. A total of 71 bacterial isolates were recovered from 68 culture positive CSF specimens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207505/efficacy-of-1st-line-bismuth-containing-quadruple-therapies-with-levofloxacin-or-clarithromycin-for-the-eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-a-1-week-open-label-randomized-trial
#19
Jing Su, Xiaoying Zhou, Han Chen, Bo Hao, Weifeng Zhang, Guoxin Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present open-label, randomized control trial was to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of two 1-week bismuth-containing quadruple regimens and 1 levofloxacin-based triple regimen for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in treatment-naive patients. The influence of susceptibility and host CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the efficacy was also evaluated. METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly to receive esomeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin along with clarithromycin and amoxicillin (EBCA), esomeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin along with levofloxacin and amoxicillin (EBLA), or esomeprazole along levofloxacin and amoxicillin (ELA) for 1 week...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207310/microbiological-quality-and-prevalence-of-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-oysters-crassostrea-rhizophorae
#20
Maria Aparecida da RessurreiÇão Brandão, Amanda Teixeira Sampaio Lopes, Maria Tereza da Silva Neta, Rhyan Barros Farias de Oliveira, Rachel Passos Rezende, George Rêgo Albuquerque, Verônica Dias Gonçalves, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Guisla Boehs, Bianca Mendes Maciel
The microbiological quality of oysters reflects the microbiological quality of their habitats because they are filter feeders. The objective of this study was to assess the bacterial composition of the edible oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in urban and preserved estuaries. Particularly, we assessed the presence of pathogenic bacteria, investigated antibiotic susceptibility in bacterial isolates, and quantified β-lactam antibiotic resistance genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaKPC) via quantitative PCR of oyster DNA...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
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