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Jakub Gajewski, Leon Bijlmakers, Ruairí Brugha
Surgery has the potential to address one of the largest, neglected burdens of disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) has provided a blueprint for a systems approach to making safe emergency and elective surgery accessible and affordable and has started to enable African governments to develop national surgical plans. This editorial outlines an important gap, which is the need for surgical systems research, especially at district hospitals which are the first point of surgical care for rural communities, to inform the implementation of country plans...
April 8, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Collins Chansa, Jesper Sundewall, Numi Östlund
Development assistance for health (DAH) remains a significant and important source of health financing in many low and lower middle-income countries. However, this assistance has not been fully effective. This study explores the effect of currency exchange rate fluctuations on volatility of DAH in Zambia using a mixed methods approach. Data covering the period 1997-2008 were collected from various financial and programmatic reports, while six key informant interviews were conducted to validate and translate findings from the quantitative analysis...
June 22, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Mohamed A Shehata, Mubanga F Chama, Evelyn Funjika
Introduction: Urinary schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium is common in some parts of Lusaka Province, Zambia, where water contact activity is high and sanitation is poor. We conducted a longitudinal study in Ng'ombe Compound of Lusaka, between 2007 and 2015, to observe the prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection among community primary school children, before and after receiving a single dose of praziquantel. Materials and Methods: A total of 975 (445 females and 530 males) pupils, aged 9-16 years, were tested for S...
January 2018: Tropical Parasitology
Paul Mee, Elizabeth Fearon, Syreen Hassan, Bernadette Hensen, Xeno Acharya, Brian D Rice, James R Hargreaves
INTRODUCTION: Interventions to keep adolescent girls and young women in school, or support their return to school, are hypothesised to also reduce HIV risk. Such interventions are included in the DREAMS combination package of evidence-based interventions. Although there is evidence of reduced risky sexual behaviours, the impact on HIV incidence is unclear. We used nationally representative surveys to investigate the association between being in school and HIV prevalence. METHODS: We analysed Demographic and Health Survey data from nine DREAMS countries in sub-Saharan Africa restricted to young women aged 15-19 (n = 20,429 in total)...
2018: PloS One
Lamson Mugala, Joyce Siwila, Ngonda Saasa, Girja Shanker Pandey
Aim: Cryptosporidium is one of the causes of diarrheal illness in man and animals worldwide and is zoonotic. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts in dogs in Lusaka district of Zambia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lusaka district of Zambia during 2015-2016. A total of 390 dogs (243 males and 147 females) aged 2 months-13 years were enrolled. Fecal samples were collected and stained using modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Auramine O staining techniques and examined microscopically for oocysts...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Kelly Kilburn, Leah Prencipe, Lisa Hjelm, Amber Peterman, Sudhanshu Handa, Tia Palermo
BACKGROUND: Youth mental health has emerged as a pressing global issue. However, to advance research gaps in low-income settings, we need valid measures of common mental health disorders. Using primary data collected in five countries (Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), this study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the commonly used 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D 10) scale among poor, disadvantaged youth populations in sub-Saharan African (SSA)...
