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Birth, labor and delivery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914313/requests-for-cesarean-deliveries-the-politics-of-labor-pain-and-pain-relief-in-shanghai-china
#1
Eileen Wang
Cesarean section rates have risen dramatically in China within the past 25 years, particularly driven by non-medical factors and maternal requests. One major reason women request cesareans is the fear of labor pain, in a country where a minority of women are given any form of pain relief during labor. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with 26 postpartum women and 8 providers at a Shanghai district hospital in June and July of 2015, this article elucidates how perceptions of labor pain and the environment of pain relief constructs the cesarean on maternal request...
November 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904309/robot-assisted-abdominal-cerclage-during-pregnancy
#2
Burak Zeybek, Amanda Hill, Gulden Menderes, Mostafa A Borahay, Masoud Azodi, Gokhan Sami Kilic
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cervical insufficiency is a difficult condition to diagnose and can lead to preterm birth, miscarriage, or perinatal infant morbidity and mortality. We conducted this retrospective case study and literature review to evaluate the safety and efficacy of robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a case series and a systematic review that included patients who underwent robot-assisted abdominal cerclage during pregnancy from January 2010 through March 2016...
October 2016: JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903080/inter-pregnancy-interval-and-adverse-outcomes-evidence-for-an-additional-risk-in-health-disparate-populations
#3
Shyama Appareddy, Jason Pryor, Beth Bailey
OBJECTIVE: Short interpregnancy interval (IPI), <18 months between pregnancies, is a potential cause of adverse delivery and birth outcomes, and may be a particular issue among those with other risks. Our goal was to examine IPI and delivery/infant complications in Tennessee. METHODS: Birth certificate/vital records data included 101,912 women with a previous delivery. IPI groups (<6, 6-12, 12-18, 18-60 months) were compared on outcomes. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent of the deliveries had IPI <18 months, 9% were <6 months, rates 11% and 27% higher than nationally...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891148/can-we-accurately-time-the-administration-of-antenatal-corticosteroids-for-preterm-labor
#4
Paola Aghajanian, Quy T Nguyen, Naomi H Greene, Kimberly D Gregory
Background. Accurate timing of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) has resulted in improved neonatal outcomes. Objectives. Our primary objective was to determine predictors for optimal timing of ACS in women presenting with spontaneous preterm labor. Study Design. A retrospective cohort study of women receiving ACS for spontaneous preterm birth was conducted. Women were included if they presented with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. Accurate timing of ACS was defined as administration within 7 days of delivery...
2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888706/position-for-labor-and-birth-state-of-knowledge-and-biomechanical-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
David Desseauve, Laetitia Fradet, Patrick Lacouture, Fabrice Pierre
This review aims to examine how childbirth position during labour affects maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. Epidemiological data suggest that vertical birthing positions have many benefits. But when we consider the players and mechanisms of delivery, including the forces generated to move the fetus and obstacles to its progression, many questions remain about the advantage of one position over another. Thus, childbirth could be considered in a way as an athletic feat that probably requires the choice of optimal positions...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885286/immediate-outcome-of-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-in-hypoxiate-newborns-in-nepal-medical-college
#6
S Shrestha, G S Shrestha, A Sharma
BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is the fifth major cause of under-five child deaths after pneumonia, diarrhoea, neonatal infections and complications of preterm birth. It is one of the important causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity accounting up to 30% of neonatal death in Nepal. It is also an important cause of long-term neurological disability and impairment. The mortality rate due to birth asphyxia is considered a good guide to the quality of perinatal care. This study was conducted to assess the rate of birth asphyxia, risk factors and outcome of the babies who were asphyxiated at birth...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879326/effects-of-levothyroxine-treatment-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-autoimmune-thyroid-disease
#7
Sima Nazarpour, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Masoumeh Simbar, Maryam Tohidi, Hamid Alavi Majd, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: Despite some studies indicating that thyroid antibody positivity during pregnancy has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, evidence regarding the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) treatment of euthyroid/subclinical hypothyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease on pregnancy outcome is limited. We aimed to assess whether pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease, but without overt thyroid dysfunction are affected by higher rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871590/does-nitrous-oxide-labor-analgesia-influence-the-pattern-of-neuraxial-analgesia-usage-an-impact-study-at-an-academic-medical-center
#8
Lesley E Bobb, Michaela K Farber, Catherine McGovern, William Camann
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of epidural use before and after the implementation of nitrous oxide (N2O). DESIGN: Data were obtained from a nursing database of N2O usage and our obstetric anesthesia database. We compared 8 months before and 8 months after the introduction of N2O. It was available 24 h/d, 7 d/wk, consistent with neuraxial analgesia availability. Epidural utilization before and after introduction of N2O was compared using χ(2) analysis. SETTING: Labor and delivery floor...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870739/performance-of-the-angle-labor-pain-questionnaire-during-initiation-of-epidural-analgesia-in-early-active-labor
#9
Pamela J Angle, Christine Kurtz Landy, Jasmine Djordjevic, Jon Barrett, Alanna Kibbe, Saiena Sriparamananthan, Yuna Lee, Lydia Hamata, Pearl Zaki, Alex Kiss
BACKGROUND: The Angle Labor Pain Questionnaire (A-LPQ) is a new, 22-item multidimensional psychometric questionnaire that measures the 5 most important dimensions of women's childbirth pain experiences using 5 subscales: The Enormity of the Pain, Fear/Anxiety, Uterine Contraction Pain, Birthing Pain, and Back Pain/Long Haul. Previous work showed that the A-LPQ has overall good psychometric properties and performance during early active labor in women without pain relief. The current study assessed the tool's sensitivity to change during initiation of labor epidural analgesia with the standardized response mean (SRM, primary outcome)...
