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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617203/effects-of-increased-participation-on-veteran-running-performance
#1
Bernard Cerutti, Bengt Kayser
Contrary to elite performance that is approaching an asymptote, recent analyses suggested a trend for improvement in veterans. This might be attributable to a disproportionate increase in older age-group participation. We extracted 26 years (1987-2012) of men's results of a running event in Switzerland, "La Course de l'Escalade" (7.25 km). We investigated trends in performance by five-year age-groups, taking the 10, 20, 30, and 50 fastest in each group, and then the 1(st), 5(th), and 10(th) percentiles. Taking the 10, 20, 30 or 50 fastest runners there was a trend for improvement ranging from 0...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587488/running-multiple-marathons-is-not-a-risk-factor-for-premature-subclinical-vascular-impairment
#2
Axel Pressler, Christiane Suchy, Tasja Friedrichs, Sophia Dallinger, Viola Grabs, Bernhard Haller, Martin Halle, Johannes Scherr
Background In contrast to the well-accepted benefits of moderate exercise, recent research has suggested potential deleterious effects of repeated marathon running on the cardiovascular system. We thus performed a comprehensive analysis of markers of subclinical vascular damage in a cohort of runners having finished multiple marathon races successfully. Design This was a prospective, observational study. Methods A total of 97 healthy male Munich marathon participants (mean age 44 ± 10 years) underwent detailed training history, cardiopulmonary exercise testing for assessment of peak oxygen uptake, ultrasound for assessment of intima-media-thickness as well as non-invasive assessments of ankle-brachial index, augmentation index, pulse wave velocity and reactive hyperaemia index...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570494/endurance-running-training-individually-guided-by-hrv-in-untrained-women
#3
Danilo F da Silva, Zachary M Ferraro, Kristi B Adamo, Fabiana A Machado
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of HRV-guided training compared to a standardized prescription on i) time to complete 5-km running performance (t5km), ii) peak treadmill running speed (Vpeak) and its time limit (tlim at Vpeak), and iii) autonomic cardiac modulation (i.e., parasympathetic activity and recovery) in untrained women. Additionally, we correlated changes in t5km with changes in Vpeak, tlim at Vpeak and autonomic cardiac modulation. Thirty-six untrained women were divided into a HRV-guided training group (HRVG) and a control group (CG)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543734/the-effect-of-repeated-periods-of-speed-endurance-training-on-performance-running-economy-and-muscle-adaptations-113-120-characters
#4
Casper Skovgaard, Nicki Winfield Almquist, Jens Bangsbo
The effect of repeated intense training interventions was investigated in eight trained male runners (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 -max): 59.3±3.2 ml·kg(-1) ·min(-1) , mean±SD) who performed ten speed endurance training (SET; repeated 30-s 'all-out' bouts) and ten aerobic moderate-intensity training sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity...
May 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542274/detecting-infection-hotspots-modeling-the-surveillance-challenge-for-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis
#5
Julie R Harris, Ryan E Wiegand
BACKGROUND: During the past 20 years, enormous efforts have been expended globally to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) through mass drug administration (MDA). However, small endemic foci (microfoci) of LF may threaten the presumed inevitable decline of infections after MDA cessation. We conducted microsimulation modeling to assess the ability of different types of surveillance to identify microfoci in these settings. METHODS: Five or ten microfoci of radius 1, 2, or 3 km with infection marker prevalence (intensity) of 3, 6, or 10 times background prevalence were placed in spatial simulations, run in R Version 3...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542090/5-km-time-trial-reliability-of-a-non-motorized-treadmill-and-comparison-of-physiological-and-perceptual-responses-versus-a-motorized-treadmill
#6
Hunter S Waldman, Alex J Heatherly, Ashton F Waddell, Ben M Krings, Eric K O'Neal
This study examined the reproducibility of performance across 3 non-motorized treadmill (NMT) 5-km time trials (TT) and physiological, gait, and perceptual differences of running at 5-km pace for both NMT and motorized treadmills (MT). Ten male runners experienced in road racing that had never run on a NMT completed 3 TT to establish personal best 5-km pace. In a later session, participants ran at this pace for 5 min on the NMT while metabolic, gait, and perceptual measures were recorded and then ran at outdoor 5-km personal best pace on a MT at 1% grade (counter-balanced crossover design)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508559/two-weeks-of-repetitive-gut-challenge-reduces-exercise-associated-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-malabsorption
#7
Atlanta Miall, Anthony Khoo, Christopher Rauch, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Peter R Gibson, Ricardo J S Costa
Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms are a common feature of endurance running, and may be exacerbated by and (or) limit the ability to tolerate carbohydrate intake during exercise. The study aimed to determine whether two weeks of repetitive gut-challenge during running can reduce exercise associated gastrointestinal symptoms and carbohydrate malabsorption. Endurance runners (n= 18) performed an initial gut-challenge trial (GC1) comprising 2 h running exercise at 60% VO2max (steady state) whilst consuming a formulated gel-disc containing 30 g carbohydrates (2:1 glucose-fructose, 10% w/v) every 20 min, followed by a 1 h running effort bout...
