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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820722/house-structure-is-associated-with-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-a-low-transmission-setting-in-southern-zambia
#1
Matthew M Ippolito, Kelly M Searle, Harry Hamapumbu, Timothy M Shields, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss, For The Southern Africa International Center Of Excellence For Malaria Research
House structure may influence the risk of malaria by affecting mosquito entry and indoor resting. Identification of construction features associated with protective benefits could inform vector control approaches, even in low-transmission settings. We examined the association between house structure and malaria prevalence in a cross-sectional analysis of 2,788 children and adults residing in 866 houses in a low-transmission area of Southern Province, Zambia, over the period 2008-2012. Houses were categorized according to wall (brick/cement block or mud/grass) and roof (metal or grass) material...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820718/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-rural-health-care-facilities-a-cross-sectional-study-in-ethiopia-kenya-mozambique-rwanda-uganda-and-zambia
#2
Amy Guo, J Michael Bowling, Jamie Bartram, Georgia Kayser
Safe and sufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) prevent the spread of disease in health-care facilities (HCFs). Little research has been conducted on WaSH in HCF in sub-Saharan Africa. We carried out a cross-sectional study of WaSH in 1,318 randomly selected rural HCF (hospitals, health centers, health posts, and clinics) in regions throughout Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Methods included questionnaires with head doctors and nurses to document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity and reliability, and analysis of drinking water samples for Escherichia coli...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820129/role-of-food-insecurity-in-outbreak-of-anthrax-infections-among-humans-and-hippopotamuses-living-in-a-game-reserve-area-rural-zambia
#3
Mark W Lehman, Allen S Craig, Constantine Malama, Muzala Kapina-Kany'anga, Philip Malenga, Fanny Munsaka, Sergio Muwowo, Sean Shadomy, Melissa A Marx
In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamuses deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819513/strengthening-and-expanding-the-capacity-of-health-worker-education-in-zambia
#4
Charles Michelo, Joseph Mumba Zulu, Moses Simuyemba, Benjamin Andrews, Max Katubulushi, Benjamin Chi, Evariste Njelesani, Bellington Vwalika, Kasonde Bowa, Margaret Maimbolwa, James Chipeta, Fastone Goma, Selestine Nzala, Sekelani Banda, John Mudenda, Yusuf Ahmed, Lotti Hachambwa, Craig Wilson, Sten Vermund, Yakub Mulla
INTRODUCTION: Zambia is facing a chronic shortage of health care workers. The paper aimed at understanding how the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) program facilitated strengthening and expanding of the national capacity and quality of medical education as well as processes for retaining faculty in Zambia. METHODS: Data generated through documentary review, key informant interviews and observations were analyzed using a thematic approach. RESULTS: The MEPI program triggered the development of new postgraduate programs thereby increasing student enrollment...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807019/barriers-and-facilitators-to-the-implementation-of-antenatal-syphilis-screening-and-treatment-for-the-prevention-of-congenital-syphilis-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-and-zambia-results-of-qualitative-formative-research
#5
Dalau Nkamba, Musaku Mwenechanya, Arlette Mavila Kilonga, Maria Luisa Cafferata, Amanda Mabel Berrueta, Agustina Mazzoni, Fernando Althabe, Ezequiel Garcia-Elorrio, Antoniette K Tshefu, Elwyn Chomba, Pierre M Buekens, Maria Belizan
BACKGROUND: The impact of untreated syphilis during pregnancy on neonatal health remains a major public health threat worldwide. Given the high prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy in Zambia and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Preventive Congenital Syphilis Trial (PCS Trial), a cluster randomized trial, was proposed to increase same-day screening and treatment of syphilis during antenatal care visits. To design an accepted and feasible intervention, we conducted a qualitative  formative research...
August 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799776/mycotoxin-contamination-of-foods-in-southern-africa-a-10-year-review-2007-2016
#6
J M Misihairabgwi, C N Ezekiel, M Sulyok, G S Shephard, R Krska
Major staple foods in Southern Africa are prone to mycotoxin contamination, posing health risks to consumers and consequent economic losses. Regional climatic zones favor the growth of one or more main mycotoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. Aflatoxin contamination is mainly reported in maize, peanuts and their products, fumonisin contamination in maize and maize products and patulin in apple juice. Lack of awareness of occurrence and risks of mycotoxins, poor agricultural practices and undiversified diets predispose populations to dietary mycotoxin exposure...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798891/hiv-positive-women-taking-lifelong-antiretroviral-therapy-report-better-adherence-than-women-taking-short-course-prophylaxis-during-and-after-pregnancy-under-pmtct-program-option-a-in-lusaka-zambia
#7
Karen M Hampanda, Lisa L Abuogi, Yusuf Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: HIV-positive women's adherence to antiretrovirals is critical for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We aimed to establish if mothers taking triple lifelong antiretroviral therapy report higher adherence compared to mothers taking short-course prophylaxis under Option A in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: In this clinic-based cross-sectional study, we interviewed 320 HIV-positive mothers at a large public health facility in Lusaka in 2014...
