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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919256/the-return-of-chloroquine-susceptible-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-zambia
#1
Sydney Mwanza, Sudhaunshu Joshi, Michael Nambozi, Justin Chileshe, Phidelis Malunga, Jean-Bertin Bukasa Kabuya, Sebastian Hachizovu, Christine Manyando, Modest Mulenga, Miriam Laufer
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs remains a major obstacle to malaria control and elimination. The parasite has developed resistance to every anti-malarial drug introduced for wide-scale treatment. However, the spread of resistance may be reversible. Malawi was the first country to discontinue chloroquine use due to widespread resistance. Within a decade of the removal of drug pressure, the molecular marker of chloroquine-resistant malaria had disappeared and the drug was shown to have excellent clinical efficacy...
December 5, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919230/the-association-of-hyperglycaemia-with-prevalent-tuberculosis-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#2
Sarah Lou Bailey, Helen Ayles, Nulda Beyers, Peter Godfrey-Faussett, Monde Muyoyeta, Elizabeth du Toit, John S Yudkin, Sian Floyd
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest that the incidence of diagnosed tuberculosis is two- to- three times higher in those with diabetes mellitus than in those without. Few studies have previously reported the association between diabetes or hyperglycaemia and the prevalence of active tuberculosis and none in a population-based study with microbiologically-defined tuberculosis. Most have instead concentrated on cases of diagnosed tuberculosis that present to health facilities. We had the opportunity to measure glycaemia alongside prevalent tuberculosis...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914189/analysis-of-experiences-with-exclusive-breastfeeding-among-hiv-positive-mothers-in-lusaka-zambia
#3
Alice Ngoma-Hazemba, Busisiwe Purity Ncama
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months offers protection from postnatal HIV infection but remains low in resource-poor settings. Documentation of experiences with exclusive breastfeeding is needed to strengthen infant feeding counselling by health care workers. OBJECTIVE: To explore HIV-positive mothers' experiences with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of the infant's life. DESIGN: A health facility- and community-based exploratory qualitative study was conducted among 30 HIV-positive mothers practising exclusive breastfeeding and meeting the selection criteria...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909379/-it-is-an-eye-opener-that-there-is-a-relationship-between-rehabilitation-and-hiv-perspectives-of-physiotherapists-and-occupational-therapists-in-kenya-and-zambia-on-the-role-of-rehabilitation-with-adults-and-children-living-with-hiv
#4
Stephanie Nixon, Cathy Cameron, Margaret Mweshi, Esther Munalula Nkandu, Carlius Okidi, Stephen Tattle, Tammy Yates
Purpose: To present the perspectives of rehabilitation providers-physiotherapists and occupational therapists-in Kenya and Zambia on the role of rehabilitation in the care of adults and children living with HIV. Methods: This qualitative, interpretivist study was part of a broader project to adapt a Canadian e-module on HIV-related disability for rehabilitation providers in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Focus groups, demographic questionnaires, and knowledge-attitude-belief surveys were conducted with rehabilitation providers in Kenya and Zambia...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905997/the-adult-prevalence-of-hiv-in-zambia-results-from-a-population-based-mobile-testing-survey-conducted-in-2013-2014
#5
Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Nathan Kapata, Eveline Klinkenberg, Ngosa William, Liwewe Mazyanga, Katoba Musukwa, Elizabeth Chizema Kawesha, Felix Masiye, Peter Mwaba
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the adult prevalence of HIV among the adult population in Zambia and determine whether demographic characteristics were associated with being HIV positive. METHODS: A cross sectional population based survey to asses HIV status among participants aged 15 years and above in a national tuberculosis prevalence survey. Counselling was offered to participants who tested for HIV. The prevalence was estimated using a logistic regression model. Univariate and multivariate associations of social demographic characteristics with HIV were determined...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902217/microvirga-ossetica-sp-nov-a-new-species-of-rhizobia-isolated-from-root-nodules-of-the-legume-species-vicia-alpestris-steven-originated-from-north-ossetia-region-in-the-caucasus
#6
Vera Safronova, Irina Kuznetsova, Anna Sazanova, Andrey Belimov, Evgeny Andronov, Elizaveta Chirak, Yuri Osledkin, Olga Onishchuk, Oksana Kurchak, Alexander Shaposhnikov, Anne Willems, Igor Tikhonovich
Gram-negative, rod-shaped strains V5/3MT, V5/5K, V5/5M and V5/13 with a medium growth rate were isolated from root nodules of Vicia alpestris plants growing in the North Ossetia region (Caucasus). The sequencing of the partial 16S rDNA gene (rrs) and four housekeeping genes (dnaK, gyrB, recA and rpoB ) showed that the isolates from V. alpestris were most closely related to the species Microvirga zambiemsis (order Rhizobiales, family Methylobacteriaceae) which was described for the single isolate from root nodule of Listia angolensis growing in Zambia...
