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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677057/newborn-resuscitation-skills-in-health-care-providers-at-a-zambian-tertiary-center-and-comparison-to-world-health-organization-standards
#1
Sara C Mistry, Richard Lin, Hazel Mumphansha, Laura C Kettley, Janaki A Pearson, Sonia Akrimi, David J Mayne, Wonder Hangoma, M Dylan Bould
BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is a leading cause of early neonatal death. In 2013, 32% of neonatal deaths in Zambia were attributable to birth asphyxia and trauma. Basic, timely interventions are key to improving outcomes. However, data from the World Health Organization suggest that resuscitation is often not initiated, or is conducted suboptimally. Currently, there are little data on the quality of newborn resuscitation in the context of a tertiary center in a lower-middle income country...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669224/evaluation-of-intussusception-after-monovalent-rotavirus-vaccination-in-africa
#2
Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda, George Armah, Bhavin Jani, Richard Omore, Ayesheshem Ademe, Hilda Mujuru, Evans Mpabalwani, Bagrey Ngwira, Margaret M Cortese, Richard Mihigo, Hope Glover-Addy, Mwajabu Mbaga, Francis Osawa, Amezene Tadesse, Bothwell Mbuwayesango, Julia Simwaka, Nigel Cunliffe, Benjamin A Lopman, Goitom Weldegebriel, Daniel Ansong, David Msuya, Billy Ogwel, Thomas Karengera, Portia Manangazira, Bruce Bvulani, Catherine Yen, Felicitas R Zawaira, Clement T Narh, Lazaro Mboma, Peter Saula, Fasil Teshager, Halle Getachew, Rebecca M Moeti, Christabel Eweronu-Laryea, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Postlicensure evaluations have identified an association between rotavirus vaccination and intussusception in several high- and middle-income countries. We assessed the association between monovalent human rotavirus vaccine and intussusception in lower-income sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: Using active surveillance, we enrolled patients from seven countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) who had intussusception that met international (Brighton Collaboration level 1) criteria...
April 19, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662690/geographic-coverage-of-demographic-surveillance-systems-for-characterising-the-drivers-of-childhood-mortality-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
C Edson Utazi, Sujit K Sahu, Peter M Atkinson, Natalia Tejedor-Garavito, Christopher T Lloyd, Andrew J Tatem
A major focus of international health and development goals is the reduction of mortality rates in children under 5 years of age. Achieving this requires understanding the drivers of mortality and how they vary geographically to facilitate the targeting and prioritisation of appropriate interventions. Much of our knowledge on the causes of, and trends in, childhood mortality come from longitudinal demographic surveillance sites, with a renewed focus recently on the establishment and growth of networks of sites from which standardised outputs can facilitate broader understanding of processes...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661240/access-factors-linked-to-maternal-deaths-in-lundazi-district-eastern-province-of-zambia-a-case-control-study-analysing-maternal-death-reviews
#4
Nkumbula Moyo, Mpundu Makasa, Mumbi Chola, Patrick Musonda
BACKGROUND: Access factors associated with maternal death are important to understand because they are considered to be an essential measure of women's health and indicative of the performance of health care systems in any community globally. This study aimed to analyse the access risk factors linked to maternal deaths in Lundazi district of the Eastern Province of Zambia using secondary data obtained from maternal death reviews and delivery registers. METHODS: This was a case-control study with cases being recorded maternal deaths for Lundazi district (n = 100) while controls were randomly selected Lundazi District Hospital deliveries (n = 300) for the period 2010 to 2015...