June 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
J C Simwaka, Evans M Mpabalwani, Mapaseka Seheri, Ina Peenze, Mwaka Monze, Belem Matapo, Umesh D Parashar, Jacob Mufunda, Jeffrey M Mphahlele, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda
BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the routine immunization schedule, the burden of rotavirus disease has significantly reduced in Zambia. Although rotavirus vaccines appear to confer good cross-protection against both vaccine and non-vaccine strains, concerns about strain replacement following vaccine implementation remain. We describe the diversity of the circulating rotavirus strains before and after the Rotarix® vaccine was introduced in Lusaka from January 2012...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
Mark Kaddumukasa, Martin N Kaddumukasa, William Buwembo, Ian G Munabi, Carol Blixen, Samden Lhatoo, Nelson Sewankambo, Elly Katabira, Martha Sajatovic
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review identified papers that described epilepsy misconceptions or stigma in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and research interventions focused on reducing these misconceptions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Publications in the English language from January 2000 to October 2017 that described original research conducted in SSA on misconceptions about epilepsy were utilized. RESULTS: Twenty-three publications were identified. Studies were from Nigeria (N = 4), Cameroon (N = 4), Uganda (N = 3), Zambia (N = 2), Ethiopia (N = 2), Tanzania (N = 2), Kenya (N = 2), Ghana, Zimbabwe, Benin, and Mali (N = 1 each)...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Kasthuri Sivalogan, Katherine E A Semrau, Paul G Ashigbie, Sheila Mwangi, Julie M Herlihy, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Bowen Banda, Caroline Grogan, Godfrey Biemba, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: Identifying and understanding traditional perceptions that influence newborn care practices and care-seeking behavior are crucial to developing sustainable interventions to improve neonatal health. The Zambia Chlorhexidine Application Trial (ZamCAT), a large-scale cluster randomized trial, assessed the impact of 4% chlorhexidine on neonatal mortality and omphalitis in Southern Province, Zambia. The main purpose of this post-ZamCAT qualitative study was to understand the impact of newborn care health messages on care-seeking behavior for neonates and the acceptability, knowledge, and attitudes towards chlorhexidine cord care among community members and health workers in Southern Province...
2018: PloS One
Christine M Jones, Yoosook Lee, Andrew Kitchen, Travis Collier, Julia C Pringle, Mbanga Muleba, Seth Irish, Jennifer C Stevenson, Maureen Coetzee, Anthony J Cornel, Douglas E Norris, Giovanna Carpi
Anopheles funestus s.s. is a primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its important role in human Plasmodium transmission, evolutionary history, genetic diversity, and population structure of An. funestus in southern and central Africa remains understudied. We deep sequenced, assembled, and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of An. funestus s.s. for the first time, providing a foundation for further genetic research of this important malaria vector species. We further analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes of 43 An...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marc d'Elbée, Pitchaya P Indravudh, Lawrence Mwenge, Moses M Kumwenda, Musonda Simwinga, Augustine T Choko, Bernadette Hensen, Melissa Neuman, Jason J Ong, Euphemia L Sibanda, Cheryl C Johnson, Karin Hatzold, Frances M Cowan, Helen Ayles, Elizabeth L Corbett, Fern Terris-Prestholt
OBJECTIVES: The current research identifies key drivers of demand for linkage into care following a reactive HIV self-test result in Malawi and Zambia. Preferences are explored among the general population and key groups such as HIV-positive individuals and adolescents. DESIGN: We used discrete choice experiments (DCEs) embedded in representative household surveys to quantify the relative strength of preferences for various HIV services characteristics. METHODS: The DCE was designed on the basis of a literature review and qualitative studies...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Mary Lubungu, Regina Birner
The outbreak of livestock diseases in Sub-Saharan African countries is the most critical challenge affecting the development potential of the livestock sector. Vaccination campaigns are one of the most important strategies to deal with this challenge. However, such campaigns are difficult to implement due to major governance challenges, such as delays in the procurement of vaccines and the disbursement of funds. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of these governance challenges, based on a case study of a Livestock Development Animal Health Project in Zambia...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
James P R Sorensen, Andy Baker, Susan A Cumberland, Dan J Lapworth, Alan M MacDonald, Steve Pedley, Richard G Taylor, Jade S T Ward
