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"Antibiotic resistance"

T Koiava, D Gonçalves, J Palmeira, K Arobelidze, M Tediashvili, L Akhvlediani, H Ferreira
Research describing the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant microbes is vital to the proactive development of new antimicrobial agents. In the last years, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged worldwide and have replaced classical TEM and SHV-type ESBLs in many countries. CTX-M-15 is currently the most frequent, with a pandemic distribution, and its rapid spread is facilitated by incorporation of resistance genes in mobile genetic elements. The ESBL is efficacious in Gram-negative bacteria and thus closely associated with nosocomial environments, often colonizing the intestines, particularly in older and dependent patients...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Mustafa Nakipoğlu, Fadime Yilmaz, Bulent Icgen
Untreated wastewaters and treated effluents even after final disinfection contain antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes before they are released into surface waters. A correlation between resistant bacteria and antibiotics in surface waters has been found, as have antibiotic resistance genes. Of particular interest are vancomycin-resistant enterococci harboring vanA gene that confers high level of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics including teicoplanin. Therefore, in this study, river water samples were analysed to investigate vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant bacterial isolates harboring vanA gene...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Troy A Skwor, Stephanie Klemm, Hanyu Zhang, Brianna Schardt, Stephanie Blaszczyk, Matthew A Bork
Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics threatens proper clinical treatment and jeopardizes their use in prevention. A photodynamic approach appears to be an innovative treatment option, even for multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Three components are utilized in photodynamic inactivation: a photosensitizer, light source, and oxygen. Variations in photosensitizers strongly influence microbial binding and bactericidal activity. In this study, four different cationic metalloporphyrins (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Pd(2+), Zn(2+)) were compared to the free-base ligand 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin regarding their electronic properties and generation of reactive oxygen species upon subsequent 405nm violet-blue irradiation...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Narges Abdali, Jerry Matthew Parks, Keith Haynes, Julie L Chaney, Adam T Green, David Wolloscheck, John K Walker, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jerome Yves Baudry, Jeremy C Smith, Helen I Zgurskaya
Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for development of effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. Here, we describe EPIs that interact with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel...
October 21, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Michael R Gillings, Ian T Paulsen, Sasha G Tetu
Antibiotic resistance arises as a consequence of complex interactions among genes, mobile elements, and their bacterial hosts, coupled with the intense selection pressures imposed by humans in an attempt to control bacterial growth. Understanding the evolution of resistance requires an understanding of interacting cellular and genetic components. Here, we review how DNA analysis has helped reconstruct the origins of the mosaic, multiresistant mobile elements that have spread through pathogens in the last 60 years...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Po C Liu, Yi T Lee, Chun Y Wang, Ya-Tang Yang
We describe a low cost, configurable morbidostat for characterizing the evolutionary pathway of antibiotic resistance. The morbidostat is a bacterial culture device that continuously monitors bacterial growth and dynamically adjusts the drug concentration to constantly challenge the bacteria as they evolve to acquire drug resistance. The device features a working volume of ~10 ml and is fully automated and equipped with optical density measurement and micro-pumps for medium and drug delivery. To validate the platform, we measured the stepwise acquisition of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli MG 1655, and integrated the device with a multiplexed microfluidic platform to investigate cell morphology and antibiotic susceptibility...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chris R Triggle, David J Triggle
Preclinical Research With the almost global availability of the Internet comes the expectation of universal accessibility to knowledge, including scientific knowledge-particularly that generated by public funding. Currently this is not the case. In this Commentary we discuss access to this knowledge, the politics that govern peer review and publication, and the role of this knowledge as a public good in medicine. With the almost global availability of the Internet comes the expectation of universal accessibility to knowledge, including scientific knowledge-particularly that generated by public funding...
