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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764494/precision-medicine-becomes-reality-tumor-type-agnostic-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Li Yan, Wei Zhang
Precision medicine just witnessed two breakthroughs in oncology in 2017. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda), Merck's anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb), received accelerated approval in May 2017 by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic solid tumors that have been identified as having microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or deficient DNA mismatch repair (dMMR). Shortly after, nivolumab (Opdivo), Bristol-Myers Squibb's anti-PD-1 mAb, gained an accelerated approval in August 2017 for adult and pediatric patients with MSI-H or dMMR metastatic colorectal cancer that has progressed after standard chemotherapy...
March 31, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761157/a-next-generation-sequencing-primer-how-does-it-work-and-what-can-it-do
#2
REVIEW
Yuriy O Alekseyev, Roghayeh Fazeli, Shi Yang, Raveen Basran, Thomas Maher, Nancy S Miller, Daniel Remick
Next-generation sequencing refers to a high-throughput technology that determines the nucleic acid sequences and identifies variants in a sample. The technology has been introduced into clinical laboratory testing and produces test results for precision medicine. Since next-generation sequencing is relatively new, graduate students, medical students, pathology residents, and other physicians may benefit from a primer to provide a foundation about basic next-generation sequencing methods and applications, as well as specific examples where it has had diagnostic and prognostic utility...
January 2018: Academic pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756991/the-immune-landscape-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-utility-of-cytologic-and-histologic-samples-obtained-through-minimally-invasive-pulmonary-procedures
#3
Jason Beattie, Lonny Yarmus, Momen Wahidi, M Patricia Rivera, Christopher Gilbert, Fabien Maldonado, Kasia Czarnecka, Angela Argento, Alexander Chen, Felix Herth, Daniel H Sterman
The success of immune checkpoint inhibitors and the discovery of useful biomarkers to predict response to these agents has shifted much of the focus of personalized care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer towards harnessing the immune response. With further advancement, more effective immunotherapy options will emerge along with more useful biomarkers. For patients with advanced disease, minimally invasive techniques will remain most appropriate for acquisition of tissue. This is in contrast to default gold-standard large tissue specimens obtained through surgical resection...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755907/the-100-most-influential-papers-and-recent-trends-in-the-field-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-a-bibliometric-analysis
#4
Khadijah Siddiq, Hira F Akbar, Meeshal Khan, Amna A Siddiqui, Salman Nusrat, Jean Y Blay
Background Bibliometric analysis is a statistical tool used to examine the exponential growth in medical research. Many analogous analyses have been conducted, but none existed for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Hence, we conducted a citation analysis of the hundred most cited and recently published articles on this topic. Methods Scopus was chosen as the primary database, through which the top 100 and recent publications were ranked according to the citation count and were then analysed. Results The 100 most cited articles were published between 1992 and 2013, among which the greatest number of articles were published in the years 2002 (n = 15) and 2006 (n = 11)...
March 12, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749682/psycho-oncology-overview-obstacles-and-opportunities
#5
Jimmie C Holland
Worldwide, psychological and social issues in cancer were not the subject of scientific inquiry until the past two decades. Since then, a new subspecialty of oncology has evolved, psycho-oncology. It addresses two dimensions of cancer: the emotional responses of patients at all stages of disease, as well as their families and caretakers (psychosocial); and the pyschological, social and behavioral factors that may influence cancer morbidity and mortality (psychobiological). Obstacles to development have been the facts of small numbers of clinicians and investigators worldwide and the few valid assessment instruments and research methods available to the biomedical community...
May 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746978/clinical-studies-of-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-antivenoms
#6
David J Williams, Abdulrazaq G Habib, David A Warrell
In the 1890s, hyperimmune sera proved effective in animals against challenge by the snake venom against which they had been raised. They were first used, apparently successfully, in a human patient in about 1895. Since then, antivenoms have become accepted as the only reliable specific treatment for snake-bite envenoming. Despite decades of accumulated clinical experience and a number of published randomised comparative and observational studies, the clinical effectiveness and safety of some antivenoms remain open to question, due to a lack of robust randomised controlled trial data...
