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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043086/hepatitis-b-vaccination-coverage-and-the-determinants-of-vaccination-among-health-care-workers-in-selected-health-facilities-in-lusaka-district-zambia-an-exploratory-study
#1
Namwaka Mungandi, Mpundu Makasa, Patrick Musonda
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver and causes both acute and chronic disease. It is transmitted through contact with an infected person's bodily fluids. It is an occupational hazard for healthcare workers and can be prevented by the administration of a vaccine. It is recommended that healthcare workers be vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases including hepatitis B. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hepatitis B vaccination among healthcare workers in selected health facilities in Lusaka...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041941/disentangling-the-effects-of-a-multiple-behaviour-change-intervention-for-diarrhoea-control-in-zambia-a-theory-based-process-evaluation
#2
Katie Greenland, Jenala Chipungu, Joyce Chilekwa, Roma Chilengi, Val Curtis
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc...
October 17, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036208/transitioning-couple-s-voluntary-hiv-counseling-and-testing-cvct-from-stand-alone-weekend-services-into-routine-antenatal-and-vct-services-in-government-clinics-in-zambia-s-two-largest-cities
#3
Mubiana Inambao, William Kilembe, Lauren A Canary, Nancy L Czaicki, Matilda Kakungu-Simpungwe, Roy Chavuma, Kristin M Wall, Amanda Tichacek, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Elwyn Chomba, Susan A Allen
INTRODUCTION: Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC) and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described. METHODS: Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036171/costs-of-facility-based-hiv-testing-in-malawi-zambia-and-zimbabwe
#4
MULTICENTER STUDY
Lawrence Mwenge, Linda Sande, Collin Mangenah, Nurilign Ahmed, Sarah Kanema, Marc d'Elbée, Euphemia Sibanda, Thokozani Kalua, Gertrude Ncube, Cheryl C Johnson, Karin Hatzold, Frances M Cowan, Elizabeth L Corbett, Helen Ayles, Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Fern Terris-Prestholt
BACKGROUND: Providing HIV testing at health facilities remains the most common approach to ensuring access to HIV treatment and prevention services for the millions of undiagnosed HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to explore the costs of providing these services across three southern African countries with high HIV burden. METHODS: Primary costing studies were undertaken in 54 health facilities providing HIV testing services (HTS) in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034537/how-effective-and-fair-is-user-fee-removal-evidence-from-zambia-using-a-pooled-synthetic-control
#5
Aurélia Lépine, Mylène Lagarde, Alexis Le Nestour
Despite its high political interest, the impact of removing user charges for health care in low-income settings remains a debatable issue. We try to clear up this contentious issue by estimating the short-term effects of a policy change that occurred in 2006 in Zambia, when 54 of 72 districts removed fees. We use a pooled synthetic control method in order to estimate the causal impact of the policy on health care use, the provider chosen, and out-of-pocket medical expenses. We find no evidence that user fee removal increased health care utilisation, even among the poorest group...
October 16, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033613/let-us-fight-and-support-one-another-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-on-contributors-and-solutions-to-hiv-risk-in-zambia
#6
Stefani A Butts, Lauren E Parmley, Maria L Alcaide, Violeta J Rodriguez, Annette Kayukwa, Ndashi Chitalu, Stephen M Weiss, Deborah L Jones
In Zambia, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), social, cultural and economic factors making them particularly vulnerable. This study was designed to understand the context in which AGYW are at risk and to identify perceived drivers of the epidemic and potential strategies to reduce HIV risk. Focus group discussions were conducted with AGYW in Zambian districts with the highest HIV prevalence from February through August 2016. The focus group guide addressed HIV risk factors and strategies for HIV prevention in AGYW...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032626/using-behavior-change-approaches-to-improve-complementary-feeding-practices
#7
Tina Sanghvi, Renata Seidel, Jean Baker, Ann Jimerson
This paper applies an implementation framework, based on a behavior change model, to compare four case studies of complementary feeding programs. It aims to expand our understanding of how to design and implement behavior change interventions aimed at improving complementary feeding practices. Four programs met the selection criteria of scale and documented improvements: Bangladesh, Malawi, Peru, and Zambia. We examined commonalities and differences in the design and implementation of social and behavior change approaches, use of program delivery platforms, challenges encountered, and lessons learned...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029644/varying-intervals-of-antiretroviral-medication-dispensing-to-improve-outcomes-for-hiv-patients-the-interval-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Risa Hoffman, Ashley Bardon, Sydney Rosen, Matthew Fox, Thoko Kalua, Thembi Xulu, Angela Taylor, Ian Sanne
BACKGROUND: Requirements for frequent dispensing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) place demands on health systems and can lead to suboptimal adherence and disengagement in care for patients due to the time and cost of frequent clinic visits. Rigorous data are needed to define optimal ART dispensing strategies and to evaluate the impact of a longer medication supply on retention and virologic suppression and determine whether this strategy lowers costs for both the patient and the health system...
