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"Antibiotic resistance"

Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Mushal Allam, Arshad Ismail, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
OBJECTIVES: We report here the draft genome sequence of E. coli strain HN503E1II isolated from a nasal sample of an abattoir worker in Cameroon. METHODS: Genomic DNA of E. coli was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. Generated reads were de novo assembled using the Qiagen CLC Genomics Workbench. The assembled contigs were annotated and antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, plasmids and sequence types were identified. RESULTS: The genome comprised a circular chromosome of 4,674,201bp, with a 50...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Verena Kohler, Ankita Vaishampayan, Elisabeth Grohmann
Conjugative plasmid transfer is one of the major mechanisms responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. The incompatibility (Inc) 18 group of plasmids is a family of plasmids replicating by the theta-mechanism, whose members have been detected frequently in enterococci and streptococci. Inc18 plasmids encode a variety of antibiotic resistances, including resistance to vancomycin, chloramphenicol and the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramine (MLS) group of antibiotics. These plasmids comprising insertions of Tn1546 were demonstrated to be responsible for the transfer of vancomycin resistance encoded by the vanA gene from vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
June 19, 2018: Plasmid
Cosmika Goswami, Stephen Fox, Matthew Holden, Martin Connor, Alistair Leanord, Thomas J Evans
Bacteraemia caused by Escherichia coli is a growing problem with a significant mortality. The factors that influence the acquisition and outcome of these infections are not clear. Here, we have linked detailed genetic data from the whole-genome sequencing of 162 bacteraemic isolates collected in Scotland, UK, in 2013-2015, with clinical data in order to delineate bacterial and host factors that influence the acquisition in hospital or the community, outcome and antibiotic resistance. We identified four major sequence types (STs) in these isolates: ST131, ST69, ST73 and ST95...
June 22, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Reza Mohebi, Khadijeh Esmaili, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Iraj Pakzad, Sobhan Ghafourian
Because of unknown situation of antibiotic resistance pattern in main hospital in Ilam, Iran, in an attempt we aimed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogenic bacteria obtained from referred patients to Imam Khomaini Hospital, Ilam, Iran. For this reason, 114 bacteria were collected during 9 month period and evaluated for their antibiotic resistance pattern. Our results demonstrated that E. coli as the dominant responsible for urinary tract infection. Our results demonstrated that 61.4 % (n = 70) of isolates were positive for E...
June 22, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Ranjani Parthasarathy, Callan E Monette, Sabrina Bracero, Margaret S Saha
The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance poses an increasingly serious threat to human health. Although an important driver of antibiotic resistance is the continuous exposure of bacteria to sublethal concentrations of antibiotics in natural environments, antibiotic pollutants are not currently tracked globally or systematically. This limits the international capacity to address the rise of antibiotic resistance at its source. To address this lack of data, the development of methods to measure antibiotic concentrations on-site is essential...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Nigam M Mishra, Izabela Stolarzewicz, David Cannaerts, Joris Schuermans, Rob Lavigne, Yannick Looz, Bart Landuyt, Liliane Schoofs, Dominique Schols, Jan Paeshuyse, Peter Hickenbotham, Martha Clokie, Walter Luyten, Erik V Van der Eycken, Yves Briers
Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits transpeptidation during cell wall synthesis by binding to the D-Ala-D-Ala termini of lipid II. For long, it has been used as a last resort antibiotic. However, since the emergence of the first vancomycin-resistant enterococci in 1987, vancomycin resistance has become widespread, especially in hospitals. We have synthesized and evaluated 110 vancomycin analogs modified at the C-terminal carboxyl group of the heptapeptide moiety with R2 NHR1 NH2 substituents...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Francisco Dini-Andreote, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Han Olff, Joana Falcão Salles
Ancestor microbes started colonizing inland habitats approximately 2.7 to 3.5 billion years ago. With some exceptions, the key physiological adaptations of microbiomes associated with marine-to-land transitions have remained elusive. This is essentially caused by the lack of suitable systems that depict changes in microbiomes across sufficiently large time scales. Here, we investigate the adaptive routes taken by microbiomes along a contemporary gradient of land formation. Using functional trait-based metagenomics, we show that a switch from a microbial 'dispersal' to a 'competition' response modus best characterizes the microbial trait changes during this eco-evolutionary trajectory...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Isabel Silva, Marta Tacão, Rafael D S Tavares, Rita Miranda, Susana Araújo, Célia M Manaia, Isabel Henriques
