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Doppler ultrasound in obstetrics

Dimuthu Vinayagam, Sophie Bowe, Elaine Sheehan, Basky Thilaganathan, Asma Khalil
BACKGROUND: Due to the importance of cardiovascular dysfunction and advances in the development and use of non-invasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring devices, there is a growing interest in their use in the obstetric population. The aim of this study was to compare two commercially available, non-invasive CO monitors in the assessment of heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), CO, cardiac index (CI) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) in an obstetric population. METHODS: This was a prospective, comparative study including two groups...
October 6, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
P G Blanco, R Vercellini, A Rube, R Rodríguez, D O Arias, C Gobello
The aim of this study was to describe resistance index (RI) and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) of uterine and umbilical arteries in an experimental model of abnormal pregnancy in felids. On days 30 to 35 (32 ± 2.9) after mating, 20 domestic short-hair pregnant queens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: a treated group (TG; n = 8), which received 10 mg/kg of aglepristone subcutaneously twice, 24 hours apart, and a control nontreated group (CG; n = 12). M-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic evaluations were performed at the initiation of the treatment (Day 0) and then every other day during 8 days...
August 4, 2016: Theriogenology
Christina A Herrera, Robert M Silver
Perinatal asphyxia is a general term referring to neonatal encephalopathy related to events during birth. Asphyxia refers to a deprivation of oxygen for a duration sufficient to cause neurologic injury. Most cases of perinatal asphyxia are not necessarily caused by intrapartum events but rather associated with underlying chronic maternal or fetal conditions. Of intrapartum causes, obstetric emergencies are the most common and are not always preventable. Screening high-risk pregnancies with ultrasound, Doppler velocimetry, and antenatal testing can aid in identifying fetuses at risk...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
R E Bohîlțea, M M Cîrstoiu, A I Ciuvica, O Munteanu, O Bodean, D Voicu, C A Ionescu
A velamentous umbilical cord is characterized by membranous umbilical vessels at the placental insertion site that are prone to compression and rupture, especially when they are located in the membranes covering the cervical os (vasa praevia). The velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord, with a reported incidence of 1% in singleton pregnancies and 15% in monochorionic twin gestations, has been associated with obstetric complications: fetal growth restriction, prematurity, congenital anomalies, low Apgar scores, fetal bleeding with acute fetal distress and placental retention...
April 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
Ilian Trayanov, Elena Dimitrakova
INTRODUCTION: According to the WHO, miscarriage is defined as "the loss of a pregnancy before the age of 20 weeks of gestation or fetal weight below 500 g". Only 50-60% of all conceptions fail to survive 20 weeks of gestation. It is estimated that about 75% of all unsuccessful conceptions are due to failed implantation and are not reported as spontaneous abortions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Medical University Plovdiv between October 2014 and September 2015...
2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Karen Hettfleisch, Lisandra Stein Bernardes, Mariana Azevedo Carvalho, Luciana Duzolina Manfré Pastro, Sandra Elisabete Vieira, Silvia R D M Saldiva, Paulo Saldiva, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco
BACKGROUND: It has been widely demonstrated that air pollution can affect human health and that certain pollutant gases lead to adverse obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of individual maternal exposure to air pollution on placental volume and vascularization evaluated in the first trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on low-risk pregnant women living in São Paulo, Brazil...
July 6, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Sebastian Kwiatkowski, Ewa Kwiatkowska, Rafał Rzepka, Barbara Dołegowska, Andrzej Torbe, Agata Bartosik-Sławińska
OBJECTIVE: The shared pathogenesis of placental ischemia entitles us to create a single treatment model. We attempted to develop a unified method for monitoring ischemic placental syndrome patients using Doppler ultrasound of the uterine and umbilical arteries and disordered angiogenesis markers sFlt-1 and PlGF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 182 pregnant women suffering from the ischemic placental syndrome were divided into four groups depending on the severity of their lesions revealed in the Doppler ultrasound examination and weeks of pregnancy...
