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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225707/nonadherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-zambia-is-concentrated-among-a-minority-of-patients-and-is-highly-variable-across-clinics
#1
Nancy L Czaicki, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe, Carolyn Bolton, Theodora Savory, Mwanza Wa Mwanza, Crispin Moyo, Nancy S Padian, Elvin H Geng
OBJECTIVES: The distribution of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) can indicates whether barriers are concentrated or more distributed. We quantified the medication possession ratio (MPR) and characterized the distribution of medication nonpossession in a network of clinics in Zambia to identify 'hotspots' and predictors of poorer adherence. METHODS: We analyzed a population of adults on ART for more than 3 months who made at least one clinic visit between 1 January 2013 and 28 February 2015...
March 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219411/using-the-hierarchical-ordinal-regression-model-to-analyse-the-intensity-of-urinary-schistosomiasis-infection-in-school-children-in-lusaka-province-zambia
#2
Christopher Simoonga, Lawrence N Kazembe
BACKGROUND: Urinary schistosomiasis has been a major public health problem in Zambia for many years. However, the disease profile may vary in different locale due to the changing ecosystem that contributes to the risk of acquiring the disease. The objective of this study was to quantify risk factors associated with the intensity of urinary schistosomiasis infection in school children in Lusaka Province, Zambia, in order to better understand local transmission. METHODS: Data were obtained from 1 912 school children, in 20 communities, in the districts of Luangwa and Kafue in Lusaka Province...
February 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217726/caring-for-patients-with-advanced-breast-cancer-the-experiences-of-zambian-nurses
#3
Johanna Elizabeth Maree, Jennipher Kombe Mulonda
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the experiences of Zambian nurses caring for women with advanced breast cancer. METHODS: We used a qualitative descriptive design and purposive sampling. Seventeen in-depth interviews were conducted with registered nurses practicing in the Cancer Diseases Hospital and the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, and analyzed using thematic analyses. RESULTS: Two themes emerged from the data - caring for women with advanced breast cancer is challenging and the good outweighs the bad...
January 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209173/moving-from-legality-to-reality-how-medical-abortion-methods-were-introduced-with-implementation-science-in-zambia
#4
Tamara Fetters, Ghazaleh Samandari, Patrick Djemo, Bellington Vwallika, Stephen Mupeta
BACKGROUND: Although abortion is technically legal in Zambia, the reality is far more complicated. This study describes the process and results of galvanizing access to medical abortion where abortion has been legal for many years, but provision severely limited. It highlights the challenges and successes of scaling up abortion care using implementation science to document 2 years of implementation. METHODS: An intervention between the Ministry of Health, University Teaching Hospital and the international organization Ipas, was established to introduce medical abortion and to address the lack of understanding and implementation of the country's abortion law...
February 16, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209131/support-for-the-feasibility-of-the-ages-and-stages-questionnaire-as-a-developmental-screening-tool-a-cross-sectional-study-of-south-african-and-zambian-children-aged-2-60-months
#5
Alastair van Heerden, Celia Hsiao, Beatrice Matafwali, Julia Louw, Linda Richter
BACKGROUND: There is a growing global acknowledgement that improving child survival rates is no longer sufficient. Emphasis is shifting to the improvement of health and developmental trajectories in early childhood. Screening and measurement of these trajectories in low and middle income countries is difficult, however, as they currently rely on developmental tests standardised among populations of children growing up in resource rich environments. METHODS: This paper presents a comparison of one such tool adapted for use with children living in Southern Africa to children from the United States, Norway, Korea and Spain...
February 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202639/dietary-protein-intake-in-young-children-in-selected-low-income-countries-is-generally-adequate-in-relation-to-estimated-requirements-for-healthy-children-except-when-complementary-food-intake-is-low
#6
Joanne E Arsenault, Kenneth H Brown
Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein.Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality.Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187629/review-of-the-genus-i-lanchnophorus-i-hemiptera-heteroptera-rhyparochromidae-with-description-of-three-new-species-and-other-nomenclatural-changes
#7
Petr Kment, Attilio Carapezza, Zdeněk Jindra, Előd Kondorosy
The generic name Lanchnophorus Reuter, 1887, deemed for a long time to be unavailable as incorrect original spelling of Lachnophorus (in fact Lachnophorus Distant, 1903 is an unjustified emendation of the former), is restored as a valid name of the genus. Lachnesthus Bergroth, 1915, syn. nov. (new name for the preoccupied Lachnophorus Distant, 1903) is considered junior synonym of Lanchnophorus. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Lanchnophorus flavus (Scudder, 1971) comb. nov. = Lachnesthus chinai Scudder, nomen nudum; Lanchnophorus guttulatus Reuter, 1887, comb...
