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"Antibiotic resistance"

Hui Yu, Wenwen Jing, Rafael Iriya, Yunze Yang, Karan Syal, Manni Mo, Thomas E Grys, Shelley E Haydel, Shaopeng Wang, Nongjian Tao
Timely determination of antimicrobial susceptibility for a bacterial infection enables precision prescription, shortens treatment time and helps minimize the spread of antibiotic resistant infections. Current antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methods often take several days and thus impede these clinical and health benefits. Here, we present an AST method by imaging freely moving bacterial cells in urine in real time and analyzing the videos with a deep learning algorithm. The deep learning algorithm determines if an antibiotic inhibits a bacterial cell by learning multiple phenotypic features of the cell without the need for defining and quantifying each feature...
April 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Thomas Häusler
Phage therapy has an intriguing history. It was widely used from the 1920s until the 1940s. After this period, it was nearly completely forgotten in the Western world, while it continued to be used in the Soviet part of the globe. The study of the history of phage therapy provides valuable input into the present development of the field. Science journalists uncovered much of this history and played an important role in the communication of phage therapy after the fall of the Soviet Union, when it came to the attention of Western researchers and doctors...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
Courtney M Gardner, Carley A Gwin, Claudia K Gunsch
The use of transgenic crops has become increasingly common in the United States over the last several decades. Increasing evidence suggests that DNA may be protected from enzymatic digestion and acid hydrolysis in the digestive tract, suggesting that crop-derived transgenes may enter into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) intact. Given the historical use of antibiotic resistance genes as selection markers in transgenic crop development, it is important to consider the fate of these transgenes. Herein we detected and quantified crop-derived transgenes in WWTPs...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kui Luo, Fuye Shao, Kadijatu N Kamara, Shuaiyin Chen, Rongguang Zhang, Guangcai Duan, Haiyan Yang
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important human etiologic agent. An investigation of the characteristics of common genotypes of S. aureus relating to pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance may provide a foundation to prevent infection. METHODS: This study collected 275 S. aureus isolates from Zhengzhou city in China, including 148 isolates from patient samples and 127 isolates from ready-to-eat food samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the broth dilution method...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Da-Cheng Hao, Cai-Rong Zhang, Pei-Gen Xiao
In the present study, the shotgun high throughput metagenomic sequencing was implemented to globally capture the features of Taxus rhizosphere microbiome. Total reads could be assigned to 6925 species belonging to 113 bacteria phyla and 301 species of nine fungi phyla. For archaea and virus, 263 and 134 species were for the first time identified, respectively. More than 720,000 Unigenes were identified by clean reads assembly. The top five assigned phyla were Actinobacteria (363,941 Unigenes), Proteobacteria (182,053), Acidobacteria (44,527), Ascomycota (fungi; 18,267), and Chloroflexi (15,539)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Christopher Rensing, Arshnee Moodley, Lina M Cavaco, Sylvia Franke McDevitt
Metals and metalloids have been used alongside antibiotics in livestock production for a long time. The potential and acute negative impact on the environment and human health of these livestock feed supplements has prompted lawmakers to ban or discourage the use of some or all of these supplements. This article provides an overview of current use in the European Union and the United States, detected metal resistance determinants, and the proteins and mechanisms responsible for conferring copper and zinc resistance in bacteria...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Xiaolin Zhang, Anmin Jiang, Banghua Qi, Hao Yu, Youyi Xiong, Guoliang Zhou, Meisong Qin, Jinfeng Dou, Jianfei Wang
Human neutrophil peptide 1 (HNP1) is a small (3.44 kDa) cationic peptide that is a distinct member of the defensin family. HNP1 plays a crucial role in controlling bacterial infections, particularly by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, through membrane perforation patterns. The structural characteristics of HNP1's three intramolecular disulfide bridges cause difficulty in its synthesis via chemical methods. In this study, bioactive recombinant HNP1 was produced using the Pichia pastoris (P. Pichia) expression system...
April 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Asabe Halimat Momoh, Jacob K P Kwaga, Mohammed Bello, Anthony K B Sackey, Anders Rhod Larsen
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium with impact on public health and livestock industry. The study investigated nasal carriage, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characterization of S. aureus in pigs and pig workers. Nasal swabs from 300 backyard-raised pigs and 101 pig workers were used for the study. Resulting isolates were confirmed using MALDI-TOF MS, tested for antibiotic resistance, and three different multiplex PCRs were used to detect enterotoxin, mecA, spaA, scn, and pvl genes...
