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Surface chemistry

Camilo Ordóñez-Barona, Vadim Sabetski, Andrew A Millward, James Steenberg
Salts used for de-icing roads and sidewalks in northern climates can have a significant impact on water quality and vegetation. Sub-surface engineering systems, such as structural soil cells, can regulate water runoff and pollutants, and provide the necessary soil volume and irrigation to grow trees. However, the ability of such systems to manage de-icing salt contamination, and the impact of this contamination on the trees growing in them, have not been evaluated. We report on an field investigation of de-icing salt contamination in structural cells in two street-revitalization projects in Toronto, Canada, and the impact of this contamination on tree performance...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Qingye Lu, Jun Huang, Omar Maan, Yang Liu, Hongbo Zeng
Surface fouling is the dominant fouling mechanism of thin-film composite (TFC) membranes used in reverse osmosis (RO) technology. Understanding the complex interactions between foulant-membrane which drive the attachment and growth of foulants on membrane surface is of both fundamental and practical importance. This work aims to understand the molecular interaction mechanisms of organic fouling on RO-TFC membranes. A surface forces apparatus (SFA) was employed to directly measure the interaction forces and time-dependent adsorption behaviors between model organic foulants: humic acid (HA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and a polyamide (PA) thin film...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zarah Forsberg, Bastien Bissaro, Jonathan Gullesen, Bjørn Dalhus, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad, Vincent G H Eijsink
Bacterial lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO10s) use redox chemistry to cleave glycosidic bonds in the two foremost recalcitrant polysaccharides found in nature, namely cellulose and chitin. Analysis of correlated mutations revealed that the substrate-binding and copper-containing surface of LPMO10s comprises a network of coevolved residues and interactions, whose roles in LPMO functionality are unclear. Here, we mutated a subset of these correlated residues in a newly characterized C1/C4-oxidizing LPMO10 from Micromonospora aurantiaca (MaLPMO10B) to the corresponding residues in strictly C1-oxidizing LPMO10s...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
R Vangara, F van Swol, D N Petsev
Electric double layers are complex systems that involve a wide variety of interactions between the different components of the electrolyte solutions and with the charged interface. While the role of all Coulombic types of interactions is clear, that of the non-Coulombic forces is less obvious. The focus in the present study is on the effect of bulk solvation interactions on the properties of the electric double layer. The analysis is based on classical density functional theory. This approach allows us to account for the correlations between all charged (ionic) and uncharged (solvent) species in the solution...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Oswald Prucker, Thomas Brandstetter, Jürgen Rühe
A novel method for the generation of surface-attached hydrogel coatings and their use in biomedical applications is discussed. This short review concentrates on surface architectures that are prepared from prepolymers carrying reactive groups suitable for crosslinking via C,H insertion reactions [C,H insertion crosslinking (CHic)]. Upon photochemical or thermal activation these groups do not only induce the crosslinking of the system, but also connect the forming gel to the surface as long as the surface itself consists of an organic material...
December 8, 2017: Biointerphases
Ying Wang, Yu Cui, Yating Zhao, Qinfu Zhao, Bing He, Qiang Zhang, Siling Wang
The surface chemistry and size of nanoparticles can greatly impact their interaction with biological pathways and alter efficacy. However, the interplay between surface modification and particle size has not been well investigated especially for oral delivery. It is necessary to maximize the bioavailability of loading therapeutics. Here, we prepared different sized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (100-500 nm) and conjugated them with polyethylenimine-coated carbondots (PCD) for effective transepithelial absorption...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Joseph Elliott, Kamonwad Ngamchuea, Christopher Batchelor-McAuley, Richard G Compton
NASA has a mandate to send humans to Mars by 2033. Recent discoveries regarding Mars include the likely presence of low temperature liquid brines on the planet's surface. This work investigates redox chemistry in near saturated aqueous 2.8 M Mg(ClO4)2 at temperatures as low as -34oC. These conditions are comparable to those thought to be found on the Martian surface. In particular electro-reduction of oxygen is studied and the diffusion coefficient and solubility of this important redox species established.