January 25, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187603/observations-on-the-biology-of-afrotropical-hesperiidae-lepidoptera-%C3%A2-with-particular-reference-to-kenya-part-11-heteropterinae
#8
Matthew J W Cock, T Colin E Congdon
Partial life histories from Kenya or Tanzania are presented for Metisella midas midas (Butler), M. medea medea Evans, M. orientalis orientalis Aurivillius, M. quadrisignatus nanda Evans, M. congdoni De Jong & Kielland and M. willemi Wallengren. The ovum of Metisella formosus linda Evans is also illustrated from Zambia. All feed on species of grasses (Poaceae). The convergence of the biology of the grass-feeding skippers, particularly Heteropterinae and Hesperiinae, Baorini is discussed.
January 30, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187234/the-research-and-implementation-continuum-of-biofortified-sweet-potato-and-maize-in-africa
#9
Sherry A Tanumihardjo, Anna-Marie Ball, Chisela Kaliwile, Kevin V Pixley
The enhancement of sweet potato and maize with provitamin A carotenoids has been part of HarvestPlus's research continuum since the formation of the biofortification project. This review includes case studies of biofortification strategies used for sweet potato in Uganda and orange maize in Zambia. The current status of the science and release of biofortified varieties was reviewed by three scientists who were part of the HarvestPlus program for more than a decade with input from a scientist who experienced orange maize dissemination in Zambia...
February 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176645/prevention-interventions-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-military-settings
#10
Michael Grillo, Margo Sloan, Che Wankie, Kelly Woodland, Elizabeth Reader, Bruce Porter, Caroline Macera, Richard Shaffer
Military prevention programs and healthy living programs were developed in the mid-1980s to manage and support newly HIV-positive military personnel in the US military. Since then, a program developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with support from the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), called Positive Health, Dignity and Prevention (PHDP), is currently being rolled out by DHAPP in partner militaries. The program, designed to reduce HIV transmission, is a package of interventions for people living with HIV (PLHIV), including risk reduction counseling, condom provision, disclosure counseling, testing of sexual partner(s) and children, adherence counseling, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and provision of family planning services...
February 7, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170442/explaining-changes-in-child-health-inequality-in-the-run-up-to-the-2015-millennium-development-goals-mdgs-the-case-of-zambia
#11
Peter Hangoma, Arild Aakvik, Bjarne Robberstad
BACKGROUND: Child health interventions were drastically scaled up in the period leading up to 2015 as countries aimed at meeting the 2015 target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). MDGs were defined in terms of achieving improvements in average health. Significant improvements in average child health are documented, but evidence also points to rising inequality. It is important to investigate factors that drive the increasing disparities in order to inform the post-2015 development agenda of reducing inequality, as captured in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167591/the-arc-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-capacity-development-insights-from-a-decade-of-partnership-for-medical-education-in-zambia
#12
Cassidy W Claassen, Lottie Hachaambwa, Dorcas Phiri, Douglas C Watson, Devang Patel, Christopher M Bositis, Amy Bositis, Deus Mubangizi, Robert Redfield, Peter Mwaba, Robb Sheneberger
Zambia and other sub-Saharan nations suffer from a critical shortage of trained health-care professionals to combat the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome crisis. The University of Maryland and the Zambian Ministry of Health have partnered over the past decade to develop health-care capacity among physicians, nurses, and community health workers. We describe novel interventions to train health-care workers at all levels and argue that our collaboration represents a successful model for such partnerships between western medical institutions and African governmental health agencies...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167339/poverty-and-perceived-stress-evidence-from-two-unconditional-cash-transfer-programs-in-zambia
#13
Lisa Hjelm, Sudhanshu Handa, Jacobus de Hoop, Tia Palermo
INTRODUCTION: Poverty is a chronic stressor that can lead to poor physical and mental health. This study examines whether two similar government poverty alleviation programs reduced the levels of perceived stress and poverty among poor households in Zambia. METHOD: Secondary data from two cluster randomized controlled trials were used to evaluate the impacts of two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia. Participants were interviewed at baseline and followed over 36 months...
