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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335751/exploring-community-participation-in-project-design-application-of-the-community-conversation-approach-to-improve-maternal-and-newborn-health-in-zambia
#1
Wilbroad Mutale, Chisala Masoso, Bisalom Mwanza, Cindy Chirwa, Lasidah Mwaba, Zumbe Siwale, Barbara Lamisa, Dennis Musatwe, Roma Chilengi
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has adopted an approach entitled Community Conversation (CC) to improve community engagement in addressing health challenges. CCs are based on Paulo Freire's transformative communication approach, in which communities pose problems and critically examine their everyday life experiences through discussion. We adopted this approach to engage communities in maternal and newborn health discussions in three rural districts of Zambia, with the aim of developing community-generated interventions...
March 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335490/monitoring-of-selected-health-indicators-in-children-living-in-a-copper-mine-development-area-in-northwestern-zambia
#2
Astrid M Knoblauch, Mark J Divall, Milka Owuor, Colleen Archer, Kennedy Nduna, Harrison Ng'uni, Gertrude Musunka, Anna Pascall, Jürg Utzinger, Mirko S Winkler
The epidemiology of malaria, anaemia and malnutrition in children is potentially altered in mining development areas. In a copper extraction project in northwestern Zambia, a health impact assessment (HIA) was commissioned to predict, manage and monitor health impacts. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted: at baseline prior to project development (2011) and at four years into development (2015). Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, anaemia and stunting were assessed in under-five-year-old children, while hookworm infection was assessed in children aged 9-14 years in communities impacted and comparison communities not impacted by the project...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333963/why-don-t-urban-youth-in-zambia-use-condoms-the-influence-of-gender-and-marriage-on-non-use-of-male-condoms-among-young-adults
#3
Jessie Pinchoff, Christopher B Boyer, Namuunda Mutombo, Rachna Nag Chowdhuri, Thoai D Ngo
BACKGROUND: Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%). This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia. METHODS: A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18-24 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329383/sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-exhibits-dose-response-protection-against-adverse-birth-outcomes-related-to-sexually-transmitted-and-reproductive-tract-infections
#4
R Matthew Chico, Enesia Banda Chaponda, Cono Ariti, Daniel Chandramohan
Background.: We conducted a prospective cohort study in Zambia among pregnant women who received intermittent preventive treatment using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). Methods.: We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) of adverse birth outcomes by IPTp-SP exposure, 0-1 dose (n = 126) vs ≥2 doses (n = 590) and 2 doses (n = 310) vs ≥3 doses (n = 280) in 7 categories of malaria infection and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs). Results...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320431/barriers-to-uptake-of-early-infant-hiv-testing-in-zambia-the-role-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-status-disclosure-within-couples
#5
Karen M Hampanda, Abigail M Nimz, Lisa L Abuogi
BACKGROUND: Early detection of pediatric HIV through uptake of infant HIV testing is critical for access to treatment and child survival. While structural barriers have been well described, a greater understanding of social and behavioral factors that may relate to maternal uptake of early infant HIV testing services is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to explore how gender power dynamics within couples affect HIV-positive women's uptake of early infant HIV testing at a large health center in Lusaka, Zambia...
March 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317811/performance-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#6
Pascal Polepole, Mwila Kabwe, Mpanga Kasonde, John Tembo, Aaron Shibemba, Justin O'Grady, Nathan Kapata, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which accounts for 10%-40% of the global burden of TB, with the highest incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa, is strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosing EPTB is challenging, and recently, there has been a concerted effort to evaluate the latest molecular diagnostics for diagnosing TB in a range of specimen types. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is one such technology, which simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303177/community-assembly-in-lake-tanganyika-cichlid-fish-quantifying-the-contributions-of-both-niche-based-and-neutral-processes
#7
Thijs Janzen, Adriana Alzate, Moritz Muschick, Martine E Maan, Fons van der Plas, Rampal S Etienne
The cichlid family features some of the most spectacular examples of adaptive radiation. Evolutionary studies have highlighted the importance of both trophic adaptation and sexual selection in cichlid speciation. However, it is poorly understood what processes drive the composition and diversity of local cichlid species assemblages on relatively short, ecological timescales. Here, we investigate the relative importance of niche-based and neutral processes in determining the composition and diversity of cichlid communities inhabiting various environmental conditions in the littoral zone of Lake Tanganyika, Zambia...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302099/monthly-food-insecurity-assessment-in-rural-mkushi-district-zambia-a-longitudinal-analysis
#8
Muzi Na, Bess L Caswell, Sameera A Talegawkar, Amanda Palmer
BACKGROUND: Perception-based scales are widely used for household food insecurity (HFI) assessment but were only recently added in national surveys. The frequency of assessments needed to characterize dynamics in HFI over time is largely unknown. The study aims to examine longitudinal changes in monthly reported HFI at both population- and household-level. METHODS: A total of 157 households in rural Mkushi District whose children were enrolled in the non-intervened arm of an efficacy trial of biofortified maize were included in the analysis...