October 21, 2016: Drug Development Research
Katariina Pärnänen, Antti Karkman, Manu Tamminen, Christina Lyra, Jenni Hultman, Lars Paulin, Marko Virta
Antibiotic resistance genes are ubiquitous in the environment. However, only a fraction of them are mobile and able to spread to pathogenic bacteria. Until now, studying the mobility of antibiotic resistance genes in environmental resistomes has been challenging due to inadequate sensitivity and difficulties in contig assembly of metagenome based methods. We developed a new cost and labor efficient method based on Inverse PCR and long read sequencing for studying mobility potential of environmental resistance genes...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Faezeh Alihosseini, Shirzad Azarmi, Solmaz Ghaffari, Setareh Haghighat, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat Sorkhabadi
Purpose: This study was designed to investigate benefit of using nanotechnology on increasing of synergic antibacterial effect of natural and chemical antibacterial agents. Methods: At first the MIC and MBC of Curcumin and Ampicillin as selected antibacterial agents was determined, after that Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of each active ingredients as well as Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Characterization of prepared SLNs was done, then MIC, MBC and contact killing time were investigated for Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs in comparison with free Curcumin and Ampicillin solutions as well as Ampicillin and Curcumin SLNs...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Trudy M Wassenaar
A century ago, Alfred Nissle discovered that intentional intake of particular strains of Escherichia coli could treat patients suffering from infectious diseases. Since then, one of these strains became the most frequently used probiotic E. coli in research and was applied to a variety of human conditions. Here, properties of that E. coli Nissle 1917 strain are compared with other commercially available E. coli probiotic strains, with emphasis on their human applications. A literature search formed the basis of a summary of research findings reported for the probiotics Mutaflor, Symbioflor 2, and Colinfant...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Kristen L Lokken, Gregory T Walker, Renée M Tsolis
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars (NTS) are generally associated with gastroenteritis; however, the very young and elderly, as well as individuals with compromised immunity, are at risk of developing disseminated infection that can manifest as bacteremia or focal infections at systemic sites. Disseminated NTS infections can be fatal and are responsible for over 600,000 deaths annually. Most of these deaths are in sub-Saharan Africa, where multi-drug resistant NTS clones are currently circulating in a population with a high proportion of individuals that are susceptible to disseminated disease...
October 8, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Çiğdem Yılmaz, Gülay Özcengiz
The discovery of penicillin followed by streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins and other natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic antimicrobials completely revolutionized medicine by reducing human morbidity and mortality from most of the common infections. However, shortly after they were introduced to clinical practice, the development of resistance was emerged. The decreasing interest from antibiotic industry in spite of rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance is a tough dilemma from the pointview of public health...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Ahmed Abdel Megeed, M Ali Hayssam, Mohamed Z M Salem, Mohamed S El-Shikh, Ibrahim Ahmed Talea, Yahya A Alogaibi
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections are a great public health concern and demand continuous surveillance and antibiotic stewardship. Virulence traits and the pathogenicity of Acinetobacter are less studied compared with the molecular epidemiological and antibiotic resistance profile of this organism. In our present study, we investigated the primary characteristics contributing to the virulence of MDR A. baumannii isolates and compared them with avirulent isolates. A total of 32 well-characterized MDR A...
October 19, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Sebastien Breurec, Coralie Bouchiat, Jean-Marie Sire, Olivier Moquet, Raymond Bercion, Moussa Fafa Cisse, Philippe Glaser, Ousmane Ndiaye, Sidy Ka, Helene Salord, Abdoulaye Seck, Haby Signate Sy, Remy Michel, Benoit Garin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal's most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. METHODS: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Qiong Jia, Xinling Hu, Dawei Shi, Yan Zhang, Meihao Sun, Jianwei Wang, Kaixia Mi, Guofeng Zhu
The universal stress protein family is a family of stress-induced proteins. Universal stress proteins affect latency and antibiotic resistance in mycobacteria. Here, we showed that Mycobacterium smegmatis overexpressing M. tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2624c exhibits increased survival in human monocyte THP-1 cells. Transcriptome analysis suggested that Rv2624c affects histidine metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that Rv2624c affects the abundance of arginine, a modulator of both mycobacteria and infected THP-1 cells...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jeremy S Stultz, Christopher D Doern, Emily Godbout
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Yushu Yin, Georgia Papavasiliou, Olga Y Zaborina, John C Alverdy, Fouad Teymour
The human gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of colonization of multidrug resistant pathogens and the major source of life-threatening complications in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Eradication measures using antibiotics carry further risk of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment can adversely shift the intestinal microbiome toward domination by resistant pathogens. Therefore, approaches directed to prevent replacement of health promoting microbiota with resistant pathogens should be developed...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Gemma L Buckland Merrett, Gerald Bloom, Annie Wilkinson, Hayley MacGregor
The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant pathogens poses a big challenge to policy-makers, who need to oversee the transformation of health systems that evolved to provide easy access to these drugs into ones that encourage appropriate use of antimicrobials, whilst reducing the risk of resistance. This is a particular challenge for low and middle-income countries with pluralistic health systems where antibiotics are available in a number of different markets. This review paper considers access and use of antibiotics in these countries from a complex adaptive system perspective...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Athanasios Tselebonis, Evangelia Nena, Christos Nikolaidis, Theocharis Konstantinidis, Christos Kontogiorgis, Maria Panopoulou, Theodore C Constantinidis
OBJECTIVE: To monitor microbes, focusing on drug resistance, on the hands of the personnel of four departments of a tertiary hospital (ICU, neonatal unit, internal medicine ward and surgical ward) and explore differences between departments, professions and genders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hand sampling from 125 healthcare employees was conducted followed by isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance profiling of different microbial species. RESULTS: Staphylococcus spp was the most prevalent microbe (76/125, 60...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
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