October 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029626/higher-educational-attainment-associated-with-reduced-likelihood-of-abnormal-cervical-lesions-among-zambian-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Twaambo Euphemia Hamoonga, Rosemary Ndonyo Likwa, Patrick Musonda, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: The high burden of cervical cancer in Zambia prompted the Ministry of Health and partners to develop the cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia (CCPPZ) in 2006. Despite this intervention more women continue to die from the disease and there is little understanding of factors that may be linked with abnormal cervical lesions in the general population. We therefore examined if educational attainment is associated with abnormal cervical lesions among Zambian women aged 15 to 49 years...
October 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029368/who-accesses-surgery-at-district-level-in-sub-saharan-africa-evidence-from-malawi-and-zambia
#10
Jakub Gajewski, Rachel Dharamshi, Michael Strader, John Kachimba, Eric Borgstein, Gerald Mwapasa, Mweene Cheelo, Tracey McCauley, Leon Bijlmakers, Ruairi Brugha
OBJECTIVES: To examine age and gender distribution for the most common types of surgery in Malawi and Zambia. METHODS: Data were collected from major operating theatres in 8 district hospitals in Malawi and 9 in Zambia. Raw data on surgical procedures were coded by specialist surgeons for frequency analyses. RESULTS: In Malawi, female surgical patients had a mean age of 25 years, with 91% aged 16-40 years. Females accounted for 85%, and obstetric cases for 75%, of all surgical patients...
October 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025485/secondary-analysis-of-tuberculosis-stigma-data-from-a-cluster-randomised-trial-in-zambia-and-south-africa-zamstar
#11
V Bond, S Floyd, J Fenty, A Schaap, P Godfrey-Faussett, M Claassens, K Shanaube, H Ayles, J R Hargreaves
SETTING: Zambian and South African TB and HIV Reduction (ZAMSTAR) cluster-randomised trial (CRT) communities, 2006-2009. OBJECTIVES: To develop TB stigma items, and evaluate changes in them in response to a household intervention aimed at reducing TB transmission and prevalence but not tailored to reduce stigma. DESIGN: TB stigma was measured at baseline and 18 months later among 1826 recently diagnosed TB patients and 1235 adult members of their households across 24 communities; 12 of 24 communities were randomised to receive the household intervention...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025403/tuberculosis-among-older-adults-in-zambia-burden-and-characteristics-among-a-neglected-group
#12
Jenna Coffman, Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Ben J Marais, Nathan Kapata, Alimuddin Zumla, Joel Negin
BACKGROUND: The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates show that 57% of all TB deaths globally occurred among adults older than 50 years of age. Few studies document the TB burden among older adults in Southern Africa. We focused on adults older than 55 years to assess the relative TB burden and associated demographic factors. METHODS: A cross sectional nationally representative TB prevalence survey conducted of Zambian residents aged 15 years and above from 66 clusters across all the 10 provinces of Zambia...
October 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023510/reaching-the-first-90-gaps-in-coverage-of-hiv-testing-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-16-african-countries
#13
Sarah Staveteig, Trevor N Croft, Kathryn T Kampa, Sara K Head
BACKGROUND: UNAIDS has recently proposed a set of three ambitious targets that, if achieved, are predicted to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. The targets, known as 90-90-90, call for 90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) to know their status, 90% of PLHIV to receive antiretroviral therapy, and 90% of those on antiretroviral therapy to achieve viral suppression by the year 2020. We examine the first of these targets, focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, the region of the world most affected by HIV, to measure the proportion of PLHIV estimated to know their HIV status, and to identify background and behavioral characteristics significantly associated with gaps in ever testing among PLHIV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020295/improved-retention-with-six-month-clinic-return-intervals-for-stable-hiv-infected-patients-in-zambia
#14
Aaloke Mody, Monika Roy, Kombatende Sikombe, Thea Savory, Charles Holmes, Carolyn Bolton-Moore, Nancy Padian, Izukanji Sikazwe, Elvin Geng
Background: Extending appointment intervals for stable HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa can reduce patient opportunity costs and decongest overcrowded facilities. Methods: We analyzed a cohort of stable HIV-infected adults (on treatment with CD4>200 cells/μl for over 6 months) presenting for clinic visits in Lusaka, Zambia. We utilized multilevel, mixed-effects logistic regression adjusting for patient characteristics-including prior retention-to assess the association between scheduled appointment intervals and subsequent missed visits (>14 days late to next visit), gaps in medication (>14 days late to next pharmacy refill), and loss to follow-up (LTFU, >90 days late to next visit)...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019254/psychometric-evaluation-of-hiv-risk-behavior-assessments-using-audio-computer-assisted-self-interviewing-acasi-among-orphans-and-vulnerable-children-in-zambia