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Nestor Merino, Jingcheng Li, Aran Garcia-Lekue, Guillaume Vasseur, Manuel Vilas-Varela, Eduard Carbonell-Sanromà, Martina Corso, Jose Enrique Ortega, Diego Peña, Jose Ignacio Pascual, Dimas G de Oteyza
Recent advances in graphene nanoribbon-based research have demonstrated the controlled synthesis of chiral graphene nanoribbons (cGNR) with atomic precision using strategies of on-surface chemistry. However their electronic characterization, including typical figures of merit like band gap or frontier band´s effective masses, has not yet been reported. In this work, we provide a detailed characterization of (3,1)-cGNRs on Au(111). The structure and epitaxy, as well as the electronic band structure of the ribbons, are analyzed by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, angle resolved photoemission and density functional theory...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Luiz Ricardo Dos Santos Tozin, Marcia Ortiz Mayo Marques, Tatiane Maria Rodrigues
Herbivory can induce several structural and functional alterations in the plant secretory system. Glandular trichomes are the main sites of production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with several chemical properties in Lamiaceae species. Ocimum species usually have three morphotypes of glandular trichomes (morphotype I is peltate and has a wide four-celled head; morphotype II is capitate and has a unicellular head; and morphotype III is capitate with a bicellular head) which produce a great amount of terpenes, although other chemical categories of substances are also produced...
November 2017: AoB Plants
Veeren M Chauhan, David J Scurr, Thomas Christie, Gary Telford, Jonathan W Aylott, David I Pritchard
Necator americanus, a haematophagous hookworm parasite, infects ~10% of the world's population and is considered to be a significant public health risk. Its lifecycle has distinct stages, permitting its successful transit from the skin via the lungs (L3) to the intestinal tract (L4 maturing to adult). It has been hypothesised that the L3 larval sheath, which is shed during percutaneous infection (exsheathment), diverts the immune system to allow successful infection and reinfection in endemic areas. However, the physicochemical properties of the L3 larval cuticle and sheath, which are in direct contact with the skin and its immune defences, are unknown...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Xiao Cheng, Xinyan Yang, Zhihao Zhu, Lianbo Guo, Xiangyou Li, Yongfeng Lu, Xiaoyan Zeng
On-stream analysis of the element content in ore slurry has important significance in the control of the flotation process and full use of raw materials. Therefore, techniques that can monitor the chemistry in slurries online are required. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is one of the potential approaches to online measurements due to its capability of in situ and real-time analysis. However, using LIBS for on-stream analysis of slurries is challenging due to the issues such as surface ripples, sample splashing, sedimentation, etc...
November 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Reid A Peterson, Edgar C Buck, Jaehun Chun, Richard C Daniel, Daniel L Herting, Eugene S Ilton, Gregg J Lumetta, Sue B Clark
This paper reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micron scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Tessa R Young, Anthony G Wedd, Zhiguang Xiao
The extracellular domain E2 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) features a His-rich metal-binding site (denoted as the M1 site). In conjunction with surrounding basic residues, the site participates in interactions with components of the extracellular matrix including heparins, a class of negatively charged polysaccharide molecules of varying length. This work studied the chemistry of Cu(i) binding to APP E2 with the probe ligands Bcs, Bca, Fz and Fs. APP E2 forms a stable Cu(i)-mediated ternary complex with each of these anionic ligands...
December 7, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Javier Izquierdo, Peter Knittel, Christine Kranz
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) has evolved from an electrochemical specialist tool to a broadly used electroanalytical surface technique, which has experienced exciting developments for nanoscale electrochemical studies in recent years. Several companies now offer commercial instruments, and SECM has been used in a broad range of applications. SECM research is frequently interdisciplinary, bridging areas ranging from electrochemistry, nanotechnology, and materials science to biomedical research...
