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"Antibiotic resistance"

A F C Leonard, X L Yin, T Zhang, M Hui, W H Gaze
Background: Antimicrobial resistance and the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) poses a threat to human health. Community-acquired infections resistant to treatment with first-line antibiotics are increasing, and there are few studies investigating environmental exposures and transmission. Aim: To develop a novel targeted metagenomic method to quantify the abundance and diversity of ARGs in a faecal indicator bacterium, and to estimate human exposure to resistant bacteria in a natural environment...
February 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Wei Sun, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Xun Qian, Xiaxia Tuo
Biochar has positive effects on nitrogen conservation during anaerobic digestion, but its impacts on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are unclear. Therefore, the effect of biochar (0, 5, 20, and 50 g/L) on the environmental risk of ARGs during cattle manure wastewater anaerobic digestion were investigated. The results showed that 5 g/L biochar reduced the relative abundances (RAs) of 5/13 ARGs while 20 g/L biochar significantly reduced the total RAs of ARGs in the digestion products, where the RA of ISCR1 was 0...
February 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Li Lei, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Shucheng Huang, Lihong Zhang, Lei Wang, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Xiaole Tong, Meng Wang, Jiakui Li
This study was conducted to test the distribution of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) associated genes in fecal isolates from diarrheic yaks of a high remote region of China. Briefly, we obtained 203 fecal samples from diarrheic adult yaks and E. coli strains were isolated and identified via standard methods The antibiotic sensitivity of isolates was determined via disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the DEC virulence associated genes. Results of the current study showed a high rate of resistance to tetracycline (93...
February 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Jens Klockgether, Nina Cramer, Sebastian Fischer, Lutz Wiehlmann, Burkhard Tümmler
RATIONALE: The chronic airway infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa determine morbidity in most individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). P. aeruginosa may persist for decades in CF lungs which provides the rare opportunity to study the long-term within-host evolution of a bacterial airway pathogen. OBJECTIVES: To resolve the genetic adaptation of P. aeruginosa in CF lungs from the onset of colonization until the patient's death or permanent replacement by another P...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Amanda Souza Câmara, Eduardo Horjales
M. tuberculosis oxidation sense Regulator (MosR) is a transcriptional regulator from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It senses the environment oxidation and regulates the expression of a secreted oxidoreductase, thus defending the bacilli against oxidative stress from the phagosome. While most of the members of the Multiple antibiotics resistance Regulator (MarR) family are ligand-responsive, MosR may dissociate from its DNA site upon formation of an intrachain disulphide bond. However, the structure of MosR in its oxidized state is not known, and it is not clear how the formation of this disulphide bond would lead to the conformational changes required for dissociation of the DNA...
2018: PloS One
Lei Sun, Helen K Alexander, Balazs Bogos, Daniel J Kiviet, Martin Ackermann, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Whether mutations in bacteria exhibit a noticeable delay before expressing their corresponding mutant phenotype was discussed intensively in the 1940s to 1950s, but the discussion eventually waned for lack of supportive evidence and perceived incompatibility with observed mutant distributions in fluctuation tests. Phenotypic delay in bacteria is widely assumed to be negligible, despite the lack of direct evidence. Here, we revisited the question using recombineering to introduce antibiotic resistance mutations into E...
February 22, 2018: PLoS Biology
Primoz Knap, Toma Tebaldi, Francesca Di Leva, Marta Biagioli, Mauro Dalla Serra, Gabriella Viero
Pathogenic bacteria produce powerful virulent factors, such as pore-forming toxins, that promote their survival and cause serious damage to the host. Host cells reply to membrane stresses and ionic imbalance by modifying gene expression at the epigenetic, transcriptional and translational level, to recover from the toxin attack. The fact that the majority of the human transcriptome encodes for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) raises the question: do host cells deploy non-coding transcripts to rapidly control the most energy-consuming process in cells-i...
November 3, 2017: Toxins
Chunyan Li, Cheng Jiang, Zhiyang Wu, Binglin Cheng, Xuejiao An, Hailan Wang, Yueling Sun, Mingyan Huang, Xi Chen, Jinming Wang
The rapid development and increase of antibiotic resistance are global phenomena resulting from the extensive use of antibiotics in human clinics and animal feeding operations. Antibiotics can promote the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which can be transferred horizontally to humans and animals through water and the food chain. In this study, the presence and abundance of ARGs in livestock waste was monitored by quantitative PCR. A diverse set of bacteria and tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs) from three livestock farms and a river were analyzed through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Manish Goswami, Akkipeddi Venkat Satya Surya Narayana Rao
We have previously reported that supplementation of exogenous glutathione (GSH) promotes ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli by neutralizing antibiotic-induced oxidative stress and by enhancing the efflux of antibiotic. In the present study, we used a whole-genome microarray as a tool to analyze the system-level transcriptomic changes of E. coli on exposure to GSH and/or ciprofloxacin. The microarray data revealed that GSH supplementation affects redox function, transport, acid shock, and virulence genes of E...