December 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869984/cesarean-delivery-rates-and-obstetric-culture-an-italian-register-based-study
#10
Cristina Plevani, Maddalena Incerti, Davide Del Sorbo, Armando Pintucci, Patrizia Vergani, Luca Merlino, Anna Locatelli
INTRODUCTION: Cesarean delivery (CD) rates are rising due to multiple factors, including less use of operative vaginal delivery (OVD) and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC), which often reflect local obstetric practices. Objectives of the study were to analyze the relations between CD, these practices and perinatal outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included all deliveries in the 72 hospitals of Lombardia, a Region in Northern Italy, during the year 2013...
November 21, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868224/evaluation-of-levator-ani-muscle-throughout-the-different-stages-of-labor-by-transperineal-3d-ultrasound
#11
José Antonio García Mejido, Carmen M Suárez Serrano, Ana Fernéndez Palacín, Adriana Aquise Pino, María José Bonomi Barby, José Antonio Sainz Bueno
OBJECTIVE: Description and assessment by 3-D transperineal ultrasound of modifications suffered by pelvic floor muscles during the passage of the fetal head through the birth canal during the second stage of labor, as well as the identification of the precise moment in which levator ani muscle avulsion takes place. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were 35 primigravidae, recruited during the first stage of labor, with at term pregnancy (37-42 weeks), without serious maternal-fetal pathology and cephalic presentation...
November 21, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865977/racial-ethnic-differences-in-preterm-perinatal-outcomes
#12
Maeve E Wallace, Pauline Mendola, Sung Soo Kim, Nikira Epps, Zhen Chen, Melissa Smarr, Stefanie N Hinkle, Yeyi Zhu, Katherine L Grantz
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in preterm birth and infant mortality have been well documented. Less is known about racial disparities in neonatal morbidities among infants born prior to 37 weeks. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if risk for morbidity and mortality among infants born preterm differs by maternal race. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort design included medical records from preterm deliveries of 19,325 Black, Hispanic, and White women in the Consortium on Safe Labor...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865975/differences-in-placental-telomere-length-suggest-a-link-between-racial-disparities-in-birth-outcomes-and-cellular%C3%A2-aging
#13
Christopher W Jones, Cecilia Gambala, Kyle C Esteves, Maeve Wallace, Reid Schlesinger, Marguerite O'Quinn, Laura Kidd, Katherine P Theall, Stacy S Drury
BACKGROUND: Health disparities begin early in life and persist across the life course. Despite current efforts, black women exhibit greater risk for pregnancy complications and negative perinatal outcomes compared with white women. The placenta, which is a complex multi-tissue organ, serves as the primary transducer of bidirectional information between the mother and fetus. Altered placental function is linked to multiple racially disparate pregnancy complications; however, little is known about racial differences in molecular factors within the placenta...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861697/practice-variation-of-vaginal-birth-after-cesarean-and-the-influence-of-risk-factors-at-patient-level-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Emy Vankan, Ellen N Schoorel, Sander M van Kuijk, Ben-Willem J Mol, Jan G Nijhuis, Robert Aardenburg, Marleen Alink, Karin de Boer, Friso M C Delemarre, Carmen D Dirksen, Ivo M van Dooren, Maureen T M Franssen, Mesrure Kaplan, Gunilla Kleiverda, Simone M I Kuppens, Anneke Kwee, Josje Langenveld, Frans T Lim, Sonja Melman, J M Sikkema, Luc J Smits, Harry Visser, Mallory Woiski, Hubertina C Scheepers, Rosella P Hermens
INTRODUCTION: Large practice variation exists in mode of delivery after cesarean section (CS), suggesting variation in implementation of contemporary guidelines. We aim to evaluate this practice variation and to what extent this can be explained by risk factors at patient level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was performed amongst 17 Dutch hospitals in 2010. Women with one prior CS without a contraindication for an trial of labor (TOL) were included...
