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"Antibiotic resistance"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103306/a-superoxide-dismutase-capable-of-functioning-with-iron-or-manganese-promotes-the-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-calprotectin-and-nutritional-immunity
#1
Yuritzi M Garcia, Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Emma Tarrant, Eric P Skaar, Kevin J Waldron, Thomas E Kehl-Fie
Staphylococcus aureus is a devastating mammalian pathogen for which the development of new therapeutic approaches is urgently needed due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. During infection pathogens must overcome the dual threats of host-imposed manganese starvation, termed nutritional immunity, and the oxidative burst of immune cells. These defenses function synergistically, as host-imposed manganese starvation reduces activity of the manganese-dependent enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). S. aureus expresses two SODs, denoted SodA and SodM...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100596/genomic-epidemiology-of-penicillin-non-susceptible-pneumococci-with-non-vaccine-serotypes-causing-invasive-disease-in-the-usa
#2
Cheryl P Andam, Patrick K Mitchell, Alanna Callendrello, Qiuzhi Chang, Jukka Corander, Chrispin Chaguza, Lesley McGee, Bernard W Beall, William P Hanage
Conjugate vaccination against seven pneumococcal serotypes (PCV7) reduced disease prevalence due to antibiotic resistant strains throughout the 2000s; however, disease caused by resistant non-vaccine type (NVT) strains increased. Some of these emerging strains were derived from vaccine types (VT) that had changed their capsule by recombination. The introduction of vaccine targeting 13 serotypes (PCV13) in 2010 has led to concern that this scenario will repeat itself. We generated high quality draft genomes from 265 isolates of NVT pneumococci not susceptible to penicillin (PNSP) in 2009 and compared them with 581 isolates from 2012-2013, collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100443/surveillance-of-antimicrobial-use-in-dutch-long-term-care-facilities
#3
Monique Roukens, Linda Verhoef, Ellen Stobberingh, Stephanie Natsch
OBJECTIVES: Residents living in a long-term care facility (LTCF) are more susceptible to infections. Treatment with antimicrobials is sometimes necessary; however, antibiotic use is considered one of the most important drivers of the development of antibiotic resistance. Surveillance data on antibiotic use in these LTCFs are necessary to get more insight into these patterns. The objective of this study was to describe antibiotic use in LTCFs in the Netherlands. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven LTCFs in the Netherlands were contacted and asked to participate in a study concerning antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100307/the-kl24-gene-cluster-and-a-genomic-island-encoding-a-wzy-polymerase-contribute-genes-needed-for-synthesis-of-the-k24-capsular-polysaccharide-by-the-multiply-antibiotic-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolate-rch51
#4
Johanna J Kenyon, Anastasiya A Kasimova, Mikhail Shneider, Alexander S Shashkov, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Anastasiya V Popova, Konstantin A Miroshnikov, Ruth M Hall, Yuriy A Knirel
The whole genome sequence of the multiply antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate RCH51 belonging to sequence type ST103 (Institut Pasteur scheme) revealed that the set of genes at the capsule locus, KL24, includes four genes predicted to direct the synthesis of 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-D-galactose (D-Fuc3NAc) and this sugar was found in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). One of these genes, fdtE, encodes a novel bifunctional protein with an N-terminal FdtA 3,4-ketoisomerase domain and a C-terminal acetyltransferase domain...
January 17, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100229/surveillance-of-life-long-antibiotics-a-review-of-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-in-an-australian-healthcare-network
#5
Jillian S Y Lau, Christopher Kiss, Erika Roberts, Kylie Horne, Tony M Korman, Ian Woolley
BACKGROUND: The rise of antimicrobial use in the twentieth century has significantly reduced morbidity due to infection, however it has also brought with it the rise of increasing resistance. Some patients are on prolonged, if not "life-long" course of antibiotics. The reasons for this are varied, and include non-infectious indications. We aimed to study the characteristics of this potential source of antibiotic resistance, by exploring the antibiotic dispensing practices and describing the population of patients on long-term antibiotic therapy...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100194/interspecies-transfer-of-vancomycin-erythromycin-and-tetracycline-resistance-among-enterococcus-species-recovered-from-agrarian-sources
#6
M Conwell, V Daniels, P J Naughton, J S G Dooley
BACKGROUND: Enterococci are now well recognised for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance and for their association with nosocomial infections, but less is known regarding their relevance in the wider environment. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were isolated from a range of agrarian associated sources (low-flow water, septic tank, poultry litter, high flow water, slurry/soil) and were assessed for latent ability to transfer antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS: The isolates were tested for phenotypic clumping in the presence of cell-free supernatant from other isolates...