October 16, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901085/wide-variation-in-susceptibility-of-transmitted-founder-hiv-1-subtype-c-isolates-to-protease-inhibitors-and-association-with-in-vitro-replication-efficiency
#7
Katherine A Sutherland, Dami A Collier, Daniel T Claiborne, Jessica L Prince, Martin J Deymier, Richard A Goldstein, Eric Hunter, Ravindra K Gupta
The gag gene is highly polymorphic across HIV-1 subtypes and contributes to susceptibility to protease inhibitors (PI), a critical class of antiretrovirals that will be used in up to 2 million individuals as second-line therapy in sub Saharan Africa by 2020. Given subtype C represents around half of all HIV-1 infections globally, we examined PI susceptibility in subtype C viruses from treatment-naïve individuals. PI susceptibility was measured in a single round infection assay of full-length, replication competent MJ4/gag chimeric viruses, encoding the gag gene and 142 nucleotides of pro derived from viruses in 20 patients in the Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project acute infection cohort...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895911/under-five-mortality-among-displaced-populations-in-meheba-refugee-camp-zambia-2008-2014
#8
Nachela Malisenti Chelwa, Rosemary Ndonyo Likwa, Jeremiah Banda
BACKGROUND: Under-five mortality, which is the probability of a child dying before their fifth birthday, is of concern in Zambia as infant and child mortality rates are important social indicators. Displaced population in camps provide a basis for under-five mortality surveillance because detailed registration databases have been developed. Additionally, health data routinely collected on mortality allowed for a review of mortality trends and identification of correlating factors to under-five mortality...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893488/pregnancy-and-hiv-disease-progression-in-an-early-infection-cohort-from-five-african-countries
#9
Kristin M Wall, Wasima Rida, Lisa Haddad, Anatoli Kamali, Etienne Karita, Shabir Lakhi, William Kilembe, Susan Allen, Mubiana Inambao, Annie H Yang, Mary H Latka, Omu Anzala, Eduard J Sanders, Linda-Gail Bekker, Vinodh A Edward, Matt A Price
BACKGROUND: Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to providing appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. METHODS: From 2006-2011, women under age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μL, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT)...