May 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496411/calf-compression-sleeves-change-biomechanics-but-not-performance-and-physiological-responses-in-trail-running
#8
Hugo A Kerhervé, Pierre Samozino, Fabrice Descombe, Matthieu Pinay, Guillaume Y Millet, Marion Pasqualini, Thomas Rupp
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS) affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min) outdoor trail running. Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain) wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg) or control sleeves (CON, <4 mmHg)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488928/do-subjective-assessments-of-running-patterns-reflect-objective-parameters
#9
Thibault Lussiana, Cyrille Gindre, Laurent Mourot, Kim Hébert-Losier
Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen(®) method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen(®) method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h(-1) while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen(®) method and objectively using 3D motion capture...
August 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488832/road-to-the-olympics-physical-fitness-of-medalists-of-the-canoe-sprint-junior-european-and-world-championship-events-over-the-past-20-years
#10
Viktor Bielik, Leonard Lendvorský, Lukáš Lengvarský, Peter Lopata, Róbert Petriska, Jana Pelikánová
BACKGROUND: In this article we aimed to find out whether there is a difference in physiological, anthropometric and power variables between medalists in junior international Championship events (MJCH) and the remaining members of the national team (NT) in flat water canoe sprint. METHODS: Sixty male junior kayakers from Slovak NT were tested annually between years 1995 and 2016. Sixteen of them won at least one medal (gold, silver or bronze) at junior international Championship...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469749/determination-of-aerobic-performance-in-youth-soccer-players-effect-of-direct-and-indirect-methods
#11
Wonder Passoni Higino, Alex de Souza Sorroche, Pedro Guilherme de Mattos Falqueiro, Yuri Cristina Suzuki Lima, Camila Lie Higa
This study was conducted to correlate and compare values for variables determined in indirect tests with the values determined directly in youth soccer players. The study subjects were 27 youth soccer players (age 16.77 ± 0.75 years; body mass 63.29 ± 7.37 kg; body height 174.14 ± 8.46 cm) playing in the basic categories of a first division team at the regional level of Brazilian soccer. Each subject was evaluated with the following tests: a) a treadmill test to directly determine values of VO2max and Vamax (Treadmill); b) an indirect Shuttle Run Test (SRT); c) an indirect Carminatti's test (TCar)...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459289/is-there-an-optimum-speed-for-economical-running
#12
Matthew I Black, Joseph C Handsaker, Sam J Allen, Stephanie E Forrester, Jonathan P Folland
The influence of running speed and sex on running economy is unclear and may have been confounded by measurements of oxygen cost that do not account for known differences in substrate metabolism, across a limited range of speeds, and differences in performance standard. Therefore, this study assessed the energy cost of running over a wide-range of speeds in high-level and recreational runners to investigate the effect of speed (considered in absolute and relative terms) and sex (males vs. females of equivalent performance standard) on running economy...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437981/efficient-laser-noise-reduction-method-via-actively-stabilized-optical-delay-line
#13
Dawei Li, Cheng Qian, Ye Li, Jianye Zhao
We report a fiber laser noise reduction method by locking it to an actively stabilized optical delay line, specifically a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a 10 km optical fiber spool. The fiber spool is used to achieve large arm imbalance. The heterodyne signal of the two arms converts the laser noise from the optical domain to several megahertz, and it is used in laser noise reduction by a phase-locked loop. An additional phase-locked loop is induced in the system to compensate the phase noise due to environmentally induced length fluctuations of the optical fiber spool...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416899/the-efficacy-of-a-discontinuous-graded-exercise-test-in-measuring-peak-oxygen-uptake-in-children-aged-8-to-10-years
#14
D Lambrick, J Jakeman, R Grigg, S Kaufmann, J Faulkner
As children's natural activity patterns are highly intermittent in nature, and characterised by rapid changes from rest to vigorous physical activity, discontinuous exercise tests may be considered ecologically valid for this population group. This study compared the peak physiological responses from a discontinuous and continuous graded exercise test (GXT_D, GXT_C, respectively) during treadmill exercise in children. Twenty-one healthy children (9.6 ± 0.6 y) completed GXT_D and GXT_C in a randomised order, separated by 72-hours...