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742885/malignant-brain-tumours-in-children-present-and-future-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
James T Rutka
In contrast to many of the malignant tumors that occur in the central nervous system in adults, the management, responses to therapy, and future perspectives of children with malignant lesions of the brain hold considerable promise. Within the past 5 years, remarkable progress has been made with our understanding of the basic biology of the molecular genetics of several pediatric malignant brain tumors including medulloblastoma, ependymoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour, and high grade glioma/diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742686/a-rare-case-report-of-one-stage-surgical-treatment-for-left-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-level-iv-intravenous-tumor-thrombus-combined-with-severe-coronary-artery-stenosis
#8
Zhenqing Wang, Keqin Zhang, Hui Zhang, Dingqi Sun, Yong Li, Qi Tan, Qiang Fu
RATIONALE: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits a natural tendency to extend from the kidney into inferior vena cava (IVC) and growing into the right atrium is a rare complication. We report a 65-year-old patient with an RCC with intravascular extension through renal vein into the IVC and right atrial combined with severe coronary artery disease. This case has not been described in the literature and there is no treatment guideline for it. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 65-year-old patient was admitted to our clinic with complaints of edema of both lower extremities...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741547/microenvironmental-influence-on-microtumour-infiltration-patterns-3d-mathematical-modelling-supported-by-in-vitro-studies
#9
Emmanuel Luján, Daniela Soto, María S Rosito, Alejandro Soba, Liliana N Guerra, Juan C Calvo, Guillermo Marshall, Cecilia Suárez
Mathematical modelling approaches have become increasingly abundant in cancer research. Tumour infiltration extent and its spatial organization depend both on the tumour type and stage and on the bio-physicochemical characteristics of the microenvironment. This sets a complex scenario that often requires a multidisciplinary and individually adjusted approach. The ultimate goal of this work is to present an experimental/numerical combined method for the development of a three-dimensional mathematical model with the ability to reproduce the growth and infiltration patterns of a given avascular microtumour in response to different microenvironmental conditions...
May 9, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731658/budget-impact-model-for-oncopharmacogenetics-from-the-perspective-of-mandatory-basic-health-insurance-in-switzerland-using-the-example-of-breast-cancer
#10
Thomas D Szucs, Kevin P Szillat, Eva Blozik
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can severely impact individual drug response and health outcomes in cancer patients. Genetic tests to screen for marker SNPs are available to adjust the drug dose of oncologicals to the patient's needs. However, it is unclear whether the positive effects outbalance the increased costs or even lead to an overall cost reduction. This very pragmatic analysis used three frequently used oncologicals for the treatment of breast cancer to evaluate whether preemptive pharmacogenetic testing may have a cost-reducing impact on health care spending in the Swiss health care system...
2018: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726069/does-the-delivery-of-diagnostic-news-affect-the-likelihood-of-whether-or-not-patients-ask-questions-about-the-results-a-conversation-analytical-study
#11
Ged M Murtagh, Anne L Thomas, Lynn Furber
BACKGROUND: Asymmetries in knowledge and competence in the medical encounter often mean that doctor-patient communication can be compromised. This study explores this issue and examines whether the likelihood of patient question asking is increased following the delivery of diagnostic test results. It also examines whether that likelihood is related to the way in which the test results are delivered. OBJECTIVE: To examine when and how patients initiate questions following diagnostic news announcements...
May 3, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719630/genetic-susceptibility-to-bone-and-soft-tissue-sarcomas-a-field-synopsis-and-meta-analysis
#12
Clara Benna, Andrea Simioni, Sandro Pasquali, Davide De Boni, Senthilkumar Rajendran, Giovanna Spiro, Chiara Colombo, Calogero Virgone, Steven G DuBois, Alessandro Gronchi, Carlo Riccardo Rossi, Simone Mocellin
Background: The genetic architecture of bone and soft tissue sarcomas susceptibility is yet to be elucidated. We aimed to comprehensively collect and meta-analyze the current knowledge on genetic susceptibility in these rare tumors. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the association between DNA variation and risk of developing sarcomas through searching PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science databases...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718081/neuropsychological-practice-in-the-oncology-setting
#13
Kyle R Noll, Mariana E Bradshaw, Jennie Rexer, Jeffrey S Wefel
Oncology has experienced positive shifts in survival curves for many cancers largely due to the development of earlier diagnostics and better therapeutics. This has increased the visibility and need for survivorship services, including clinical neuropsychology. Patients with cancer frequently experience cognitive dysfunction related to the presence of cancer itself and treatment neurotoxicity. These cognitive difficulties can profoundly impact patient functioning and autonomy with accompanying declines in quality of life...