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882313/experiences-in-tick-control-by-acaricide-in-the-traditional-cattle-sector-in-zambia-and-burkina-faso-possible-environmental-and-public-health-implications
#10
REVIEW
Daniele De Meneghi, Frédéric Stachurski, Hassane Adakal
Livestock, especially cattle, play a paramount role in agriculture production systems, particularly in poor countries throughout the world. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have an important impact on livestock and agriculture production in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors review the most common methods used for the control of ticks and TBDs. Special emphasis is given to the direct application of acaricides to the host animals. The possible environmental and public health adverse effects (i.e., risks for the workers, residues in the environment and in food products of animal origin) are mentioned...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880764/malaria-elimination-campaigns-in-the-lake-kariba-region-of-zambia-a-spatial-dynamical-model
#11
Milen Nikolov, Caitlin A Bever, Alexander Upfill-Brown, Busiku Hamainza, John M Miller, Philip A Eckhoff, Edward A Wenger, Jaline Gerardin
As more regions approach malaria elimination, understanding how different interventions interact to reduce transmission becomes critical. The Lake Kariba area of Southern Province, Zambia, is part of a multi-country elimination effort and presents a particular challenge as it is an interconnected region of variable transmission intensities. In 2012-13, six rounds of mass test-and-treat drug campaigns were carried out in the Lake Kariba region. A spatial dynamical model of malaria transmission in the Lake Kariba area, with transmission and climate modeled at the village scale, was calibrated to the 2012-13 prevalence survey data, with case management rates, insecticide-treated net usage, and drug campaign coverage informed by surveillance...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880749/early-diagnosis-of-hiv-infection-in-infants-one-caribbean-and-six-sub-saharan-african-countries-2011-2015
#12
Karidia Diallo, Andrea A Kim, Shirley Lecher, Dennis Ellenberger, R Suzanne Beard, Helen Dale, Mackenzie Hurlston, Molly Rivadeneira, Peter N Fonjungo, Laura N Broyles, Guoqing Zhang, Katrina Sleeman, Shon Nguyen, Steve Jadczak, Nadine Abiola, Raimi Ewetola, Jérémie Muwonga, Franck Fwamba, Christina Mwangi, Mary Naluguza, Charles Kiyaga, Isaac Ssewanyana, Deyde Varough, Domercant Wysler, David Lowrance, Frantz Jean Louis, Olbeg Desinor, Josiane Buteau, Francois Kesner, Vanessa Rouzier, Nat Segaren, Tessa Lewis, Abdoulaye Sarr, Geoffrey Chipungu, Sundeep Gupta, Daniel Singer, Reuben Mwenda, Hilary Kapoteza, Zawadi Chipeta, Nancy Knight, Sergio Carmona, William MacLeod, Gayle Sherman, Yogan Pillay, Clement B Ndongmo, Bridget Mugisa, Annie Mwila, James McAuley, Peter J Chipimo, Wezi Kaonga, Dailess Nsofwa, Davy Nsama, Fales Zulu Mwamba, Crispin Moyo, Clement Phiri, Marie-Yolande Borget, Leonard Ya-Kouadio, Abo Kouame, Christiane A Adje-Toure, John Nkengasong
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged <15 years were estimated to be living with HIV (including 170,000 infants born in 2015), with the vast majority living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). In 2014, 150,000 children died from HIV-related causes worldwide (2). Access to timely HIV diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected infants reduces HIV-associated mortality, which is approximately 50% by age 2 years without treatment (3)...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879554/measles-and-rubella-seroprevalence-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-zambian-youth
#13
Catherine G Sutcliffe, Kelly Searle, Hellen K Matakala, Dip Biomed, Michelle Greenman, Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity following vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was nested within two ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872760/factors-associated-with-pmtct-cascade-completion-in-four-african-countries
#14
Jodie Dionne-Odom, Thomas K Welty, Andrew O Westfall, Benjamin H Chi, Didier Koumavi Ekouevi, Margaret Kasaro, Pius M Tih, Alan T N Tita
Background. Many countries are working to reduce or eliminate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Prevention efforts have been conceptualized as steps in a cascade but cascade completion rates during and after pregnancy are low. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was performed across 26 communities in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Women who reported a pregnancy within two years were enrolled. Participant responses were used to construct the PMTCT cascade with all of the following steps required for completion: at least one antenatal visit, HIV testing performed, HIV testing result received, initiation of maternal prophylaxis, and initiation of infant prophylaxis...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872676/progressive-and-self-limiting-neurodegenerative-disorders-in-africa-a-new-prominent-field-of-research-led-by-south-africa-but-without-strong-health-policy
#15
Brice Poreau
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative disorders are involved in mortality and morbidity of every country. A high prevalence is estimated in Africa. Neurodegenerative disorders are defined by a progressive or self-limiting alteration of neurons implied in specific functional and anatomical functions. It encompasses a various range of clinical disorders from self-limiting to progressive. Focus on public health policies and scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms to reduce this high prevalence...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868189/an-evaluation-of-inpatient-morbidity-and-critical-care-provision-in-zambia
#16
P J Dart, J Kinnear, M D Bould, S L Mwansa, Z Rakhda, D Snell
The aim of this study was to objectively measure demand for critical care services in a southern African tertiary referral centre. We carried out a point prevalence study of medical and surgical admissions over a 48-h period at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, recording the following: age; sex; diagnosis; Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status and National Early Warning Score. One-hundred and twenty medical and surgical admissions were studied. Fifty-four patients (45%) had objective evidence of a requirement for critical care review and potential or probable admission to an intensive care unit, according to the Royal College of Physicians (UK) guidelines...