2017: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797299/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-drug-resistant-bacteria-carried-by-in-and-outpatients-attending-a-secondary-care-hospital-in-zambia
#8
Marjolijn M B Nagelkerke, Kapembwa Sikwewa, Dennis Makowa, Irene de Vries, Simon Chisi, J Wendelien Dorigo-Zetsma
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global health problem. Very little data on resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria in low-income countries exist. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of antimicrobial drug resistant bacteria carried by in- and outpatients in the resource constraint setting of a secondary care hospital in Zambia. Nasal and rectal samples from 50 in- and 50 outpatients were collected. Patients were randomly selected and informed consent was obtained...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792285/awareness-and-management-of-elevated-blood-pressure-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-urban-zambia-a-call-to-action
#9
Sophie Bauer, Mwanza Wa Mwanza, Roma Chilengi, Charles B Holmes, Zude Zyambo, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Egger, Gilles Wandeler, Michael J Vinikoor
The prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and hypertension (HTN), awareness of the diagnoses, and use of anti-hypertensive drugs were examined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia's capital Lusaka. Within a prospective cohort based at two public sector ART clinics, BP was measured at ART initiation and every 6 months thereafter as a routine clinic procedure. Predictors of HBP (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg) during one year on ART were analyzed using logistic regression, and the proportion with HTN (2+ episodes of HBP >3 months apart) described...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767719/task-shifting-impact-of-introducing-a-pilot-community-health-worker-cadre-into-zambia-s-public-sector-health-workforce
#10
Brett Keller, Elizabeth McCarthy, Kathryn Bradford Vosburg, Mutinta Musonda, Jere Mwila, Jan Willem van den Broek, Fiona J Walsh
BACKGROUND: The Zambia Ministry of Health (MOH) recruited and trained a new cadre of Community Health Assistants (CHAs) as part of its National Community Health Strategy. The inaugural class of 307 CHAs completed one year of training in July 2012 and deployed to their communities. METHODS: The impact of the CHA program on the volume and type of health services provided at health posts and their respective referral health centers was measured with a non-randomized difference-in-differences design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766456/creating-a-stronger-voice-for-nursing-in-zambia
#11
Jennifer Trueland
Jennifer Munsaka is the first to admit that her organisation didn't always get the most positive reception from government ministers or hospital management. The director of policy, programmes and professional affairs at the Zambia Union of Nurses Organization (ZUNO) was aware it was perceived as fighting for nurses' rights rather than leading on professional matters, such as improving patient safety.
August 2, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764850/surgical-registrars-perceptions-of-surgical-training-and-capacity-in-zambia-results-from-three-cosecsa-affiliated-training-hospitals
#12
Derek M Freitas, James Munthali, Joseph Musowoya, Hebah Ismail, Allyson Herbst, Laston Chikoya, Shubhada Dhage, Mary Ann Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Surgery is a vital component of a comprehensive health system, but there are often personnel limitations in resource constrained areas. Zambia provides post graduate surgical training through two systems to help address this shortage. However, no studies have analyzed surgical trainees' perceptions of these programs. METHODS: Surgical registrars at COSECSA affiliated hospitals in Zambia were surveyed about their programs. Responses were analyzed to identify key strengths and challenges across several categories including: operative training, clinical training, educational experiences, and career plans...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764787/assessing-the-capacity-of-ministries-of-health-to-use-research-in-decision-making-conceptual-framework-and-tool
#13
Daniela C Rodríguez, Connie Hoe, Elina M Dale, M Hafizur Rahman, Sadika Akhter, Assad Hafeez, Wayne Irava, Preety Rajbangshi, Tamlyn Roman, Marcela Ţîrdea, Rouham Yamout, David H Peters
BACKGROUND: The capacity to demand and use research is critical for governments if they are to develop policies that are informed by evidence. Existing tools designed to assess how government officials use evidence in decision-making have significant limitations for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); they are rarely tested in LMICs and focus only on individual capacity. This paper introduces an instrument that was developed to assess Ministry of Health (MoH) capacity to demand and use research evidence for decision-making, which was tested for reliability and validity in eight LMICs (Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Lebanon, Moldova, Pakistan, South Africa, Zambia)...
August 1, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764655/a-case-report-primary-amoebic-meningoencephalitis-in-a-young-zambian-adult
#14
Mashina Chomba, Luchenga A Mucheleng'anga, Sombo Fwoloshi, Joseph Ngulube, Mable M Mutengo
BACKGROUND: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant disease of the brain caused by Naegleria fowleri. Although the disease is rare, the case fatality rate is very high. In this report, we describe the first case of PAM in Zambia. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with sudden onset of seizures and fever on admission. On physical examination he was febrile, comatose and with a stiff neck. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collected on admission did not reveal any organism on microscopy or culture but showed elevated white cell count...