#15
Jeremy C Kane, Paul Bolton, Sarah M Murray, Judith K Bass, Daniel Lakin, Kathryn Whetten, Stephanie Skavenski van Wyk, Laura K Murray
Social desirability bias and underreporting of HIV risk behaviors are significant challenges to the accurate evaluation of HIV prevention programs for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa. Valid and reliable HIV risk behavior instruments are critical to address these challenges. We assessed the psychometric properties of two risk behavior measures, the World Aids Foundation Survey (WAF) and the Peer HIV Risk Behavior Screener (PHRBS), administered to 210 OVC in Zambia using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017597/estimating-the-economic-and-social-consequences-for-patients-diagnosed-with-human-african-trypanosomiasis-in-muchinga-lusaka-and-eastern-provinces-of-zambia-2004-2014
#16
Allan Mayaba Mwiinde, Martin Simuunza, Boniface Namangala, Chitalu Miriam Chama-Chiliba, Noreen Machila, Neil Anderson, Alexandra Shaw, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Acute human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is associated with high mortality and is fatal if left untreated. Only a few studies have examined the psychological, social and economic impacts of rHAT. In this study, mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of rHAT in Mambwe, Rufunsa, Mpika and Chama Districts of Zambia. METHODS: Individuals diagnosed with rHAT from 2004 to 2014 were traced using hospital records and discussions with communities...
October 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016281/assessing-the-impact-of-leveraging-traditional-leadership-on-access-to-sanitation-in-rural-zambia
#17
Amy Tiwari, Scott Russpatrick, Alexandra Hoehne, Selma M Matimelo, Sharon Mazimba, Ilenga Nkhata, Nicolas Osbert, Geoffrey Soloka, Anna Winters, Benjamin Winters, David A Larsen
Open defecation is practiced by more than one billion people throughout the world and leads to significant public health issues including infectious disease transmission and stunted growth in children. Zambia implemented community-led total sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention to eliminate open defecation in rural areas. To support CLTS and the attainment of open defecation free communities, chiefs were considered key agents of change and were empowered to drive CLTS and improve sanitation for their chiefdom...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994352/the-impact-of-a-multi-level-maternal-health-programme-on-facility-delivery-and-capacity-for-emergency-obstetric-care-in-zambia
#18
Elizabeth G Henry, Donald M Thea, Davidson H Hamer, William DeJong, Kebby Musokotwane, Kenneth Chibwe, Godfrey Biemba, Katherine Semrau
In 2012, Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL), a multi-level health systems initiative, launched in Kalomo District, Zambia, to address persistent challenges in reducing maternal mortality. We assessed the impact of the programme from 2012 to 2013 using a quasi-experimental study with both household- and health facility-level data collected before and after implementation in both intervention and comparison areas. A total of 21,680 women and 75 non-hospital health centres were included in the study. Using the difference-in-differences method, multivariate logistic regression, and run charts, rates of facility-based birth (FBB) and delivery with a skilled birth provider were compared between intervention and comparison sites...
October 10, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991898/insights-and-efforts-to-control-rabies-in-zambia-evaluation-of-determinants-and-barriers-to-dog-vaccination-in-nyimba-district
#19
Carolyn Patricia Mulipukwa, Boyd Mudenda, Allan Rabson Mbewe
BACKGROUND: The current rabies control strategy in Zambia is based on dog vaccination, dog population control and dog movement restrictions. In Nyimba district of Zambia, dog vaccination coverage is low but the incidence of dog bites is high which places the community at risk of rabies infection. The renewed global interest eliminating rabies in developing countries has spurred interest to identify determinants and barriers of dog vaccination in an effort to reduce the overall disease burden...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986685/contribution-of-market-value-chain-to-the-control-of-african-swine-fever-in-zambia
#20
C Siamupa, N Saasa, A M Phiri
African swine fever (ASF) is a worldwide disease of pigs endemic in most sub-Saharan African countries. Zambia has been experiencing outbreaks of ASF for many years because the disease is endemic in the eastern part of the country, with incursion into the central part of Lusaka Province. The latest outbreaks of ASF in Lusaka occurred in 2013 with substantial pig mortalities, loss in trade, and cost of control measures and compensation of affected farmers. The aims of the study were to identify market value chain-related factors that were associated with ASF outbreaks and assess why these outbreaks are becoming frequent despite control measures being put in place...
October 6, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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