January 18, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098814/thioridazine-a-non-antibiotic-drug-highly-effective-in-combination-with-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-against-any-form-of-antibiotic-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-due-to-its-multi-mechanisms-of-action
#7
REVIEW
Leonard Amaral, Miguel Viveiros
This review presents the evidence that supports the use of thioridazine (TZ) for the therapy of a pulmonary tuberculosis infection regardless of its antibiotic resistance status. The evidence consists of in vitro and ex vivo assays that demonstrate the activity of TZ against all encountered Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) regardless of its antibiotic resistance phenotype, as well as in vivo as a therapy for mice infected with multi-drug resistant strains of Mtb, or for human subjects infected with extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mtb...
January 14, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098806/antibacterial-activities-and-possible-modes-of-action-of-acacia-nilotica-l-del-against-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella
#8
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Joel Tarning, Tay Zar Aye Cho, Anil Kumar Anal
Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments...
January 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098543/increasing-antibiotic-resistance-in-shigella-spp-from-infected-new-york-city-residents-new-york-usa
#9
Kenya Murray, Vasudha Reddy, John S Kornblum, HaeNa Waechter, Ludwin F Chicaiza, Inessa Rubinstein, Sharon Balter, Sharon K Greene, Sarah L Braunstein, Jennifer L Rakeman, Catherine M Dentinger
Approximately 20% of Shigella isolates tested in New York City, New York, USA, during 2013-2015 displayed decreased azithromycin susceptibility. Case-patients were older and more frequently male and HIV infected than those with azithromycin-susceptible Shigella infection; 90% identified as men who have sex with men. Clinical interpretation guidelines for azithromycin resistance and outcome studies are needed.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098416/motuporamine-derivatives-as-antimicrobial-agents-and-antibiotic-enhancers-against-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#10
Diane Borselli, Marine Blanchet, Jean-Michel Bolla, Aaron Muth, Kristen Skruber, Otto Phanstiel, Jean Michel Brunel
Dihydromotuporamine C and its derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities and antibiotic enhancement properties against Gram-negative bacteria and clinical isolates. The mechanism of action of one of these derivatives, MOTU-N44, was investigated against Enterobacter aerogenes by using fluorescent dyes to evaluate outer-membrane depolarization and permeabilization. Its efficiency correlated with inhibition of dye transport, thus suggesting that these molecules inhibit drug transporters by de-energization of the efflux pump rather than by direct interaction of the molecule with the pump...
January 18, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098401/antibiotic-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-chinese-children-a%C3%A2-multicenter-retrospective-study-over-7%C3%A2-years
#11
Lan Li, Yini Ke, Chaohui Yu, Guogang Li, Ningmin Yang, Jianzhong Zhang, Youming Li
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, and furazolidone in Helicobacter pylori isolated from Chinese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2015. A total of 1746 isolates of H. pylori were collected from nine areas of Zhejiang province in the southeast coastal region of China. H. pylori strains were examined for antibiotics susceptibility by agar dilution method...
January 18, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098301/optical-dna-mapping-in-nanofluidic-devices-principles-and-applications
#12
Vilhelm Müller, Fredrik Westerlund
Optical DNA mapping has over the last decade emerged as a very powerful tool for obtaining long range sequence information from single DNA molecules. In optical DNA mapping, intact large single DNA molecules are labeled, stretched out, and imaged using a fluorescence microscope. This means that sequence information ranging over hundreds of kilobasepairs (kbp) can be obtained in one single image. Nanochannels offer homogeneous and efficient stretching of DNA that is crucial to maximize the information that can be obtained from optical DNA maps...