April 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Erica L Fonseca, Bruno G N Andrade, Ana C P Vicente
The worldwide dispersion and sudden emergence of new antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) determined the need in uncovering which environment participate most as their source and reservoir. ARGs closely related to those currently found in human pathogens occur in the resistome of anthropogenic impacted environments. However, the role of pristine environment as the origin and source of ARGs remains underexplored and controversy, particularly, the marine environments represented by the oceans. Here, due to the ocean nature, we hypothesized that the resistome of this pristine/low-impacted marine environment is represented by distant ARG homologs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yong-Hui Zhou, Chang-Geng Xu, Yan-Bei Yang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Xin Liu, Qian-Wei Qu, Wen-Ya Ding, God'spower Bello-Onaghise, Yan-Hua Li
Staphylococcus xylosus ( S. xylosus ) is an AT-rich and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS). It is normally regarded as non-pathogenic, however, recent studies have demonstrated that it is related to human opportunistic infections and bovine mastitis. In addition, S. xylosus strains have the ability to form biofilm. Biofilms are also involved in chronic infections and antibiotic resistance, there are only a few reports about cefquinome inhibiting S. xylosus biofilm formation and the protein targets of cefquinome...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Focco van den Akker, Robert A Bonomo
As a bacterial resistance strategy, serine β-lactamases have evolved from cell wall synthesizing enzymes known as penicillin-binding proteins (PBP), by not only covalently binding β-lactam antibiotics but, also acquiring mechanisms of deacylating these antibiotics. This critical deacylation step leads to release of hydrolyzed and inactivated β-lactams, thereby providing resistance for the bacteria against these antibiotics targeting the cell wall. To combat β-lactamase-mediated antibiotic resistance, numerous β-lactamase inhibitors were developed that utilize various strategies to inactivate the β-lactamase...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sonja Hirk, Sarah Lepuschitz, Adriana Cabal Rosel, Steliana Huhulescu, Marion Blaschitz, Anna Stöger, Silke Stadlbauer, Petra Hasenberger, Alexander Indra, Daniela Schmid, Werner Ruppitsch, Franz Allerberger
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea and was identified by the World Health Organization as an urgent public health threat due to emerging antibiotic resistance. Here, we report 13 draft genome sequences of N. gonorrhoeae isolates derived from two epidemiologically linked cases from Austria.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
Revathy Arushothy, Norazah Ahmad, Fairuz Amran, Rohaidah Hashim, Nazirah Samsuddin, Che Roslina Che Azih
After the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Malaysia in recent years, the emergence of nonvaccine serotypes is of concern, particularly the antibiotic-resistant strains, with an increase specifically in serotype 15A. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain SS40_16, isolated from the blood sample of a 19-month-old female in 2016. SS40_16 is a multidrug-resistant strain with resistance to penicillin (MIC, ≥2 µg/ml), tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
Yuanwang Liu, Yao Feng, Dengmiao Cheng, Jianming Xue, Steven Wakelin, Zhaojun Li
Dynamics in bacterial community composition, along with 13 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and eight mobile genetic elements (MGEs), were assessed during co-composting with gentamicin and lovastatin fermentation residue (GFR and LFR, respectively). Using next generation sequencing, the key bacterial taxa associated with the different stages of composting were identified. Most importantly, Bacillus, belonging to Phylum Firmicutes, was associated with enhanced degradation of gentamicin, decomposition of organic matter (OM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and also extension of the thermophilic phase of the composting cycle...
April 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Omar A Alsager, Mohammed N Alnajrani, Hatem A Abuelizz, Ibrahim A Aldaghmani
The use of antibiotics in the dairy farming for curing and growth promotion results in the production of massive quantities of non-recyclable wastewater by the conventional purification techniques. Additionally, waste milk is produced during the drug withholding periods, which is not suitable for human or animal consumption and cause huge economic loss as well as present serious environmental waste. This study was designed to investigate the decomposition of various antibiotic compounds in un-buffered aqueous solutions and milk samples by ozonation process...
April 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Marc Mendelson, Adrian Brink, Joey Gouws, Nontombi Mbelle, Vinny Naidoo, Troy Pople, Natalie Schellack, Moritz van Vuuren, Helen Rees
Increasing reliance on antibiotics of last resort to treat the rising numbers of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in people has focused attention on how shared-use antibiotics are managed and regulated across human and animal health. Discussions at international and national levels have intensified since the identification of new plasmid-mediated genes for colistin resistance in 2016, first in China and subsequently in many other countries, removing the last line of defense against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections with carbapenem resistance...
April 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Maxim Kalashnikov, Jean C Lee, Alexis F Sauer-Budge
The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is driving the development of innovative, rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) tools as a way to provide more targeted and timely antibiotic treatment. We have previously presented a stress-based microfluidic method for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this method, stress is used to potentiate the action of antibiotics, and cell death is measured as a proxy for susceptibility...
April 17, 2018: Diagnostics
Vivek Keshri, Arup Panda, Anthony Levasseur, Jean-Marc Rolain, Pierre Pontarotti, Didier Raoult
β-lactamases are enzymes which are commonly produced by bacteria and which degrade the β-lactam ring of β-lactam antibiotics, namely penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams, and inactivate these antibiotics. We performed a rational and comprehensive investigation of β-lactamases in different biological databases. In this study, we constructed hidden Markov model profiles as well as the ancestral sequence of four classes of β-lactamases (A, B, C, and D), which were used to identify potential β-lactamases from environmental metagenomic (1206), human microbiome metagenomic (6417), human microbiome reference genome (1310), and NCBI's nonredundant databases (44101)...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Xiaobo Zhong, Hua Xiang, Tiedong Wang, Ling Zhong, Di Ming, Linyan Nie, Fengjiao Cao, Bangbang Li, Junjie Cao, Dan Mu, Ke Ruan, Lin Wang, Dacheng Wang
The antibiotic resistance (ARE) subfamily of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) proteins confers resistance to a variety of clinically important ribosome-targeting antibiotics and plays an important role in infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. However, inhibitors of ARE proteins have rarely been reported. Here, OptrA, a new member of the ARE proteins, was used to study inhibitors of these types of proteins. We first confirmed that destroying the catalytic activity of OptrA could restore the sensitivity of host cells to antibiotics...
April 19, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Mauricio Arias, Kathlyn B Piga, M Eric Hyndman, Hans J Vogel
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute a promising alternative for the development of new antibiotics that could potentially counteract the growing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, the AMP structure⁻function relationships remain unclear and detailed studies are still necessary. The positively charged amino acid residues (Arg and Lys) play a crucial role in the activity of most AMPs due to the promotion of electrostatic interactions between the peptides and bacterial membranes. In this work we have analyzed the antimicrobial and structural properties of several Trp-rich AMPs containing exclusively either Arg or Lys as the positively charged residues...
April 19, 2018: Biomolecules
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