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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244862/application-of-system-dynamics-and-participatory-spatial-group-model-building-in-animal-health-a-case-study-of-east-coast-fever-interventions-in-lundazi-and-monze-districts-of-zambia
#1
Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Magda Rich, Karl M Rich
East Coast Fever (ECF) is the most economically important production disease among traditional beef cattle farmers in Zambia. Despite the disease control efforts by the government, donors, and farmers, ECF cases are increasing. Why does ECF oscillate over time? Can alternative approaches such as systems thinking contribute solutions to the complex ECF problem, avoid unintended consequences, and achieve sustainable results? To answer these research questions and inform the design and implementation of ECF interventions, we qualitatively investigated the influence of dynamic socio-economic, cultural, and ecological factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243406/the-national-burden-of-influenza-associated-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-hospitalization-in-zambia-2011-2014
#2
Andros Theo, Stefano Tempia, Adam L Cohen, Paul Simusika, Edward Chentulo, Chikama Mukwangole Chikamukwa, Mwaka Monze
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization are limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the national number of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalization in Zambia. METHODS: We conducted active prospective hospital-based surveillance for SARI at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) situated in Lusaka Province during 2011-2014. Upper respiratory tract samples were tested for influenza virus using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay...
December 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243249/retrospective-observational-study-of-interventions-to-improve-acceptance-of-long-acting-reversible-contraception-following-abortion-at-lusaka-teaching-hospital-zambia
#3
Swebby Macha, Mutunta Muyuni, Scholastica Nkonde, Karla S Pádua, Anibal Faundes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) uptake immediately after abortion at Lusaka University Teaching Hospital, Zambia in the period following an intervention to increase the acceptance of LARC. METHODS: The present retrospective, observational study reviewed the clinical records of all patients admitted to the Lusaka University Teaching Hospital for an incomplete abortion or for a legal induced abortion between January 1 and December 31, 2016...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242251/equal-opportunity-equal-work-increasing-women-s-participation-in-the-u-s-president-s-malaria-initiative-africa-indoor-residual-spraying-project
#4
Abigail Donner, Allison Belemvire, Ben Johns, Keith Mangam, Elana Fiekowsky, Jayleen Gunn, Mary Hayden, Kacey Ernst
BACKGROUND: One of the primary control measures for malaria transmission is indoor residual spraying (IRS). Historically, few women have worked in IRS programs, despite the income-generating potential. Increasing women's roles in IRS requires understanding the barriers to women's participation and implementing measures to address them. The U.S. President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) Africa Indoor Residual Spraying (AIRS) Project is the largest implementer of IRS globally. To address gender inequity in IRS operations, PMI AIRS assessed the barriers to the participation of women and developed and implemented policies to address these barriers...
December 14, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238230/community-narratives-about-women-and-hiv-risk-in-21-high-burden-communities-in-zambia-and-south-africa
#5
Lario Viljoen, Rhoda Ndubani, Virginia Bond, Janet Seeley, Lindsey Reynolds, Graeme Hoddinott
Public health researchers repeatedly represent women as a group vulnerable to ill health. This has been particularly true in the field of HIV research, where women are disproportionately affected by HIV in terms of disease burden and the social effects of the epidemic. Although women have been the focus of many prevention and treatment programs, structural barriers to implementation of these targeted programs persist. In this article we explore how high HIV-burden communities in South Africa and Zambia engage with the concepts of "woman" and "HIV risk"...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237406/factors-associated-with-postnatal-care-for-newborns-in-zambia-analysis-of-the-2013-14-zambia-demographic-and-health-survey
#6
Bupe B Bwalya, Mulenga C Mulenga, James N Mulenga
BACKGROUND: The importance of postnatal care cannot be overemphasised. Various studies undertaken worldwide have found that PNC is critical for the survival of newborns. However, in Zambia, despite much emphasis by the government and various international Organisations on the need for PNC, coverage continues to be low. This study attempted to assess the demographic and socio-economic factors associated with newborns' receipt of PNC and the timing of first PNC in Zambia. METHODS: Based on data from the 2013-14 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS), this study used bivariate, stepwise binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses to examine PNC for births at home and at health facilities...
December 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230918/poor-continuity-of-care-for-tb-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-zambian-prisons-a-situation-analysis
#7
S Hatwiinda, S M Topp, M Siyambango, J B Harris, K R Maggard, C Chileshe, N Kapata, S E Reid, G Henostroza
OBJECTIVES: Prisons act as infectious disease reservoirs. We aimed to explore the challenges of TB control and continuity of care in prisons in Zambia. METHODS: We evaluated treatment outcomes for a cohort of inmates diagnosed with TB during a TB REACH funded screening program initiated by the Zambia Prisons Service and the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. RESULTS: Between October 2010 and September 2011, 6,282 inmates from six prisons were screened for TB, of whom 374 (6...