January 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097747/a-literacy-sensitive-approach-to-improving-antibiotic-understanding-in-a-community-based-setting
#13
Crystal M David, Katherine S O'Neal, Michael J Miller, Jeremy L Johnson, Ann E Lloyd
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic misuse contributes to antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Patient and prescriber knowledge and behaviors influence antibiotic use. Past research has focused on describing and influencing prescriber behavior with less attention to the patient role in antibiotic use. This study seeks to: (1) develop and deploy a program to enhance patient knowledge about antibiotic use; (2) evaluate whether providing patient education is associated with improvements in antibiotic knowledge in a community-based sample; and (3) explore whether health literacy may be associated with knowledge of appropriate antibiotic use...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097715/c-di-amp-modulates-listeria-monocytogenes-central-metabolism-to-regulate-growth-antibiotic-resistance-and-osmoregulation
#14
Aaron T Whiteley, Nicholas E Garelis, Bret N Peterson, Philip H Choi, Liang Tong, Joshua J Woodward, Daniel A Portnoy
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a conserved nucleotide second messenger critical for bacterial growth and resistance to cell wall-active antibiotics. In Listeria monocytogenes, the sole diadenylate cyclase, DacA, is essential in rich, but not synthetic media and ΔdacA mutants are highly sensitive to the β-lactam antibiotic cefuroxime. In this study, loss of function mutations in the oligopeptide importer (oppABCDF) and glycine betaine importer (gbuABC) allowed ΔdacA mutants to grow in rich medium...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097714/photoantimicrobial-biohybrids-by-supramolecular-immobilization-of-cationic-phthalocyanines-onto-cellulose-nanocrystals
#15
Eduardo Anaya-Plaza, Eveline van de Winckel, Joona Mikkilä, Jani-Markus Malho, Olli Ikkala, Oscar Gulías, Roger Bresolí-Obach, Montserrat Agut, Santi Nonell, Tomás Torres, Mauri A Kostiainen, Andrés de la Escosura
The development of photoactive and biocompatible nanostructures is a highly desirable goal to address the current threat of antibiotic resistance. Here, we describe a novel supramolecular biohybrid nanostructure based on the non-covalent immobilization of cationic zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) derivatives onto unmodified cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), following an easy and straightforward protocol, in which binding is driven by electrostatic interactions. These non-covalent biohybrids show strong photodynamic activity against S...
January 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097604/theory-based-explanation-as-intervention
#16
Kara Weisman, Ellen M Markman
Cogent explanations are an indispensable means of providing new information and an essential component of effective education. Beyond this, we argue that there is tremendous untapped potential in using explanations to motivate behavior change. In this article we focus on health interventions. We review four case studies that used carefully tailored explanations to address gaps and misconceptions in people's intuitive theories, providing participants with a conceptual framework for understanding how and why some recommended behavior is an effective way of achieving a health goal...
January 17, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097012/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-antibiotics-in-critically-ill-acute-kidney-injury-patients
#17
REVIEW
Welder Zamoner, Fernanda M de Freitas, Durval S S Garms, Mariele Gobo de Oliveira, André L Balbi, Daniela Ponce
Sepsis is the most common cause of death in critically ill patients and is associated with multiorgan failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). This situation can require acute renal support and increase mortality. Therefore, it is essential to administer antimicrobials in doses that achieve adequate serum levels, avoiding both overdosing and drug toxicity as well as underdosing and the risk of antibiotic resistance and higher mortality. Currently, there are no validated guidelines on antibiotic dose adjustments in septic patients with AKI...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096978/carriage-of-antibiotic-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-hospitalised-children-in-tertiary-hospitals-in-harare-zimbabwe
#18
Marcelyn T Magwenzi, Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe, Hilda A Mujuru, Mutsa Dangarembizi-Bwakura, Valerie Robertson, Alexander M Aiken
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing and gentamicin resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly recognised as a major cause of infection in low-income countries. We assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal carriage of these bacteria in hospitalised children in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in paediatric inpatients at two tertiary-referral hospitals between May and July 2015. Rectal swabs and faecal samples were collected within 24 h of admission and further follow-up samples were collected on alternate days during hospitalization...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096977/high-rates-of-multidrug-resistance-among-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-children-and-analyses-of-esbl-producers-from-nepal
#19
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Pooja Maharjan, Hridaya Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Deliya Paudel, Sujan Sayami, Puspa Raj Khanal
BACKGROUND: Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI) among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096488/novel-superspreader-bacteriophages-promote-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-transformation
#20
Eric C Keen, Valery V Bliskovsky, Francisco Malagon, James D Baker, Jeffrey S Prince, James S Klaus, Sankar L Adhya
: Bacteriophages infect an estimated 10(23) to 10(25) bacterial cells each second, many of which carry physiologically relevant plasmids (e.g., those encoding antibiotic resistance). However, even though phage-plasmid interactions occur on a massive scale and have potentially significant evolutionary, ecological, and biomedical implications, plasmid fate upon phage infection and lysis has not been investigated to date. Here we show that a subset of the natural lytic phage population, which we dub "superspreaders," releases substantial amounts of intact, transformable plasmid DNA upon lysis, thereby promoting horizontal gene transfer by transformation...
January 17, 2017: MBio
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