Disinfection by UV radiation is one of the most promising solutions to reduce the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance in the final effluents of urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP). Our aim was to evaluate the fate of cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producers in a full-scale system that includes UV-C disinfection. Over treatment, the abundance of cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was reduced, with reductions of 1.9 log units after secondary treatment (STW samples) and 1...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Krzysztof Skowron, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Świeca, Zbigniew Paluszak, Justyna Bauza-Kaszewska, Ewa Wałecka-Zacharska, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in fish and fish processing plant and to determine their transmission, virulence and antibiotic resistance. L. monocytogenes was isolated according to the ISO 11290-1. The identification of L. monocytogenes was confirmed by multiplex PCR method. Genetic similarity of L. monocytogenes strains was determined with the Pulsed-Filed Gene Electrophoresis (PFGE) method. The multiplex PCR was used for identification of L. monocytogenes serogroups and detection of selected virulence genes (actA, fbpA, hlyA, iap, inlA, inlB, mpl, plcA, plcB, prfA)...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Federica Fois, Francesca Piras, Mia Torpdahl, Roberta Mazza, Daniela Ladu, Simonetta G Consolati, Carlo Spanu, Christian Scarano, Enrico P L De Santis
The aims of the present study were to determine Yersinia enterocolitica prevalence in finishing pigs and piglets at slaughter and to characterize the isolates in terms of bioserotype, virulence profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic diversity. During the years 2013-2014, nine pig slaughterhouses placed in Sardinia (Italy) were visited twice, in order to collect animal samples and scalding water. Overall, 609 samples respectively of tonsils (126), colon content (161), mesenteric lymph nodes (161) and carcass surfaces (161) were collected from 126 finishing pigs and 35 piglets...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
S Jiang, J Zeng, X Zhou, Y Li
Growing evidence suggests the existence of new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed that quorum-quenching enzymes, such as MacQ, are involved in both antibiotic resistance and cell-cell communication. Furthermore, some small bacterial regulatory RNAs, classified into RNA attenuators and small RNAs, modulate the expression of resistance genes. For example, small RNA sprX, can shape bacterial resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics via specific downregulation of protein SpoVG. Moreover, some bacterial lipocalins capture antibiotics in the extracellular space, contributing to severe multidrug resistance...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Manish Goswami, Faisal Ahmad Khan, Admir Ibrisevic, Per-Erik Olsson, Jana Jass
AIMS: The impact of municipal waste on pathogenic microorganisms released into the environment is a public health concern. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge and antibiotic contaminants on stress response, virulence and antibiotic resistance in a pathogenic Escherichia coli. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of sewage sludge leachates on uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 were determined by monitoring the expression of 45 genes associated with antibiotic/metal resistance, stress response and virulence using RT-qPCR...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Rajani Thanissery, Daina Zeng, Raul G Doyle, Casey M Theriot
Antibiotics are considered to be the first line of treatment for mild to moderately severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in humans. However, antibiotics are also risk factors for CDI as they decrease colonization resistance against C. difficile by altering the gut microbiota and metabolome. Finding compounds that selectively inhibit different stages of the C. difficile life cycle, while sparing the indigenous gut microbiota is important for the development of alternatives to standard antibiotic treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sylvie Estrela, Sam P Brown
Polymicrobial interactions play an important role in shaping the outcome of antibiotic treatment, yet how multispecies communities respond to antibiotic assault is still little understood. Here we use an individual-based simulation model of microbial biofilms to investigate how competitive and mutualistic interactions between an antibiotic-resistant and a susceptible strain (or species) influence the two-lineage community response to antibiotic exposure. Our model predicts that while increasing competition and antibiotics leads to increasing competitive release of the antibiotic-resistant strain, hitting a mutualistic community of cross-feeding species with antibiotics leads to a mutualistic suppression effect where both susceptible and resistant species are harmed...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Narayan Paudyal, Hang Pan, Xiaoliang Li, Weihuan Fang, Min Yue
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the leading causes for human salmonellosis all over the world. We analyzed the surveillance data of 18 years on antimicrobial resistance profiling of S. Enteritidis collected and isolated by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) from humans, chicken, and chicken breasts. Statistical tool based on the unique individual antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) profiling was used to compare antimicrobial resistance in the isolates...