December 12, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230314/testing-the-effectiveness-of-a-transdiagnostic-treatment-approach-in-reducing-violence-and-alcohol-abuse-among-families-in-zambia-study-protocol-of-the-violence-and-alcohol-treatment-vatu-trial
#8
J C Kane, S Skavenski Van Wyk, S M Murray, P Bolton, F Melendez, C K Danielson, P Chimponda, S Munthali, L K Murray
Background: Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is an urgent global health problem. Root causes for VAWG include the individual- and family-level factors of alcohol abuse, mental health problems, violence exposure, and related adverse experiences. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) have assessed the effectiveness of psychological interventions for reducing VAWG. This randomized controlled trial, part of the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls consortium, examines the effectiveness of a common elements treatment approach (CETA) for reducing VAWG and comorbid alcohol abuse among families in Zambia...
2017: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229657/adapting-the-emergency-first-aid-responder-course-for-zambia-through-curriculum-mapping-and-blueprinting
#9
Jennifer L Pigoga, Charmaine Cunningham, Muhumpu Kafwamfwa, Lee A Wallis
OBJECTIVES: Community members are often the first to witness and respond to medical and traumatic emergencies, making them an essential first link to emergency care systems. The Emergency First Aid Responder (EFAR) programme is short course originally developed to help South Africans manage emergencies at the community level, pending arrival of formal care providers. EFAR was implemented in two rural regions of Zambia in 2015, but no changes were originally made to tailor the course to the new setting...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228024/detection-of-duo-schistosome-infection-from-filtered-urine-samples-from-school-children-in-zambia-after-mda
#10
Megan J Hessler, Austin Cyrs, Steven C Krenzke, El Shaimaa Mahmoud, Chummy Sikasunge, James Mwansa, Nilanjan Lodh
Schistosomiasis is one of the major Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in sub-Saharan Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, two major human schistosome species namely Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium often occur sympatrically largely affecting children. Recognizing the public health impact of Schistosomiasis, the World Health Organization (WHO) is urging member states to regularly treat at least 75% and up to 100%, of all school-aged children at risk of morbidity. For control strategies based on targeted mass drug administration (MDA) to succeed it is essential to have a simple and sensitive test for monitoring the success of these interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221763/cognitive-impairment-and-quality-of-life-of-people-with-epilepsy-and-neurocysticercosis-in-zambia
#11
Anne L Nau, Kabemba E Mwape, Jasmin Wiefek, Kathie Schmidt, Emmanuel Abatih, Pierre Dorny, Nicolas Praet, Clarance Chiluba, Holger Schmidt, Isaac K Phiri, Andrea S Winkler, Sarah Gabriël, Joachim Blocher
Cognitive impairment and quality of life (Qol) are important to assess the burden of epilepsy and neurocysticercosis (NCC), which are common but neglected in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The aims of this study were to assess cognitive performance and Qol of people with epilepsy (PWE) in Zambia and to explore differences in PWE with and without NCC. In this community based, cross-sectional case-control-study, 47 PWE and 50 healthy controls completed five neuropsychological tests (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Digit Span, Selective Reminding Test (SRT), Spatial Recall Test (SPART), Test Battery of Attentional Performance (TAP)) and a World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire of Qol...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221493/caring-for-a-cerebral-palsy-child-a-caregivers-perspective-at-the-university-teaching-hospital-zambia
#12
Brian Chanda Chiluba, Geoffrey Moyo
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is a major cause of disability and most survivors are left with residual disability and are dependent on parents/caregivers for essential care. This study aimed to determine the experiences of parents/caregivers of cerebral palsy children receiving out-patient physiotherapy. A concurrent mixed methods was used to collect data in the present study. The modified caregiver strain index (MCSI-13) was used to detect Disturbed sleep, Inconvenient/Tiresome, Physical strain, Confining, Family changes, Changes in personal plan, Other demands, Emotional adjustments, Upsetting behavior, Patient has changed, Work adjustments, Financial Strain and Feeling Overwhelmed (strain morbidity) in 25 parents/caregivers of CP children...