August 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764612/influencing-the-importance-of-health-partners-and-hygiene-among-zambian-women
#15
Violeta J Rodriguez, Maureen Chisembele, Deborah L Jones, Ryan Cook, Stephen M Weiss, Maria L Alcaide
Intravaginal practices (IVPs) are common in Zambia and are usually practiced for hygiene, partner pleasure, and health. IVPs are associated with HIV acquisition, changes in the vaginal flora, and bacterial vaginosis (BV), making it important to understand the decision-making process behind IVP engagement. The Women's and Sexual Health (WASH) intervention decreased IVP engagement among HIV-infected Zambian women, though change in reasons for engagement has not been assessed. We used conjoint analysis (CA) to quantify the decision-making process of IVP engagement and evaluated how the WASH intervention impacted these factors...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755543/assessing-income-redistributive-effect-of-health-financing-in-zambia
#16
Arnold Mulenga, John Ele-Ojo Ataguba
Ensuring an equitable health financing system is a major concern particularly in many developing countries. Internationally, there is a strong debate to move away from excessive reliance on direct out-of-pocket (OOP) spending towards a system that incorporates a greater element of risk pooling and thus affords greater protection for the poor. This is a major focus of the move towards universal health coverage (UHC). Currently, Zambia with high levels of poverty and income inequality is implementing health sector reforms for UHC through a social health insurance scheme...
July 21, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754138/serological-and-pcr-investigation-of-yersinia-pestis-in-potential-reservoir-hosts-from-a-plague-outbreak-focus-in-zambia
#17
S S Nyirenda, B M Hang'ombe, E Mulenga, B S Kilonzo
BACKGROUND: Plague is a bacterial zoonotic disease, caused by Yersinia pestis. Rodents are the natural hosts with fleas as the vehicle of disease transmission. Domestic and wild dogs and cats have also been identified as possible disease hosts. In Zambia, plague outbreaks have been reported in the Southern and Eastern regions in the last 20 years. Based on these observations, Y. pestis could possibly be endemically present in the area. METHODS: To substantiate such possibility, sera samples were collected from rodents, shrews, dogs and cats for detection of antibodies against Fraction 1 gene (Fra1) of Y...
July 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752916/discovery-and-genomic-analyses-of-hybridization-between-divergent-lineages-of-trypanosoma-congolense-causative-agent-of-animal-african-trypanosomiasis
#18
Eliane Tihon, Hideo Imamura, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Frederik Van den Broeck
Hybrid populations and introgressive hybridization remain poorly documented in pathogenic microorganisms, as such that genetic exchange has been argued to play a minor role in their evolution. Recent work demonstrated the existence of hybrid microsatellite profiles in Trypanosoma congolense, a parasitic protozoan with detrimental effects on livestock productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Here we present the first population genomic study of T. congolense, revealing a remarkable number of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), small insertions/deletions (indels) and gene deletions among 56 parasite genomes from ten African countries...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752212/factors-affecting-the-livestock-herd-size-among-smallholder-households-in-zambia
#19
Mary Lubungu
Structural changes in the economic and demographic landscapes in the developing countries create a host of opportunities for smallholder livestock producers to tap into the economic growth from which they have largely been excluded. However, small livestock herd sizes limit the opportunities available to farmers to commercialize and benefit from the growing demand for livestock and livestock products. Therefore, understanding what it takes to build and maintain the herd size is a critical step in addressing the problem of low market participation...
July 27, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750860/impaired-barrier-function-and-autoantibody-generation-in-malnutrition-enteropathy-in-zambia
#20
Beatrice Amadi, Ellen Besa, Kanekwa Zyambo, Patrick Kaonga, John Louis-Auguste, Kanta Chandwe, Phillip I Tarr, Donna M Denno, James P Nataro, William Faubion, Anne Sailer, Sunil Yeruva, Tricia Brantner, Joseph Murray, Andrew J Prendergast, Jerrold R Turner, Paul Kelly
Intestinal damage in malnutrition constitutes a threat to the survival of many thousands of children globally. We studied children in Lusaka, Zambia, with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and persistent diarrhea using endoscopy, biopsy and analysis of markers and protective proteins in blood and intestinal secretions. We carried out parallel investigations in apparently healthy adults, and analyzed biomarkers only in apparently healthy children. Villus height and crypt depth did not differ in children with SAM and adult controls, but epithelial surface was reduced in children with SAM (median 445, interquartile range (IQR) 388, 562μm per 100μm muscularis mucosae) compared to adults (578, IQR 465,709; P=0...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
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