June 21, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Joonyeon Park, Myeongji Cho, Hyeon S Son
We designed and implemented simulation models of bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance to determine the appropriate antibiotics to use against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Simulation models were designed using individual-based modeling, and a simulation tool, ARSim, was developed to conduct experiments using the models. Simulations of bacterial growth were conducted by virtually growing Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria in a virtual environment with predefined parameters. Other experiments included predicting the effects of antibiotics when added to two different groups, one group of nonresistant bacteria and another group of both resistant and nonresistant bacteria...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Branka Bedenić, Mia Slade, Lidija Žele Starčević, Sanda Sardelić, Mirna Vranić-Ladavac, Ana Benčić, Vlasta Zujić Atalić, Maja Bogdan, Marina Bubonja-Šonje, Maja Tomić-Paradžik, Tatjana Tot, Amarela Lukić-Grlić, Domagoj Drenjančević, Dijana Varda-Brkić, Daniela Bandić-Pavlović, Slobodan Mihaljević, Gernot Zarfel, Marija Gužvinec, Rick Conzemius, Ivan Barišić, Arjana Tambić-Andraševic
PURPOSE: A dramatic increase in OXA-48 β-lactamase was observed recently not only in large hospital centres, but also in smaller suburban hospital centres in geographic areas bordering Croatia. The aim of the study was to analyse the epidemiology, the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and the routes of spread of OXA-48 carbapenemase in Croatia. METHODS: Carbapenemase and other β-lactamase and fluoroquinolone resistance genes were detected by PCR and sequencing...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Benjamin J Koestler, Cara M Ward, Shelley M Payne
Shigella is an enteroinvasive human pathogen that infects the colonic epithelium and causes Shigellosis, an infectious diarrheal disease. There is no vaccine for the prevention or treatment of Shigellosis and antibiotic-resistant strains of Shigella are increasing, emphasizing the need for a deeper understanding of Shigella pathogenesis in order to design effective antimicrobial therapies. Small animal models do not recapitulate Shigellosis, therefore tissue-cultured cells have served as model systems to study Shigella pathogenesis...
May 24, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Ron D Oshri, Keren S Zrihen, Itzhak Shner, Shira Omer Bendori, Avigdor Eldar
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs a hierarchical quorum-sensing network to regulate virulence factor production that cooperatively benefit the population at a cost to the individual. It has been argued that the evolution of a cooperative mutant in a quorum sensing-suppressed population would be hampered through its exploitation by neighboring non-mutant cells. It remains unclear whether mechanisms which overcome this exploitation exist. Here we investigate the regain of quorum-sensing cooperation by evolving a mutant of the lasR master quorum-sensing regulator...
June 20, 2018: ISME Journal
Jaclyn G McCutcheon, Danielle L Peters, Jonathan J Dennis
Bacteriophages DLP1 and DLP2 are capable of infecting both Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, two highly antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens, which is unusual for phages that typically exhibit extremely limited host range. To explain their unusual cross-order infectivity and differences in host range, we have identified the type IV pilus as the primary receptor for attachment. Screening of a P. aeruginosa PA01 mutant library, a host that is susceptible to DLP1 but not DLP2, identified DLP1-resistant mutants with disruptions in pilus structural and regulatory components...
June 20, 2018: Viruses
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