April 16, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659909/sexually-transmitted-bedfellows-exquisite-association-between-hiv-and-hsv2-in-21-communities-in-southern-africa-in-the-hptn-071-popart-study
#5
J Bradley, S Floyd, E Piwowar-Manning, O Laeyendecker, A Young, N Bell-Mandla, J Bwalya, P Bock, S Fidler, H Ayles, R J Hayes
Background: HIV and Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV2) are strongly associated, although mechanisms are not fully understood. An HIV prevention trial allowed re-examination of this association at individual and community levels. Methods: HPTN 071 (PopART) evaluates a combination prevention intervention in 21 urban communities in Zambia and South Africa. To measure impact on HIV incidence, a cohort of ~2,000 adults (18-44y) was selected randomly from each community...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657394/ethnoveterinary-treatments-for-common-cattle-diseases-in-four-districts-of-the-southern-province-zambia
#6
Michelo Syakalima, Martin Simuunza, Victor Chisha Zulu
Aim: Ethno veterinary knowledge has rarely been recorded, and no or limited effort has been made to exploit this knowledge despite its widespread use in Zambia. This study documented the types of plants used to treat important animal diseases in rural Zambia as a way of initiating their sustained documentation and scientific validation. Materials and Methods: The study was done in selected districts of the Southern Zambia, Africa. The research was a participatory epidemiological study conducted in two phases...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652643/expression-of-a-recombinant-nucleocapsid-protein-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-vero-cells-as-an-immunofluorescence-antigen-and-its-use-for-serosurveillance-in-traditional-cattle-herds-in-zambia
#7
Ngonda Saasa, Masahiro Kajihara, George Dautu, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Shuetsu Fukushi, Yona Sinkala, Shigeru Morikawa, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Jiro Arikawa
The open reading frame of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) strain MP12 was cloned and expressed in Vero E6 cells. The recombinant NP (rNP)-expressing cells were used as antigens for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The rNP-based IFA and RVFV-infected Vero E6 cell (authentic antigen)-based IFA showed similar IFA profiles with immune rabbit serum, which was prepared by immunization with rNP expressed using a baculovirus vector. A total of 942 traditional cattle sera obtained in five districts in Central, Southern, and Western provinces of Zambia were screened for anti-RVFV antibodies by the authentic antigen-based and rNP-based IFAs...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643434/genetic-homogeneity-of-goat-malaria-parasites-in-asia-and-africa-suggests-their-expansion-with-domestic-goat-host
#8
Morakot Kaewthamasorn, Mika Takeda, Tawee Saiwichai, Jesse N Gitaka, Sonthaya Tiawsirisup, Yuhei Imasato, Ehab Mossaad, Ali Sarani, Winai Kaewlamun, Manun Channumsin, Suchart Chaiworakul, Wichit Katepongpun, Surapong Teeveerapunya, Jarus Panthong, Dominic K Mureithi, Saw Bawm, Lat Lat Htun, Mar Mar Win, Ahmed Ali Ismail, Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim, Keisuke Suganuma, Hassan Hakimi, Ryo Nakao, Ken Katakura, Masahito Asada, Osamu Kaneko
Plasmodium was first identified in a goat in Angola in 1923, and only recently characterized by DNA isolation from a goat blood sample in Zambia. Goats were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent approximately 10,000 years ago, and are now globally distributed. It is not known if the Plasmodium identified in African goats originated from parasites circulating in the local ungulates, or if it co-evolved in the goat before its domestication. To address this question, we performed PCR-based surveillance using a total of 1,299 goat blood samples collected from Sudan and Kenya in Africa, Iran in west Asia, and Myanmar and Thailand in southeast Asia...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627032/factors-associated-with-distal-symmetric-polyneuropathies-in-adult-zambians-a-cross-sectional-observational-study-of-the-role-of-hiv-non-antiretroviral-medication-exposures-and-nutrition
#9
Michelle Kvalsund, Takondwa Chidumayo, Johanna Hamel, David Herrmann, Douglas Heimburger, Amanda Peltier, Gretchen Birbeck
BACKGROUND: Non-antiretroviral (ART) drug exposures and poor nutrition may be important modifiable risk factors for distal symmetric polyneuropathies (DSP) in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of DSP prevalence and factors associated with DSP among clinic attendees in urban and rural Zambia. All participants underwent neurologist-performed examination. Laboratory investigations seeking comorbid risk factors for DSP were performed for DSP cases...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626043/hiv-1-disease-progression-in-immune-competent-hiv-1-infected-and-breastfeeding-mothers-participating-in-the-anrs-12174-clinical-trial-in-burkina-faso-south-africa-uganda-and-zambia-a-cohort-study
#10
Eric Nagaonle Somé, Ingunn M S Engebretsen, Nicolas Nagot, Nicolas Yelbomkan Meda, Roselyne Vallo, Chipepo Kankasa, James K Tumwine, Mandisa Singata-Madliki, Kim Harper, G Justus Hofmeyr, Philippe Van de Perre, Thorkild Tylleskär
OBJECTIVE: We have assessed HIV-1 disease progression among HIV-1-positive mothers in relation to duration of any or exclusive breast feeding in the context of ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: The analysis was completed on 203, 212, 272 and 529 HIV-1-positive and lactating mothers with CD4 count >350 cells/µL from Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia, respectively. The trial compared lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir as a peri-exposure prophylaxis during a 50-week follow-up time...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624955/examining-the-role-of-couples-characteristics-in-contraceptive-use-in-nigeria-and-zambia
#11
Lorretta Favour C Ntoimo, Pamela Chirwa-Banda
Relationship-related characteristics influence diverse health and demographic outcomes. This study examined the role of couples' characteristics in contraceptive use. Data were obtained from 2013 Nigeria and 2013-14 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys. The study population consisted of couples in monogamous union (married or living together) who had at least one live birth and the wife was not pregnant at the time of the survey. Prevalence of contraceptive use among couples in Nigeria was 27% and 63% in Zambia...
