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Altitude medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808057/-mountain-medicine-ii
#1
Bjørn Bay, Kasper Fjellhaugen Hjuler
Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain medicine. The first part covered high-altitude physiology and medical aspects of objective alpine dangers and the increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This part covers altitude sickness, fluid balance, nutrition, and precautions for patients with pre-existing medical conditions, pregnant women and children...
October 31, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808056/-mountain-medicine-an-introduction-i
#2
Kasper Fjellhaugen Hjuler, Bjørn Bay
Tourism to high-altitude areas is increasingly popular even from low-lying regions such as Denmark. Mountain sports include skiing, mountaineering, and ski touring. The young, elderly and at-risk individuals with pre-existing illnesses engage in recreational mountain activities. Thus, risk assessment and counselling regarding altitude exposure is increasingly relevant to all healthcare providers. In this first article of two in a review series, we summarize the state of the art of altitude physiology, alpine dangers and avalanches, and medical aspects of the increased UV-exposure at altitude...
October 31, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737815/effect-of-tongxinluo-on-pulmonary-hypertension-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-rats-exposed-to-a-low-pressure-hypoxic-environment
#3
Yong Wang, Ting-Ting Ma, Na-Na Gao, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Jiang Hong, Rui Guo, Li-Na Jia, Hong Chang, Ying Gao, Zhi-Min Gao, Lei Pan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL),which is a Chinese medicine rooted from traditional used herbs, has been used in clinic to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it remains unknown whether TXL alleviates low pressure hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here, we aimed to observe the influence of TXL on pulmonary hypertension in a rat model that exposed to high altitude environment characterized by low pressure hypoxia...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734518/the-higher-the-better-differences-in-phenolics-and-cyanogenic-glycosides-in-sambucus-nigra-leaves-flowers-and-berries-from-different-altitudes
#4
Mateja Senica, Franci Stampar, Robert Veberic, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
BACKGROUND: Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) possesses high antioxidant activity and has been used to treat numerous medicinal disorders. In addition to their antioxidant properties, elderberry parts accumulate toxic cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). It has been proven that altitude influences the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. In the present study we investigated the change of phenolics and CGG in elder leaves, flowers, and berries induced by different altitudes and locations. RESULTS: The data indicate that the accumulation of CGG and phenolics is affected by the altitude of the growing site...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729077/ecological-status-of-high-altitude-medicinal-plants-and-their-sustainability-lingshi-bhutan
#5
Lakey, Kinley Dorji
BACKGROUND: Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks...
October 11, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645688/hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-medicine
#6
Kimberly J Dunham-Snary, Danchen Wu, Edward A Sykes, Amar Thakrar, Leah Rg Parlow, Jeffrey D Mewburn, Joel L Parlow, Stephen L Archer
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a homeostatic mechanism that is intrinsic to the pulmonary vasculature. Intrapulmonary arteries constrict in response to alveolar hypoxia, diverting blood to better-oxygenated lung segments, thereby optimizing ventilation-perfusion matching and systemic oxygen delivery. In response to alveolar hypoxia, a mitochondrial sensor dynamically changes reactive oxygen species and redox couples in PASMC. This inhibits potassium channels, depolarizes PASMC, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and increases cytosolic calcium, causing vasoconstriction...
September 16, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642287/rhizospheric-bacterial-community-of-endemic-rhododendron-arboreum-sm-ssp-delavayi-along-eastern-himalayan-slope-in-tawang
#7
Rajal Debnath, Archana Yadav, Vijai K Gupta, Bhim P Singh, Pratap J Handique, Ratul Saikia
Information on rhizosphere microbiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant Rhododendron arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang Thang (PTSO), Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border; in triplicates each) along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637445/a-case-review-in-flight-births-over-a-4-year-period-in-the-northern-territory-australia
#8
Toby Shipway, Elaine Johnson, Sheridan Bell, Jodie Martin, Peter Clark
OBJECTIVE: There has been much newspaper and online news coverage of in-flight obstetric births on commercial aircraft over several decades. This case series reviews several cases of in-flight birth and immediate maternal and neonatal outcomes from air medical retrievals in the Northern Territory of Australia over a 3-year period. METHODS: This is a retrospective written case note and electronic medical retrieval record analysis of 4 patients undergoing in-flight, at altitude, obstetric birth...