January 2018: MSystems
Alison Nicholson, Ingrid Tennant, Livingston White, Camille-Ann Thoms-Rodriguez, Loraine Cook, Stephen Johnson, Tamara Thompson, Jasper Barnett, Lundie Richards
Background: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a serious threat that requires coordinated global intervention to prevent its spread. There is limited data from the English-speaking Caribbean. Methods: As part of a national programme to address antibiotic resistance in Jamaica, a survey of the knowledge, attitudes and antibiotic prescribing practices of Jamaican physicians was conducted using a 32-item self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of the eight hundred physicians targeted, 87% responded...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Jayalekshmi Haripriyan, Athira Omanakuttan, Nitasha D Menon, Muralidharan Vanuopadath, Sudarslal Sadasivan Nair, Ross Corriden, Bipin G Nair, Victor Nizet, Geetha B Kumar
Earlier studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that clove bud oil (CBO) attenuates expression of certain virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Here, we probe more deeply into the effect of CBO on four pseudomonal proteases - elastase A, elastase B, protease IV and alkaline protease - each known to play key roles in disease pathogenesis. CBO inhibited the activity of these proteases present in the bacterial culture supernatant. Zymography studies indicated that these proteases can activate host matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) to establish infection, through conversion of pro-MMP-2 to active MMP-2...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mattia Zampieri, Balazs Szappanos, Maria Virginia Buchieri, Andrej Trauner, Ilaria Piazza, Paola Picotti, Sébastien Gagneux, Sonia Borrell, Brigitte Gicquel, Joel Lelievre, Balazs Papp, Uwe Sauer
Rapidly spreading antibiotic resistance and the low discovery rate of new antimicrobial compounds demand more effective strategies for early drug discovery. One bottleneck in the drug discovery pipeline is the identification of the modes of action (MoAs) of new compounds. We have developed a rapid systematic metabolome profiling strategy to classify the MoAs of bioactive compounds. The method predicted MoA-specific metabolic responses in the nonpathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis after treatment with 62 reference compounds with known MoAs and different metabolic and nonmetabolic targets...
February 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Per Kristian Knudsen, Petter Brandtzaeg, E Arne Høiby, Jon Bohlin, Ørjan Samuelsen, Martin Steinbakk, Tore G Abrahamsen, Fredrik Müller, Karianne Wiger Gammelsrud
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187618.].
2018: PloS One
Lianne Jeffs, Madelyn P Law, Michelle Zahradnik, Marilyn Steinberg, Maria Maione, Linda Jorgoni, Chaim M Bell, Andrew M Morris
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have predominately involved infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists with little attention to the nurses. To achieve optimal success of ASPs, engagement of nurses to actively participate in initiatives, strategies, and solutions to combat antibiotic resistance across the health care spectrum is required. In this context, the experiences of local ASP teams engaging nurses in appropriate antimicrobial use were explored to inform future strategies to enhance their involvement in ASPs...
April 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
Harrell W Chesson, Robert D Kirkcaldy, Thomas L Gift, Kwame Owusu-Edusei, Hillard S Weinstock
Preventing the emergence of ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae can potentially avert hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs of gonorrhea and gonorrhea-attributable HIV infections. In the illustrative scenario we examined, emerging ceftriaxone resistance could lead to 1.2 million additional N. gonorrhoeae infections over 10 years, costing $378.2 million.
September 22, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Anne Elisabeth E Berns, Herbert Philipp, Hans Lewandowski, Jeong-Heui Choi, Marc Lamshöft, Hans-Dieter Narres
The extensive use of sulfonamides (SNs) in animal husbandry has led to an unintentional widespread occurrence in several environmental compartments. The implementation of regulations and management recommendations to reduce the potential risk of development of antibiotic resistances necessitates detailed knowledge on their fate in soil. We present results from two independent incubation studies of15 N-labeled sulfadiazines (SDZ) which focused on identifying binding types in bound residues. In the first study15 N-amino labeled SDZ was incubated with two previously isolated humic acids in the presence and absence of Trametes versicolor laccase, while in the second study15 N-double-labeled SDZ was incubated with a typical agricultural Luvisol and isolated the humic acid fraction after sequential extraction of the soil...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
M Ebrahimpour, I Nikokar, Y Ghasemi, H Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, A Araghian, M Farahbakhsh, F Ghassabi
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being responsible of a broad variety of infections, is considered an important nosocomial pathogen. The emergence of multiple-drug resistance among strains of P. aeruginosa appeared as a further public health concern. Due to the considerable ability of multiple-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains to transmit themselves in the environment, we aimed to investigate the association of class 1 integrons with the antibiotic resistance profile of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from hospital wastewaters...
March 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Asokan Govindaraj Vaithinathan, A Vanitha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Perspectives in Public Health
Alok Kumar Yadav, Preeti Sirohi, Saurabh Saraswat, Manjoo Rani, Manish Pratap Singh, Sameer Srivastava, Nand K Singh
The antibiotic resistance in bacteria responsible for causing community and health care-associated infection displayed a major threat to global health. Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for the treatment of various ailments poses serious side effects. In the present research, we investigated the combined role of 2% phytic acid with 2% methanolic seed extract of Syzygium cumini and 0.5% sodium chloride for inhibition of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and found it to be efficient over B. subtilis...
February 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
Anthony W Huckle, Lucy C Fairclough, Ian Todd
Antibiotics have previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, and they have been linked to therapeutic benefit in several pulmonary conditions that feature inflammation. Previous research suggests that these anti-inflammatory properties may be beneficial in the treatment of COPD. This review assesses the potential benefit of prophylactic, long-term, and low-dose antibiotic therapy in COPD, and whether any effects seen are anti-inflammatory in nature. Randomized, controlled trials comparing antibiotic therapy with placebo in subjects with stable COPD were evaluated...
February 20, 2018: Respiratory Care
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