November 16, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861568/appropriateness-of-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-disease
#15
Aida Bianco, Elisabetta Larosa, Claudia Pileggi, Maria Pavia
The aims of this study were to describe the adherence to CDC guidelines for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) and to identify possible factors influencing noncompliance with guidelines. We conducted a retrospective study in Italy. Our cohort included women in whom antenatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening was not performed, was performed, but results were not available at the time of labor or delivery and women who were positive for GBS colonization. The indications for complete execution of IAP according to revised CDC guidelines was evaluated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859592/childbirth-education-class-and-birth-plans-are-associated-with-a-vaginal-delivery
#16
Yalda Afshar, Erica T Wang, Jenny Mei, Tania F Esakoff, Margareta D Pisarska, Kimberly D Gregory
BACKGROUND: To determine whether the mode of delivery was different between women who attended childbirth education (CBE) class, had a birth plan, or both compared with those who did not attend CBE class or have a birth plan. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of women who delivered singleton gestations > 24 weeks at our institution between August 2011 and June 2014. Based on a self-report at the time of admission for labor, women were stratified into four categories: those who attended a CBE class, those with a birth plan, both, and those with neither CBE or birth plan...
November 15, 2016: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859542/midwives-management-during-the-second-stage-of-labor-in-relation-to-second-degree-tears-an-experimental-study
#17
Malin Edqvist, Ingegerd Hildingsson, Margareta Mollberg, Ingela Lundgren, Helena Lindgren
INTRODUCTION: Most women who give birth for the first time experience some form of perineal trauma. Second-degree tears contribute to long-term consequences for women and are a risk factor for occult anal sphincter injuries. The objective of this study was to evaluate a multifaceted midwifery intervention designed to reduce second-degree tears among primiparous women. METHODS: An experimental cohort study where a multifaceted intervention consisting of 1) spontaneous pushing, 2) all birth positions with flexibility in the sacro-iliac joints, and 3) a two-step head-to-body delivery was compared with standard care...
November 14, 2016: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848142/parasympathetic-tone-variations-according-to-umbilical-cord-ph-at-birth-a-computerized-fetal-heart-rate-variability-analysis
#18
Laura Butruille, Julien De Jonckheere, Mathilde Flocteil, Charles Garabedian, Véronique Houfflin-Debarge, Laurent Storme, Philippe Deruelle, Régis Logier
Non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracings reflect an imbalance between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. In this situation, fetal asphyxia can be suspected and may be confirmed by metabolic measurements at birth like low pH or high base deficit values. The objective of this study was to determine whether fetal asphyxia during labor is related to parasympathetic nervous system activity. This is a retrospective study of a database collected in 5 centers. Two hundred and ninety-nine fetal heart rate tracings collected during labor were analyzed...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844497/is-a-cause-of-postpartum-hemorrhage-of-using-of-tocolytic-agents-in-preterm-delivery
#19
Soo Ran Choi, NaeRi Yoon, Sung Ook Hwang
OBJECTIVE: Tocolytic agents are used to inhibit uterine contraction in preterm. The authors undertook this study to determine whether the using of tocolytics agents before delivery is associated with increase postpartum hemorrhage in preterm delivered women. METHOD: 296 singleton pregnancies delivered preterm from 24 + 1 to 37 + 0 weeks gestation were retrospectively reviewed. Hemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (HCT) levels were checked before and after delivery to access postpartum blood loss...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843354/postpartum-hemorrhage-incidence-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-a-low-resource-setting
#20
Solwayo Ngwenya
BACKGROUND: Primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is defined as blood loss from the genital tract of 500 mL or more following a normal vaginal delivery (NVD) or 1,000 mL or more following a cesarean section within 24 hours of birth. PPH contributes significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Women can rapidly hemorrhage and die soon after giving birth. It can be a devastating outcome to many young families. Women giving birth in low-resource settings are at a higher risk of death than their counterparts in resource-rich environments...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
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