September 2016: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634793/polysomnography-in-bolivian-children-native-to-high-altitude-compared-to-children-native-to-low-altitude
#9
Catherine Mary Hill, Annette Carroll, Dagmara Dimitriou, Johanna Gavlak, Kate Heathcote, Veline L'Esperance, Ana Baya, Rebecca Webster, Maria Pushpanathan, Romola Starr Bucks
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare polysomnographic parameters in high altitude (HA) native Andean children with low altitude (LA) native peers in order to explain the nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) instability reported in HA native children and to study the effect on sleep quality. METHODS: Ninety-eight healthy children aged 7-10 y and 13-16 y were recruited at LA (500 m) or HA (3650 m) above sea level. Physical examination was undertaken and genetic ancestry determined from salivary DNA to determine proportion of European ancestry, a risk factor for poor HA adaptation...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616030/inhibitory-effects-of-saussurea-involucrata-kar-et-kir-sch-bip-on-adjuvant-arthritis-in-rats
#10
Xiaoli Han, Dan Su, Xiaoyan Xian, Mingyang Zhou, Xianzhe Li, Jian Huang, Jinhui Wang, Huiyuan Gao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Saussurea involucrate (Kar. et Kir.) Sch. -Bip is an endangered species of the Compositae family, and this species has long been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, dysmenorrhea, stomachache, and altitude sickness in Uighur folk and Chinese medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the different therapeutic efficacy of alcohol infusion (SEI) and water decoction (SWD) of S. involucrata in treating rheumatoid arthritis using complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis (AA) in a rat model...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548190/acceptability-safety-and-efficacy-of-oral-administration-of-extracts-of-black-or-red-maca-lepidium-meyenii-in-adult-human-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#11
Carla Gonzales-Arimborgo, Irma Yupanqui, Elsa Montero, Dulce E Alarcón-Yaquetto, Alisson Zevallos-Concha, Lidia Caballero, Manuel Gasco, Jianping Zhao, Ikhlas A Khan, Gustavo F Gonzales
The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels...
August 18, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542084/issr-markers-for-gender-identification-and-genetic-diagnosis-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-ssp-turkestanica-growing-at-high-altitudes-in-ladakh-region-jammu-and-kashmir
#12
Kamal Das, Showkat Hussain Ganie, Yash Mangla, Tanvir-Ul-Hassan Dar, Manju Chaudhary, Rakesh Kumar Thakur, Rajesh Tandon, S N Raina, Shailendra Goel
Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. turkestanica (Elaeagnaceae) is a predominantly dioecious and wind-pollinated medicinal plant species. The mature fruits of the species possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancerous, and antistimulatory properties that are believed to improve the immune system. The identification of male and female plants in H. rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica is quite difficult until flowering which usually takes 3-4 years or more. A sex-linked marker can be helpful in establishing the orchards through identification of genders at an early stage of development...
August 19, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498832/antifungal-and-phytotoxic-activity-of-essential-oil-from-root-of-senecio-amplexicaulis-kunth-asteraceae-growing-wild-in-high-altitude-himalayan-region
#13
Rajendra Singh, Vivek Ahluwalia, Pratap Singh, Naresh Kumar, Om Prakash Sati, Nitin Sati
This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum...
August 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459231/variation-in-essential-oil-yield-and-composition-of-dorema-aucheri-boiss-an-endemic-medicinal-plant-collected-from-wild-populations-in-natural-habitats
#14
Abolghasem Akbarian, Mehdi Rahimmalek, Mohammad Reza Sabzalian
In the present research, variability in essential oil composition of five D. aucheri populations collected from natural habitats in different regions of Iran, were investigated. The essential oil content of populations varied from 0.28% to 0.68%. According to GC-MS analysis, β-caryophyllene (7.17-35.73%), thymol (23.45-29.64%), β-gurjunene (2.58-5.89%), carvacrol (1.32-2.67%) and cuparene (1.97-2.98%) were the major components. Hierarchical cluster, principal component and canonical correspondence analyses classified the studied populations into three groups based on major essential oil components...