We assess the use of fluorescent dissolved organic matter at excitation-emission wavelengths of 280nm and 360nm, termed tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF), as an indicator of faecally contaminated drinking water. A significant logistic regression model was developed using TLF as a predictor of thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) using data from groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water sources in India, Malawi, South Africa and Zambia. A TLF threshold of 1.3ppb dissolved tryptophan was selected to classify TTC contamination...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Katendi Changula, Masahiro Kajihara, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Yoshiki Eto, Hiroko Miyamoto, Reiko Yoshida, Asako Shigeno, Bernard Hang'ombe, Yongjin Qiu, Daniel Mwizabi, David Squarre, Joseph Ndebe, Hirohito Ogawa, Hayato Harima, Edgar Simulundu, Ladslav Moonga, Penjaninge Kapila, Wakako Furuyama, Tatsunari Kondoh, Masahiro Sato, Yoshihiro Takadate, Chiho Kaneko, Ryo Nakao, Victor Mukonka, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada
Bats are suspected to play important roles in the ecology of filoviruses, including ebolaviruses and marburgviruses. A cave-dwelling fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, has been shown to be a reservoir of marburgviruses. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the viral glycoprotein antigen, we detected immunoglobulin G antibodies specific to multiple filoviruses in 158 of 290 serum samples of R aegyptiacus bats captured in Zambia during the years 2014-2017. In particular, 43.8% of the bats were seropositive to marburgvirus, supporting the notion that this bat species continuously maintains marburgviruses as a reservoir...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
David E Phillips, Joseph L Dieleman, Jessica C Shearer, Stephen S Lim
BACKGROUND: Improving childhood vaccine coverage is a priority for global health, but challenging in low and middle-income countries. Although previous research has sought to measure determinants of vaccination, most has limitations. We measure determinants using a clearly-defined hypothetical model, multi-faceted data, and modeling strategy that makes full use of the hypothesis and data. METHODS: We use linked, cross-sectional survey data from households, health facilities, patients and health offices in Uganda and Zambia, and Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling to quantify the proportion of variance in childhood vaccination that is explained by key determinants, controlling for known confounding...
June 6, 2018: Vaccine
Sitokozile Sibanda, Davies M Pfukenyi, Maxwell Barson, Bernard Hang'ombe, Gift Matope
The first outbreak on the African continent of infection with Aphanomyces invadans (the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome) in fish was confirmed in the Chobe-Zambezi rivers in 2007. The emergence of massive outbreaks of infection with A. invadans in multiple fish species exposed serious aquatic biosecurity challenges in the Southern African region. This study investigated the incursion of infection with A. invadans in fish from the main aquatic ecosystems of Zimbabwe from 2012 to 2015 using data obtained from the Department of Livestock and Veterinary Services, Zimbabwe...
June 7, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
(no author information available yet)
Zambia is one of eight southern African countries aiming to eliminate malaria in the next few years. Sam Loewenberg reports.
May 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Choolwe Jacobs, Charles Michelo, Mosa Moshabela
BACKGROUND: While focused antenatal care (ANC) has served as an entry point in the continuum of care for both mothers and children, fewer than a third of pregnant women in the most remote and poorest communities of Zambia achieve the four ANC visits recommended by the World Health Organization. Current evidence suggests that attending ANC provided by a skilled healthcare worker at least once is common and associated with skilled birth attendance. The aim of this study was to explain why one ANC visit with a skilled provider seemed more common than four ANC visits among women in the remote and poorest districts of Zambia...
June 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Sarah McIvor Murray, Paul Bolton, Jeremy C Kane, Daniel P Lakin, Stephanie Skavenski Van Wyk, Ravi Paul, Laura K Murray
There is a paucity of validated mental health measures for assessing psychological well-being among HIV-affected youth. We sought to explore the psychometric properties and validity of the Achenbach Youth Self-Report and Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale among orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) living in Lusaka, Zambia. These scales were administered to 210 OVC aged 13 to 17 years via audio computer-assisted self-interview. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess scale structure, Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, and correlations between scales related to mental or psychosocial health for construct validity...
June 1, 2018: Assessment
Donna R McCarraher, Catherine Packer, Sarah Mercer, Alexis Dennis, Harry Banda, Namakau Nyambe, Randy M Stalter, Jonathan K Mwansa, Patrick Katayamoyo, Julie A Denison
BACKGROUND: Understanding and meeting the reproductive health needs of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) is a growing concern since advances in antiretroviral therapy mean that many ALHIV are now living into adulthood and starting to have sex. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia to advance our understanding of the reproductive health needs of ALHIV and to assess the extent to which these needs are being met. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 32 ALHIV from two HIV clinics, 23 with their caregivers, and 10 with clinic staff...
2018: PloS One
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