December 2017: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622515/tick-borne-haemoparasites-and-anaplasmataceae-in-domestic-dogs-in-zambia
#12
Yongjin Qiu, Chiho Kaneko, Masahiro Kajihara, Saasa Ngonda, Edgar Simulundu, Walter Muleya, May June Thu, Mudenda Bernard Hang'ombe, Ken Katakura, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa, Martin Simuunza, Ryo Nakao
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs), including emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, are important threats to human and animal health worldwide. Indeed, the number of reported human and animal infectious cases of novel TBD agents has increased in recent decades. However, TBDs tend to be neglected, especially in resource-limited countries that often have limited diagnostic capacity. The aim of this molecular survey was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens (Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon parasites and Anaplasmataceae bacteria) in domestic dogs in Zambia...
March 26, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619212/validity-of-maternal-report-of-care-seeking-for-childhood-illness
#13
Emily D Carter, Micky Ndhlovu, Melinda Munos, Emmy Nkhama, Joanne Katz, Thomas P Eisele
Background: Accurate data on care-seeking for child illness are needed to improve public health programs and reduce child mortality. The accuracy of maternal report of care-seeking for child illness as collected through household surveys has not been validated. Methods: A 2016 survey compared reported care-seeking against a gold-standard of health care provider documented care-seeking events among a random sample of mothers of children <5 years in Southern Province, Zambia...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610679/low-il-6-il-10-and-tnf-%C3%AE-and-high-il-13-cytokine-levels-are-associated-with-severe-hepatic-fibrosis-in-schistosoma-mansoni-chronically-exposed-individuals
#14
Mable M Mutengo, Takafira Mduluza, Paul Kelly, James C L Mwansa, Geoffrey Kwenda, Patrick Musonda, James Chipeta
Several studies have attributed the etiopathogenesis of chronic Schistosoma mansoni related hepatic fibrosis to unregulated immune responses against trapped parasite ova in the host. However, there is limited data on immune profiles associated with varying degrees of the disease in a population under chronic exposure to the parasite. We therefore investigated the role of selected T-helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines in relation to hepatic fibrosis severity among individuals resident in a hyper- Schistosoma mansoni endemic region of Western Zambia...
2018: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608231/is-home-based-hiv-testing-universally-acceptable-findings-from-a-case-control-study-nested-within-the-hptn-071-popart-trial
#15
Kalpana Sabapathy, C Mulubwa, H Mathema, C Mubekapi-Musadaidzwa, A Schaap, G Hoddinott, James Hargreaves, Sian Floyd, Helen Ayles, Richard Hayes
OBJECTIVE: The HPTN 071 (PopART) trial is examining the impact of a package including universal testing and treatment on community-level HIV-incidence in Zambia and South Africa. We conducted a nested case-control study to examine factors associated with acceptance of home-based HIV testing and counselling (HB-HTC) delivered by Community HIV-care Providers (CHiPs) in PopART intervention communities. METHODS: Of 295,447 individuals who were offered testing, random samples of individuals who declined HB-HTC (cases) and accepted HB-HTC (controls), stratified by gender and community, were selected...