January 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162034/persons-living-with-hiv-infection-on-antiretroviral-therapy-also-consulting-traditional-healers-a-study-in-three-african-countries
#14
Jane N Wanyama, Sharon Tsui, Cynthia Kwok, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Julie A Denison, Olivier Koole, Eric van Praag, Barbara Castelnuovo, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Gideon P Kwesigabo, Robert Colebunders
Traditional healers provide healthcare to a substantial proportion of people living with HIV infection (PLHIV) in high HIV burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the impact on the health of retained patients visiting traditional healers is unknown. In 2011, a study to asses adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) performed in 18 purposefully selected HIV treatment centers in Tanzania, Zambia and Uganda showed that 'consulting a traditional healer/herbalist because of HIV' was an independent risk factor for incomplete ART adherence...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158981/hypertension-management-in-rural-primary-care-facilities-in-zambia-a-mixed-methods-study
#15
Lily D Yan, Cindy Chirwa, Benjamin H Chi, Samuel Bosomprah, Ntazana Sindano, Moses Mwanza, Dennis Musatwe, Mary Mulenga, Roma Chilengi
BACKGROUND: Improved primary health care is needed in developing countries to effectively manage the growing burden of hypertension. Our objective was to evaluate hypertension management in Zambian rural primary care clinics using process and outcome indicators to assess the screening, monitoring, treatment and control of high blood pressure. METHODS: Better Health Outcomes through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) is a 5-year, randomized stepped-wedge trial of improved clinical service delivery underway in 46 rural Zambian clinics...
February 3, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158794/the-economic-benefits-of-high-cd4-counts-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-zambia
#16
Nyasha Tirivayi, John R Koethe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158504/impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-liver-fibrosis-among-hiv-infected-adults-with-and-without-hbv-coinfection-in-zambia
#17
Michael J Vinikoor, Edford Sinkala, Roma Chilengi, Lloyd Mulenga, Benjamin H Chi, Zude Zyambo, Christopher J Hoffmann, Michael S Saag, Mary-Ann Davies, Matthias Egger, Gilles Wandeler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157465/missed-opportunities-for-screening-child-contacts-of-smear-positive-tuberculosis-in-zambia-a-high-prevalence-setting
#18
C Chabala, G Chongwe, E Jumbe-Marsden, S W Somwe
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether contact screening recommendations for child household contacts of adult smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases were implemented in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of smear-positive adults receiving anti-tuberculosis treatment was conducted. The main outcomes were proportions of TB patients with under-five children who were aware, informed and/or had a child screened and/or commenced on isoniazid (INH). RESULTS: Of 371 TB patients (median age 33 years, 70% males), 259 (70%) lived with a child aged <15 years, of whom 48% (177) were aged <5 years...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155285/parasites-of-domestic-and-wild-animals-in-south-africa-xlix-ticks-acari-ixodidae-infesting-white-and-black-rhinoceroses-in-southern-africa
#19
Ivan G Horak, Christiaan R Boshoff, David V Cooper, Christoper M Foggin, Danny Govender, Alan Harrison, Guy Hausler, Markus Hofmeyr, J Werner Kilian, Duncan N MacFadyen, Pierre J Nel, Dean Peinke, David Squarre, David Zimmermann
The objectives of the study were to determine the species composition of ticks infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern Africa as well as the conservation status of those tick species that prefer rhinos as hosts. Ticks were collected opportunistically from rhinos that had been immobilised for management purposes, and 447 white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) and 164 black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) were sampled in South Africa, 61 black rhinos in Namibia, 18 white and 12 black rhinos in Zimbabwe, and 24 black rhinos in Zambia...
January 30, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152988/identification-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-bacterial-enteropathogens-from-children-aged-0-59-months-at-the-university-teaching-hospital-lusaka-zambia-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#20
Harriet Chiyangi, John B Muma, Sydney Malama, Joel Manyahi, Ahmed Abade, Geoffrey Kwenda, Mecky I Matee
BACKGROUND: Bacterial diarrhoeal disease is among the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in children 0-59 months at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. However, most cases are treated empirically without the knowledge of aetiological agents or antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The aim of this study was, therefore, to identify bacterial causes of diarrhoea and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in stool specimens obtained from the children at the hospital...
February 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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