March 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398168/pre-game-perceived-wellness-highly-associates-with-match-running-performances-during-an-international-field-hockey-tournament
#15
Mohammed Ihsan, Frankie Tan, Sofyan Sahrom, Hui Cheng Choo, Michael Chia, Abdul Rashid Aziz
This study examined the associations between pre-game wellness and changes in match running performance normalised to either (i) playing time, (ii) post-match RPE or (iii) both playing time and post-match RPE, over the course of a field hockey tournament. Twelve male hockey players were equipped with global positioning system (GPS) units while competing in an international tournament (six matches over 9 days). The following GPS-derived variables, total distance (TD), low-intensity activity (LIA; <15 km/h), high-intensity running (HIR; >15 km/h), high-intensity accelerations (HIACC; >2 m/s(2)) and decelerations (HIDEC; >-2 m/s(2)) were acquired and normalised to either (i) playing time, (ii) post-match RPE or (iii) both playing time and post-match RPE...
June 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394719/effects-of-strength-explosive-and-plyometric-training-on-energy-cost-of-running-in-ultra-endurance-athletes
#16
Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Enrico Rejc, Stefano Lazzer
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week home-based strength, explosive and plyometric (SEP) training on the cost of running (Cr) in well-trained ultra-marathoners and to assess the main mechanical parameters affecting changes in Cr. Twenty-five male runners (38.2 ± 7.1 years; body mass index: 23.0 ± 1.1 kg·m(-2); V˙O2max: 55.4 ± 4.0 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were divided into an exercise (EG = 13) and control group (CG = 12). Before and after a 12-week SEP training, Cr, spring-mass model parameters at four speeds (8, 10, 12, 14 km·h(-1)) were calculated and maximal muscle power (MMP) of the lower limbs was measured...
August 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367686/biomechanical-metabolic-and-cardiopulmonary-responses-of-masters-recreational-runners-during-running-at-different-speeds
#17
Hallie Hahn, Kevin R Vincent, Daniel C Herman, Cong Chen, Laura Ann Zdziarski, Christine Morgan, Heather K Vincent
This study tested interactions between age and running speed on biomechanics, metabolic responses and cardiopulmonary responses. Three-hundred participants ran at preferred and standardized speeds. Age group (younger, masters [≥40 years]) by speed (self-selected 8.8 km/h, 11.2 km/h and 13.6 km/h) interactions were tested on main outcomes of sagittal kinematic, temporal spatial, metabolic and cardiopulmonary parameters. At all speeds, angular displacements of the ankle, pelvis and knee were less in masters than younger runners (Hedges g effect size range = 0...
April 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361062/is-the-sensewear-armband-accurate-enough-to-quantify-and-estimate-energy-expenditure-in-healthy-adults
#18
Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Adrián Hernández-Vicente, Raúl Pérez-Isaac, Fernanda Santín-Medeiros, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Jose Antonio Casajús, Nuria Garatachea
BACKGROUND: The SenseWear Armband (SWA) is a monitor that can be used to estimate energy expenditure (EE); however, it has not been validated in healthy adults. The objective of this paper was to study the validity of the SWA for quantifying EE levels. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy adults (age 40-55 years, mean: 48±3.42 years) performed different types of standardized physical activity (PA) for 10 minutes (rest, walking at 3 and 5 km·h(-1), running at 7 and 9 km·h(-1), and sitting/standing at a rate of 30 cycle·min(-1))...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350714/multiple-transportable-carbohydrate-impact-on-long-distance-triathlon-performance
#19
David S Rowlands, Stuart D Houltham
The ingestion of multiple (2:1 glucose:fructose) transportable carbohydrate in beverages at high rates (>78 g·h) during endurance exercise enhances exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, fluid absorption, gut comfort, and performance, relative to glucose alone. But during long-distance endurance competition, athletes prefer a solid-gel-drink format, and the effect size of multiple-transportable carbohydrate is unknown. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of multiple-transportable carbohydrate on triathlon competition performance when ingested within bars, gels, and drinks...
March 27, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349501/a-placebo-controlled-trial-of-riboflavin-for-enhancement-of-ultramarathon-recovery
#20
Martin D Hoffman, Taylor R Valentino, Kristin J Stuempfle, Brandon V Hassid
BACKGROUND: Riboflavin is known to protect tissue from oxidative damage but, to our knowledge, has not been explored as a means to control exercise-related muscle soreness. This study investigated whether acute ingestion of riboflavin reduces muscle pain and soreness during and after completion of a 161-km ultramarathon and improves functional recovery after the event. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants of the 2016 161-km Western States Endurance Run were assigned to receive a riboflavin or placebo capsule shortly before the race start and when reaching 90 km...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
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