July 26, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392023/evaluation-of-reference-genes-for-reverse-transcription-quantitative-pcr-studies-of-physiological-responses-in-the-ghost-moth-thitarodes-armoricanus-lepidoptera-hepialidae
#15
Guiqing Liu, Xuehong Qiu, Li Cao, Yi Zhang, Zubing Zhan, Richou Han
Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the sensitive method to quantify the expression levels of target genes on the basis of endogenous control. An appropriate reference gene set for normalization is essential for reliable results. The ghost moth, Thitarodes armoricanus, a host species of a medicinal fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, is an economically important member of the Lepidoptera. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism of adaptation of this species to its high-altitude environment and host immune response to O...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342801/medicinal-plants-of-dagala-region-in-bhutan-their-diversity-distribution-uses-and-economic-potential
#16
Phurpa Wangchuk, Kuenga Namgay, Karma Gayleg, Yeshi Dorji
BACKGROUND: The traditional g.so-ba-rig-pa hospitals in Bhutan uses more than 100 polyingredient medicines that are manufactured by the Menjong Sorig Pharmaceuticals (MSP). The MSP has been collecting medicinal plants from Lingzhi region for about 48 years and therefore the ecological pressure on these plants have increased. It is MSP's top priority to identify an alternative collection site to ease the problem. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine whether Dagala region could potentially be an alternative collection site for MSP...
2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27327125/effects-of-growth-altitude-on-chemical-constituents-and-delayed-luminescence-properties-in-medicinal-rhubarb
#17
Mengmeng Sun, Li Li, Mei Wang, Eduard van Wijk, Min He, Roeland van Wijk, Slavik Koval, Thomas Hankemeier, Jan van der Greef, Shengli Wei
To improve the quality control of herbal drugs, there has been a major shift from evaluating individual chemicals to evaluating multiple-constituent chemicals, given the multi-pharmacology nature of herbal drugs. Therefore, rapid, systematic assays are needed in order to assess the quality of medicinal herbs using a comprehensive, integrated approach. Light-induced delayed luminescence (DL) is used to measure decaying long-term ultra-weak photon emissions following excitation with light. DL is considered to be a sensitive indicator for characterizing the properties of biological systems and herbal medicines with various therapeutic properties...
September 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297200/working-over-5-000-m-medical-check-up
#18
S De Sio, H Nieto, C Gogia, D Sanità, F Balladore, D Mandolesi
Any work activity performed at elevations over 3,000 m above sea level is considered as work at high altitude. The changing environmental conditions result in an adaptation of the human organism, mainly due to a reduced partial pressure of oxygen in the air and a proportional decrease in barometric pressure. We carried out a systematic review of the scientific literature in this field so as to develop a health and risk protocol as well as a procedure of ascent for researchers and staff expected to work in a science research lab at an altitude of 5,100 m asl...
May 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27285814/microclimatic-variation-in-uv-perception-and-related-disparity-in-tropane-and-quinolizidine-alkaloid-composition-of-atropa-acuminata-lupinus-polyphyllus-and-hyoscyamus-niger
#19
Sumira Jan, Azra N Kamili, Javid A Parray, Yashbir S Bedi, Parvaiz Ahmad
The aim of current research was to evaluate the physiological adjustment in three medicinal herbs viz., Atropa acuminata, Lupinus polyphyllus and Hyoscyamus niger to the winter period characterised by intense UV flux in Kashmir valley across the North Western Himalaya. Quinolizidine (QA) and tropane alkaloid (TA) concentrations were analysed in these herbs thriving at two different altitudes via GC-MS and correlated by PCA analysis. This study investigated the hypothesis that UV reflectance and absorbance at low temperatures are directly related to disparity in alkaloid accumulation...
August 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280935/effects-of-a-hot-water-extract-of-allium-hookeri-roots-on-bone-formation-in-human-osteoblast-like-mg-63-cells-in-vitro-and-in-rats-in-vivo
#20
Heajin Park, Jaehoon Jeong, Hanbit Hyun, Jihye Kim, Haesung Kim, Hyun Il Oh, Jai Yeon Choi, Hye Seong Hwang, Doo Byung Oh, Jae Il Kim, Ha Hyung Kim
Allium hookeri is a wild herb found mainly in the Himalayas, growing at altitudes of 1400-4200 m. A. hookeri is widely consumed as a vegetable and herbal medicine in Asia, but its effects on bone health have not been reported previously. This study investigated the effects of a hot-water extract of A. hookeri roots on bone formation. The hot-water extract significantly increased the proliferation of in vitro human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells and the stimulatory effects on osteoblast differentiation were noticeably greater for the hot-water extract than for daidzein (a positive control), as reflected by alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen content, and mineral deposition...
June 9, 2016: Planta Medica
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