June 17, 2016: Hypertension in Pregnancy
Álvaro Danza, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Munther Khamashta
Systemic autoimmune diseases especially affect young women during childbearing age. The aim of this review is to update systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic sclerosis management during pregnancy. These diseases present variable maternal and fetal risks. Studies show that an appropriate disease control and a reasonable remission period prior to pregnancy are associated with satisfactory obstetric outcomes. Antiphospholipid autoantibodies profile, anti-Ro/anti-La antibodies, pulmonary pressure and activity evaluation are crucial to assess the pregnancy risk...
October 7, 2016: Medicina Clínica
Camila Vieira Bellettini, Rafaela Wagner, Aleocídio Sette Balzanelo, André Luis de Souza Andretta, Arthur Nascimento de Moura, Catia Carolina Fabris, Eduardo Maranhão Gubert
OBJECTIVE: To report a patient with prenatal diagnosis of portosystemic shunt; a rare condition in humans. CASE DESCRIPTION: 17-day-old female infant admitted for investigation of suspected diagnosis of portosystemic shunt, presumed in obstetric ultrasound. The hypothesis was confirmed after abdominal angiography and liver Doppler. Other tests such as echocardiography and electroencephalogram were performed to investigate possible co-morbidities or associated complications, and were normal...
September 2016: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Giuseppe Rizzo, Elisa Aiello, Maria Elena Pietrolucci, Domenico Arduini
OBJECTIVE: To compare uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and 3-dimensional (3D) placental volume values in first-trimester pregnancies conceived naturally or through in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique using either fresh or cryopreserved embryo and to relate these measurements with preeclampsia (PE) development. METHODS: Uterine artery PI and placental volume were measured at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation in 266 IVF pregnancies (139 women with fresh embryo and 127 women with frozen-thawed embryo transfer) and in 266 spontaneously conceived pregnancies matched for maternal age...
October 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Assaad Kesrouani, Alain Daher, Ali Maoula, Elie Attieh, Sami Richa
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the outcome of prenatally diagnosed nuchal cord. METHODS: A retrospective study on all cases of prenatally diagnosed nuchal cord. Study end points were gestational age at delivery, intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) abnormalities, mode of delivery, intrauterine fetal growth retardation (IUGR), intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), and the rate of labor induction. RESULTS: This study included 44 cases; 86% were diagnosed at second trimester scan, confirmed by Color Doppler and 3D ultrasound...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Alberto Borges Peixoto, Taciana Mara Rodrigues Da Cunha Caldas, Gabriele Tonni, Priscilla De Almeida Morelli, Larissa D'amico Santos, Wellington P Martins, E Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: To establish reference range for uterine artery (UtA) Doppler pulsatility index (PI) using transvaginal ultrasound at 20-24w6d of gestation in a Brazilian population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study in 847 low-risk pregnant women undergoing routine second trimester ultrasound examination was conducted from February 2012 through March 2015. The mean UtA PI was calculated using color Doppler ultrasound with UtA gated at the level of the internal os...
2016: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
D C Mandel, P G Pryde, D M Shah, J I Iruretagoyena
Cardiopulmonary bypass, the extreme of non-obstetric surgery during pregnancy, presents unique challenges to minimize maternal and fetal risk. We present our experience with a woman who was diagnosed with a left atrial myxoma following an ischemic cerebrovascular accident. We discuss clinical management specific to cardiopulmonary bypass during pregnancy and delivery in the context of a multidisciplinary team approach. We recommend using intermittent Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive real-time assessment of uteroplacental perfusion during non-obstetric surgery in pregnancy...