December 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219248/-my-mother-told-me-that-i-should-not-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-restrictions-placed-on-adolescent-girls-living-with-hiv-in-zambia
#13
Constance Rs Mackworth-Young, Virginia Bond, Alison Wringe, Katongo Konayuma, Sue Clay, Chipo Chiiya, Mutale Chonta, Kirsty Sievwright, Anne L Stangl
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV due to a range of social and structural factors. As they transition to adulthood, they are recipients of increasing blame for HIV infection and 'improper' sex, as well as increasing scrutiny, restrictions and surveillance. This study used a qualitative and participatory approach to explore the messaging and restrictions imposed on adolescent girls living with HIV in Zambia. METHODS: Thirty-four in-depth interviews and four participatory workshops were carried out with 24 adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years old living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214039/clinical-and-genetic-analysis-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-7-sca7-in-zambian-families
#14
Masharip Atadzhanov, Danielle C Smith, Mwila H Mwaba, Omar K Siddiqi, Alan Bryer, L Jacquie Greenberg
Background: To date, 43 types of Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCAs) have been identified. A subset of the SCAs are caused by the pathogenic expansion of a CAG repeat tract within the corresponding gene. Ethnic and geographic differences are evident in the prevalence of the autosomal dominant SCAs. Few descriptions of the clinical phenotype and molecular genetics of the SCAs are available from the African continent. Established studies mostly concern the South African populations, where there is a high frequency of SCA1, SCA2 and SCA7...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207973/identifying-models-of-hiv-care-and-treatment-service-delivery-in-tanzania-uganda-and-zambia-using-cluster-analysis-and-delphi-survey
#15
Sharon Tsui, Julie A Denison, Caitlin E Kennedy, Larry W Chang, Olivier Koole, Kwasi Torpey, Eric Van Praag, Jason Farley, Nathan Ford, Leine Stuart, Fred Wabwire-Mangen
BACKGROUND: Organization of HIV care and treatment services, including clinic staffing and services, may shape clinical and financial outcomes, yet there has been little attempt to describe different models of HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Information about the relative benefits and drawbacks of different models could inform the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and associated services in resource-limited settings (RLS), especially in light of expanded client populations with country adoption of WHO's test and treat recommendation...
December 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207524/characterization-of-a-novel-bat-adenovirus-isolated-from-straw-colored-fruit-bat-eidolon-helvum
#16
Hirohito Ogawa, Masahiro Kajihara, Naganori Nao, Asako Shigeno, Daisuke Fujikura, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Aaron S Mweene, Alisheke Mutemwa, David Squarre, Masao Yamada, Hideaki Higashi, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada
Bats are important reservoirs for emerging zoonotic viruses. For extensive surveys of potential pathogens in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Zambia, a total of 107 spleen samples of E. helvum in 2006 were inoculated onto Vero E6 cells. The cell culture inoculated with one of the samples (ZFB06-106) exhibited remarkable cytopathic changes. Based on the ultrastructural property in negative staining and cross-reactivity in immunofluorescence assays, the virus was suspected to be an adenovirus, and tentatively named E...
December 4, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206723/assessing-the-association-between-changing-nrtis-when-initiating-second-line-art-and-treatment-outcomes
#17
Julia K Rohr, Prudence Ive, C Robert Horsburgh, Rebecca Berhanu, Christopher J Hoffmann, Robin Wood, Andrew Boulle, Janet Giddy, Hans Prozesky, Michael Vinikoor, Mwanza Wa Mwanza, Gilles Wandeler, Mary-Ann Davies, Matthew P Fox
BACKGROUND: After first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure, the importance of change in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) in second-line is uncertain due to the high potency of protease inhibitors used in second-line. SETTING: We used clinical data from 6,290 adult patients in South Africa and Zambia from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa cohort. METHODS: We included patients who initiated on standard first-line ART and had evidence of first-line failure...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200311/the-development-and-release-of-maize-fortified-with-provitamin-a-carotenoids-in-developing-countries
#18
Pepukai Manjeru, Angeline Van Biljon, Maryke Labuschagne
Micronutrient deficiencies have been identified as major public health problems affecting a large part of the world's population. Biofortification of staple crops like maize has been proposed as one of the most cost effective and feasible approaches to combat micronutrient deficiencies. Studies have shown that provitamin A from biofortified crops is highly bioavailable and has the capacity to improve vitamin A status of vulnerable groups. Most people in sub-Saharan Africa subsist on maize and many people may benefit from consumption of provitamin A carotenoid biofortified maize, especially women and children...
December 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199409/depressive-symptoms-are-negatively-associated-with-glucose-testing-and-eating-meals-on-time-among-individuals-with-diabetes-in-zambia
#19
Given Hapunda, Amina Abubakar, Frans Pouwer, Fons van de Vijver
BACKGROUND: Depression is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and mortality among individuals living with diabetes, and impaired self-care behaviors may play a mediating role. In Africa, this association is not very well known. In this study, we examined the associations between depressive symptoms and different aspects of diabetes self-care in Zambian individuals with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 157 individuals with diabetes mellitus participated...
November 17, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197068/drivers-of-advanced-stage-at-breast-cancer-diagnosis-in-the-multi-country-african-breast-cancer-disparities-in-outcomes-abc-do-study
#20
Fiona McKenzie, Annelle Zietsman, Moses Galukande, Angelica Anele, Charles Adisa, Groesbeck Parham, Leeya Pinder, Herbert Cubasch, Maureen Joffe, Frederick Kidaaga, Robert Lukande, Awa U Offiah, Ralph O Egejuru, Aaron Shibemba, Joachim Schuz, Benjamin O Anderson, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Valerie McCormack
Breast cancer (BC) survival rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are low in part due to advanced stage at diagnosis. As one component of a study of the entire journey of SSA women with BC, we aimed to identify shared and setting-specific drivers of advanced stage BC. Women newly diagnosed in the multi-country African Breast Cancer - Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) study completed a baseline interview and their stage information was extracted from medical records. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for advanced stage (I, II, III, IV) in relation to individual woman-level, referral and biological factors...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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