December 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Nozomi Itagaki, Yukari Oda, Toyoaki Hirata, Hung Kim Nguyen, Daisuke Kawaguchi, Hisao Matsuno, Keiji Tanaka
Poly(vinyl ether), with short oxyethylene side chains which possess a simple and relatively polar structure, should be a unique candidate for a bioinert material thanks to its solubility in water. On the basis of living cationic copolymerization and subsequent ultraviolet light irradiation, thin films of poly(2-methoxyethyl vinyl ether) with different cross-linking densities were prepared on solid substrates. The films were thickened in water, and the extent was dependent on the cross-linking density. Although the surface chemistry and aggregation states were almost identical to one another, the stiffness, or the softness, of the outermost region in the film was strongly dependent on the cross-linking density...
December 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Do-Hyun Kwak, Hyun-Soo Ra, Jinhoon Yang, Min-Hye Jeong, A-Young Lee, Wonki Lee, Jun Yeon Hwang, Joo-Hyoung Lee, Jong-Soo Lee
Black phosphorus (BP) has drawn enormous attention for both intriguing material characteristics and electronic and optoelectronic applications. In spite of excellent advantages for semiconductor device applications, the performance of BP devices is hampered by the formation of phosphorus oxide on the BP surface under ambient conditions. It is thus necessary to resolve the oxygen-induced degradation on the surface of BP to recover the characteristics and stability of the devices. To solve this problem, it is demonstrated that a 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) treatment is a simple and effective way to remove the bubbles formed on the BP surface...
December 6, 2017: Small
Shaina Kelly, Carlos Torres-Verdín, Matthew T Balhoff
Spontaneous liquid imbibition is a dominant mechanism for moving fluids in confinements with extremely high hydrodynamic resistance; i.e. nanopores. We demonstrate the impact of hydrophilicity and liquid polarity on nanoscale imbibition with dynamic measurements of the uptake of water-isopropanol (polar) and heptane (nonpolar) within 2D glass-silica nanochannels exposed to varied drying conditions and rehydration (rehydroxylation) cycles. The Lucas-Washburn equation, which does not consider interfacial fluidity effects, predicts that water-IPA and heptane should imbibe at similar speeds...
December 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Huiting Bian, Lili Ye, Jinhua Sun
CF₃CBrCH₂ (2-bromo-3,3,3-trifluoropropene, 2-BTP) is a potential replacement for CF₃Br; however, it shows conflicted inhibition and enhancement behaviors under different combustion conditions. To better understand the combustion chemistry of 2-BTP, a theoretical study has been performed on its reactions with OH and H radicals. Potential energy surfaces were exhaustively explored by using B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ for geometry optimizations and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ for high level single point energy refinements...
December 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ruzhen Xie, Yan Jin, Yao Chen, Wenju Jiang
In this study, activated carbon (AC) was prepared from walnut shell using chemical activation. The surface chemistry of the prepared AC was modified by introducing or blocking certain functional groups, and the role of the different functional groups involved in the copper uptake was investigated. The structural and chemical heterogeneity of the produced carbons are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Boehm titration method and N2/77 K adsorption isotherm analysis...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Zhenxiao Zhang, Qian Dou, Hongkai Gao, Bing Bai, Yongmei Zhang, Debo Hu, Ali K Yetisen, Haider Butt, Xiaoxia Yang, Congju Li, Qing Dai
Potassium detection is critical in monitoring imbalances in electrolytes and physiological status. The development of rapid and robust potassium sensors is desirable in clinical chemistry and point-of-care applications. In this study, composite supramolecular hydrogels are investigated: polyethylene glycol methacrylate and acrylamide copolymer (P(PEGMA-co-AM)) are functionalized with 18-crown-6 ether by employing surface initiated polymerization. Real-time potassium ion monitoring is realized by combining these compounds with quartz crystal microbalance...
December 6, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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