May 1, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688859/patient-derived-xenograft-models-in-musculoskeletal-malignancies
#14
REVIEW
Wan Lu, Tu Chao, Chen Ruiqi, Su Juan, Li Zhihong
Successful oncological drug development for bone and soft tissue sarcoma is grossly stagnating. A major obstacle in this process is the lack of appropriate animal models recapitulating the complexity and heterogeneity of musculoskeletal malignancies, resulting in poor efficiency in translating the findings of basic research to clinical applications. In recent years, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models generated by directly engrafting patient-derived tumor fragments into immunocompromised mice have recaptured the attention of many researchers due to their properties of retaining the principle histopathology, biological behaviors, and molecular and genetic characteristics of the original tumor, showing promising future in both basic and clinical studies of bone and soft tissue sarcoma...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684230/effective-palliative-care-what-is-involved
#15
REVIEW
Mehak Swami, Amy Allen Case
It is important for oncologists who provide comprehensive cancer care to be familiar with the principles of primary palliative care and interdisciplinary team-based approaches to palliative care. Palliative care is a medical subspecialty that provides specialized care to individuals with serious illnesses, with a primary focus on providing symptom relief, pain management, and relief from psychosocial distress, regardless of diagnosis or prognosis. Ideally, palliative care is provided by a team of physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, and chaplains...
April 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677503/revolutionizing-precision-oncology-through-collaborative-proteogenomics-and-data-sharing
#16
Henry Rodriguez, Stephen R Pennington
The integration of proteomics into precision oncology presents opportunities that may transform the molecular analysis of cancer and accelerate basic and clinical cancer research. This Commentary discusses the importance of international collaboration and data sharing inspired by the Cancer Moonshot to accelerate the progress of multi-omic precision medicine-an approach that addresses the global diversity of people and of cancers.
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664561/the-function-and-dysfunction-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-tumor-immunity
#17
REVIEW
James L Reading, Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Charles Swanton, Alvaro Lladser, Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada
The generation and maintenance of CD8+ T cell memory is crucial to long-term host survival, yet the basic tenets of CD8+ T cell immunity are still being established. Recent work has led to the discovery of tissue-resident memory cells and refined our understanding of the transcriptional and epigenetic basis of CD8+ T cell differentiation and dysregulation. In parallel, the unprecedented clinical success of immunotherapy has galvanized an intense, global research effort to decipher and de-repress the anti-tumor response...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662558/radiomics-as-a-quantitative-imaging-biomarker-practical-considerations-and-the-current-standpoint-in-neuro-oncologic-studies
#18
REVIEW
Ji Eun Park, Ho Sung Kim
Radiomics utilizes high-dimensional imaging data to discover the association with diagnostic, prognostic, predictive endpoint or radiogenomics. It is an emerging field of study that potentially depicts the intratumoral heterogeneity from quantitative and classified high-throughput data. The radiomics approach has an analytic pipeline where the imaging features are extracted, processed and analyzed. At this point, special data handling is essential because it faces issues of a high-dimensional biomarker compared to a single biomarker approach...
April 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649403/the-arianna-project-an-observational-study-on-a-model-of-early-identification-of-patients-with-palliative-care-needs-through-the-integration-between-primary-care-and-italian-home-palliative-care-units
#19
Gianlorenzo Scaccabarozzi, Emanuele Amodio, Giacomo Pellegrini, Fabrizio Limonta, Pierangelo Lora Aprile, Pietro Giorgio Lovaglio, Carlo Peruselli, Matteo Crippa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to illustrate the characteristics of patients with palliative care (PC) needs, early identified by general practitioners (GPs), and to analyze their care process in home PC services. BACKGROUND: Early identification and service integration are key components to providing quality palliative care (PC) services ensuring the best possible service for patients and their families. However, in Italy, PC is often provided only in the last phase of life and for oncological patients, with a fragmented service...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623404/-biobanking-requirements-from-the-perspective-of-the-clinician-experiences-in-hematology-and-oncology
#20
REVIEW
S Koschmieder, T H Brümmendorf
The requirements for optimal biobanking from the point of view of the clinical partner can be highly variable. Depending on the material, processing, storage conditions, clinical data, and involvement of external partners, there will be special requirements for the participating clinician and specialist areas. What they all have in common is that the goal of any biobanking must be to improve clinical, translational, and basic research. While in the past biomaterials often had to be individually stored for each research project, modern biobanking offers decisive advantages: a comprehensive ethics vote fulfilling state-of-the-art data safety requirements, standardized processing and storage protocols, specialized biobank software for pseudonymization and localization, protection against power failures and defects of the equipment, centralized and sustainable storage, easy localization and return of samples, and their destruction or anonymization after completion of an individual project...
April 5, 2018: Der Pathologe
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