March 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302082/growth-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-compared-with-hiv-unexposed-zambian-children-a-longitudinal-analysis-from-infancy-to-school-age
#9
Anna Rosala-Hallas, Jonathan W Bartlett, Suzanne Filteau
BACKGROUND: Early growth of HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children is poorer than that of their HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) counterparts but there is little longitudinal or longer term information about the growth effects of early HIV exposure. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal analysis to compare growth of HEU and HUU infants and children using data from two cohort studies in Lusaka, Zambia. Initially 207 HUU and 200 HEU infants from the Breastfeeding and Postpartum Health (BFPH) study and 580 HUU and 165 HEU from the Chilenje Infant Growth, Nutrition and Infection Study (CIGNIS) had anthropometric measurements taken during infancy and again when school-aged, at which time 66 BFPH children and 326 CIGNIS children were available...
March 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301710/aflatoxin-contamination-of-groundnut-and-maize-in-zambia-observed-and-potential-concentrations
#10
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
AIMS: Quantify aflatoxins, the potent carcinogens associated with stunting and immune suppression, in maize and groundnut across Zambia's three agroecologies and determine vulnerability to aflatoxin increases after purchase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aflatoxin concentrations were determined for 334 maize and groundnut samples from 27 districts using lateral-flow immunochromatography. Seventeen percent of crops from markets contained aflatoxin concentrations above allowable levels in Zambia (10 μg kg(-1) )...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299893/co-circulation-of-multiple-genotypes-of-african-swine-fever-viruses-among-domestic-pigs-in-zambia-2013-2015
#11
E Simulundu, H M Chambaro, Y Sinkala, M Kajihara, H Ogawa, A Mori, J Ndebe, G Dautu, L Mataa, C H Lubaba, C Simuntala, P Fandamu, M Simuunza, G S Pandey, K L Samui, G Misinzo, A Takada, A S Mweene
During 2013-2015, several and severe outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) affected domestic pigs in six provinces of Zambia. Genetic characterization of ASF viruses (ASFVs) using standardized genotyping procedures revealed that genotypes I, II and XIV were associated with these outbreaks. Molecular and epidemiological data suggest that genotype II ASFV (Georgia 2007/1-like) detected in Northern Province of Zambia may have been introduced from neighbouring Tanzania. Also, a genotype II virus detected in Eastern Province of Zambia showed a p54 phylogenetic relationship that was inconsistent with that of p72, underscoring the genetic variability of ASFVs...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292643/water-system-hardware-and-management-rehabilitation-qualitative-evidence-from-ghana-kenya-and-zambia
#12
Tori Klug, Katherine F Shields, Ryan Cronk, Emma Kelly, Nikki Behnke, Kristen Lee, Jamie Bartram
BACKGROUND: Sufficient, safe, continuously available drinking water is important for human health and development, yet one in three handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa are non-functional at any given time. Community management, coupled with access to external technical expertise and spare parts, is a widely promoted model for rural water supply management. However, there is limited evidence describing how community management can address common hardware and management failures of rural water systems in sub-Saharan Africa...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291647/health-professional-feedback-on-hpv-vaccination-roll-out-in-a-developing-country
#13
Collette Venturas, Kanayo Umeh
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Zambia has the highest cervical cancer incidence rates (58.4/100,000 per year) and mortality rates (36.2/100,000 per year). The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is considered a vital preventative measure against cervical cancer, particularly in sub-Saharan countries, such as Zambia. Past research suggests health professionals' experiences with HPV vaccination rollout can have practical implications for effective delivery. OBJECTIVE: To explore health professionals' perspectives on the HPV vaccination programme in Zambia...