April 2, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601456/infant-hiv-free-survival-in-the-era-of-universal-antiretroviral-therapy-for-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-a-community-based-cohort-study-from-rural-zambia
#16
Benjamin H Chi, Wilbroad Mutale, Jennifer Winston, Winifreda Phiri, Joan T Price, Angel Mwiche, Helen Ayles, Jeffrey S A Stringer
BACKGROUND: Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now recommended for all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women; however, few have described overall infant outcomes in this new era for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). METHODS: As part of an assessment of PMTCT program impact, we enrolled a prospective cohort study in four predominantly rural districts in Zambia. HIV-infected mothers and their newborns (≤30 days old) were recruited and followed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum; infant specimens were tested via HIV DNA PCR...
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599081/improvement-of-early-detection-of-breast-cancer-through-collaborative-multi-country-efforts-medical-physics-component
#17
Patricia Mora, Keith Faulkner, Ahmed M Mahmoud, Vesna Gershan, Aruna Kausik, Urban Zdesar, María-Ester Brandan, Serap Kurt, Jasna Davidović, Dina H Salama, Erkin Aribal, Clara Odio, Arvind K Chaturvedi, Zahida Sabih, Saša Vujnović, Diana Paez, Harry Delis
PURPOSE: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a Coordinated Research Project on "Enhancing Capacity for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer through Imaging", brought together a group of mammography radiologists, medical physicists and radiographers; to investigate current practices and improve procedures for the early detection of breast cancer by strengthening both the clinical and medical physics components. This paper addresses the medical physics component...
March 26, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588959/pnes-around-the-world-where-we-are-now-and-how-we-can-close-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-gaps-an-ilae-pnes-task-force-report
#18
Kousuke Kanemoto, W Curt LaFrance, Roderick Duncan, David Gigineishvili, Sung-Pa Park, Yukari Tadokoro, Hiroko Ikeda, Ravi Paul, Dong Zhou, Go Taniguchi, Mike Kerr, Tomohiro Oshima, Kazutaka Jin, Markus Reuber
An international consensus clinical practice statement issued in 2011 ranked psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) among the top three neuropsychiatric problems. An ILAE PNES Task Force was founded and initially charged with summarizing the current state of the art in terms of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in two publications. The first described different levels of diagnostic certainty. The second summarized current knowledge of management approaches. The present paper summarizes an international workshop of the ILAE PNES Task Force that focused on the current understanding and management of PNES around the world...
September 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587875/evaluation-of-a-novel-device-for-the-management-of-high-blood-pressure-and-shock-in-pregnancy-in-low-resource-settings-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-cradle-3-trial
#19
Hannah L Nathan, Kate Duhig, Nicola Vousden, Elodie Lawley, Paul T Seed, Jane Sandall, Mrutyunjaya B Bellad, Adrian C Brown, Lucy C Chappell, Shivaprasad S Goudar, Muchabayiwa F Gidiri, Andrew H Shennan
BACKGROUND: Obstetric haemorrhage, sepsis and pregnancy hypertension account for more than 50% of maternal deaths worldwide. Early detection and effective management of these conditions relies on vital signs. The Microlife® CRADLE Vital Sign Alert (VSA) is an easy-to-use, accurate device that measures blood pressure and pulse. It incorporates a traffic-light early warning system that alerts all levels of healthcare provider to the need for escalation of care in women with obstetric haemorrhage, sepsis or pregnancy hypertension, thereby aiding early recognition of haemodynamic instability and preventing maternal mortality and morbidity...
March 27, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587791/sexual-and-reproductive-health-behavior-and-unmet-needs-among-a-sample-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-zambia-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Sumiyo Okawa, Sylvia Mwanza-Kabaghe, Mwiya Mwiya, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Masamine Jimba, Chipepo Kankasa, Naoko Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV face challenges, such as disclosure of HIV status, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH). These challenges affect their future quality of life. However, little evidence is available on their sexual behaviors and SRH needs in Zambia. This study aimed at assessing their sexual behaviors and SRH needs and identifying factors associated with marriage concerns and a desire to have children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from April to July 2014...
March 27, 2018: Reproductive Health
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