November 21, 2016: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862555/genomic-epidemiology-of-cryptococcus-yeasts-identifies-adaptation-to-environmental-niches-underpinning-infection-across-an-african-hiv-aids-cohort
#17
Mathieu Vanhove, Mathew A Beale, Johanna Rhodes, Duncan Chanda, Shabir Lakhi, Geoffrey Kwenda, Sile Molloy, Natasha Karunaharan, Neil Stone, Thomas S Harrison, Tihana Bicanic, Matthew C Fisher
Emerging infections caused by fungi have become a widely recognized global phenomenon and are causing an increasing burden of disease. Genomic techniques are providing new insights into the structure of fungal populations, revealing hitherto undescribed fine-scale adaptations to environments and hosts that govern their emergence as infections. Cryptococcal meningitis is a neglected tropical disease that is responsible for a large proportion of AIDS-related deaths across Africa; however, the ecological determinants that underlie a patient's risk of infection remain largely unexplored...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855872/multiple-behaviour-change-intervention-for-diarrhoea-control-in-lusaka-zambia-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#18
Katie Greenland, Jenala Chipungu, Val Curtis, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Zumbe Siwale, Mweetwa Mudenda, Joyce Chilekwa, James J Lewis, Roma Chilengi
BACKGROUND: Effective prevention and control of diarrhoea requires caregivers to comply with a suite of proven measures, including exclusive breastfeeding, handwashing with soap, correct use of oral rehydration salts, and zinc administration. We aimed to assess the effect of a novel behaviour change intervention using emotional drivers on caregiver practice of these behaviours. METHODS: We did a cluster randomised controlled trial in Lusaka Province, Zambia. A random sample of 16 health centres (clusters) were selected from a sampling frame of 81 health centres in three of four districts in Lusaka Province using a computerised random number generator...
December 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855110/correction-women-s-knowledge-and-attitudes-surrounding-abortion-in-zambia-a-crosssectional-survey-across-three-provinces
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851829/diversification-in-the-hiv-1-envelope-hyper-variable-domains-v2-v4-and-v5-and-higher-probability-of-transmitted-founder-envelope-glycosylation-favor-the-development-of-heterologous-neutralization-breadth
#20
S Abigail Smith, Samantha L Burton, William Kilembe, Shabir Lakhi, Etienne Karita, Matt Price, Susan Allen, Eric Hunter, Cynthia A Derdeyn
A recent study of plasma neutralization breadth in HIV-1 infected individuals at nine International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) sites reported that viral load, HLA-A*03 genotype, and subtype C infection were strongly associated with the development of neutralization breadth. Here, we refine the findings of that study by analyzing the impact of the transmitted/founder (T/F) envelope (Env), early Env diversification, and autologous neutralization on the development of plasma neutralization breadth in 21 participants identified during recent infection at two of those sites: Kigali, Rwanda (n = 9) and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 12)...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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