March 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289727/seroprevalence-of-zika-virus-in-wild-african-green-monkeys-and-baboons
#14
Connor R Buechler, Adam L Bailey, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Meghan E Breitbach, Laurel M Stewart, Anna J Jasinska, Nelson B Freimer, Cristian Apetrei, Jane E Phillips-Conroy, Clifford J Jolly, Jeffrey Rogers, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently spread through the Americas and has been associated with a range of health effects, including birth defects in children born to women infected during pregnancy. Although the natural reservoir of ZIKV remains poorly defined, the virus was first identified in a captive "sentinel" macaque monkey in Africa in 1947. However, the virus has not been reported in humans or nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Africa outside Gabon in over a decade. Here, we examine ZIKV infection in 239 wild baboons and African green monkeys from South Africa, the Gambia, Tanzania, and Zambia using combinations of unbiased deep sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and an antibody capture assay that we optimized using serum collected from captive macaque monkeys exposed to ZIKV, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275256/health-system-productivity-change-in-zambia-a-focus-on-the-child-health-services
#15
Tom Achoki, Yohannes Kinfu, Felix Masiye, Geert W J Frederix, Anke Hovels, Hubert G Leufkens
Efficiency and productivity improvement have become central in global health debates. In this study, we explored productivity change, particularly the contribution of technological progress and efficiency gains associated with improvements in child survival in Zambia (population 15 million). Productivity was measured by applying the Malmquist productivity index on district-level panel data. The effect of socioeconomic factors was further analyzed by applying an ordinary least squares regression technique. During 2004-2009, overall productivity in Zambia increased by 5...
February 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270202/rheumatology-in-africa-challenges-and-opportunities
#16
EDITORIAL
Girish M Mody
Africa faces many health challenges despite sustained growth and development over the past decade. Contributory factors are the lack of financial resources, an inadequate health professional workforce, a high burden of communicable diseases, and an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases. Rheumatology services are limited or non-existent in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past decade, partnerships with international academic institutions have resulted in some progress in the training of rheumatologists and health professionals and development of rheumatology services in countries such as Kenya, Nigeria, and Zambia...
March 7, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270134/use-of-mobile-phones-and-text-messaging-to-decrease-the-turnaround-time-for-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-and-notification-in-rural-zambia-an-observational-study
#17
Catherine G Sutcliffe, Philip E Thuma, Janneke H van Dijk, Kathy Sinywimaanzi, Sydney Mweetwa, Mutinta Hamahuwa, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Early infant diagnosis of HIV infection is challenging in rural sub-Saharan Africa as blood samples are sent to central laboratories for HIV DNA testing, leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment initiation. Simple technologies to rapidly deliver results to clinics and notify mothers of test results would decrease many of these delays. The feasibility of using mobile phones to contact mothers was evaluated. In addition, the first two years of implementation of a national short message service (SMS) reporting system to deliver test results from the laboratory to the clinic were evaluated...
March 8, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270127/-life-at-the-river-is-a-living-hell-a-qualitative-study-of-trauma-mental-health-substance-use-and-hiv-risk-behavior-among-female-fish-traders-from-the-kafue-flatlands-in-zambia
#18
Lynn T Murphy Michalopoulos, Stefani N Baca-Atlas, Simona J Simona, Tina Jiwatram-Negrón, Alexander Ncube, Melanie B Chery
BACKGROUND: In Western settings, the relationship between trauma history, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and HIV risk behavior, is well established. Although female fish traders in Zambia are affected by HIV at rates estimated to be 4-14 times higher than the national prevalence, no studies have examined the co-occurring issues of trauma, substance use and HIV risk behavior among this vulnerable population. The current study examined: 1) trauma history, trauma symptoms and HIV risk behaviors and 2) the relationship between these co-occurring issues among female fish traders from the Kafue Flatlands in Zambia...
March 7, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264832/retrospective-review-of-surgical-availability-and-readiness-in-8-african-countries
#19
D A Spiegel, B Droti, P Relan, S Hobson, M N Cherian, K O'Neill
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess surgical availability and readiness in 8 African countries using the WHO's Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) tool. SETTING: We analysed data for surgical services, including basic and comprehensive surgery, comprehensive obstetric care, blood transfusion, and infection prevention, obtained from the WHO's SARA surveys in Sierra Leone, Uganda, Mauritania, Benin, Zambia, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo and Togo...
March 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264332/description-of-a-new-species-of-i-neoromicia-i-chiroptera-vespertilionidae-%C3%A2-from-southern-africa-a-name-for-i-n-cf-melckorum-i
#20
Steven M Goodman, Teresa Kearney, Malalatiana Michèle Ratsimbazafy, Alexandre Hassanin
The taxonomy of sub-Saharan small insectivore bats of the family Vespertilionidae is unresolved and currently five named species of the genus Neoromicia are recognized from southern Africa, with N. melckorum considered a synonym of N. capensis. Since several years, the name "N. cf. melckorum" has been used in the literature to designate an apparently undescribed and moderately large bodied vespertilionid bat known from different localities in southern and southeastern Africa. Using new data from molecular genetics, bacular morphology, and cranio-dental characters, we conclude that N...
February 22, 2017: Zootaxa
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