August 2016: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Stephen A McAleavey, Kevin J Parker, Juvenal Ormachea, Ronald W Wood, Christopher J Stodgell, Philip J Katzman, Eva K Pressman, Richard K Miller
The placenta is the critical interface between the mother and the developing fetus and is essential for survival and growth. Despite the widespread use of ultrasound imaging and Doppler in obstetrics and gynecology and the recent growth of elastographic technologies, little is known about the biomechanical (elastic shear wave) properties of the placenta and the range of normal and pathologic parameters that are present. This study uses a well-developed protocol for perfusing whole placentas, post-delivery, to maintain tissue integrity and function for hours...
June 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Qin Zhu, Yingying Lu, Yamin Rao, Yan Ning, Yuqing Qu, Li Wang, Xianrong Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the clinicopathological features of ovarian clear cell carcinoma derived from endometriotic cyst (EC-OCCC). METHODS: Totally 54 cases of EC-OCCC were recruited in the current retrospective study. The relation between ages, clinical symptoms and signs, surgical and pathological stages, serum CA125, findings of ultrasound, treatments and the sites of tumors, macro- and micro-features and expression of immunostainings were analyzed. RESULTS: (1) Clinical features: the ages of patients were (50±6) years old (range 31-62 years old)...
November 2015: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Rachel M Wald, Candice K Silversides, John Kingdom, Ants Toi, Cathy S Lau, Jennifer Mason, Jack M Colman, Mathew Sermer, Samuel C Siu
BACKGROUND: The mechanistic basis of the proposed relationship between maternal cardiac output and neonatal complications in pregnant women with heart disease has not been well elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant women with cardiac disease and healthy pregnant women (controls) were prospectively followed with maternal echocardiography and obstetrical ultrasound scans at baseline, third trimester, and postpartum. Fetal/neonatal complications (death, small-for-gestational-age or low birthweight, prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome, or intraventricular hemorrhage) comprised the primary study outcome...
November 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
Jozef Visnovsky, Erik Kudela, Marcela Nachajova, Jan Danko
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was a comprehensive examination of the circulation of superior mesenteric artery in different weeks of pregnancy using Doppler ultrasound examination. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Slovakia between the years 2008 and 2012. Dynamics and changes in superior mesenteric artery circulation were studied in 856 women. Results of Doppler examination were processed and subsequently evaluated for each gestational week separately...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Gene Lee, Susie X Fong, Maitreyi Salpekar, Catherine L Satterwhite, Carl Weiner
OBJECTIVE: Whether the isolated VSD (i-VSD) is associated with aneuploidy to the same degree as a more severe heart anomaly is unclear. Our objective was to determine the likelihood of aneuploidy in pregnancies at a tertiary referral center when an i-VSD is detected before 24 weeks. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all detailed anatomy ultrasounds before 24 weeks performed at the University of Kansas Medical Center from 08/23/2006 to 06/07/2012 was conducted...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Baran Özhan Baykal, Sümeyra Nergiz Avcıoğlu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of nifedipine and ritodrine treatment on fetomaternal blood flow parameters in women with preterm labor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty women with gestational age between 24 and 36 weeks admitted to the obstetrics clinic for preterm labor were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either nifedipine (n=30) or ritodrine (n=30) treatment. Demographic features, clinic and laboratory parameters, fetal and maternal side effects, and Doppler ultrasound indices of the umbilical artery (UA), uterine arteries (UtA), and middle cerebral artery (MCA) before, 2 hours after, and 48 hours after the initiation of tocolytic treatments were compared between the two groups...
2015: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Thomas R Everett, Donald M Peebles
In current obstetric practice, there is frequently a need to assess fetal wellbeing. This is particularly so in those fetuses at risk, including the small-for-gestational-age fetus or the fetus of a mother who presents with reduced fetal movements or who has an obstetric complication such as pre-eclampsia. It is important that the clinician is able to assess fetal wellbeing in such cases, especially in preterm gestations, when inappropriate delivery could have serious adverse consequences. In this paper, we review the current evidence for the use and the limitations of widely used methods of antenatal monitoring including the use of cardiotocography, biophysical profile, and ultrasound-derived parameters including umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler flow...
June 2015: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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