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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337673/progression-free-survival-as-a-surrogate-for-overall-survival-in-clinical-trials-of-targeted-therapy-in-advanced-solid-tumors
#1
Stefan Michiels, Everardo D Saad, Marc Buyse
Over the past 15 years, targeted therapy has revolutionized the systemic treatment of cancer. In parallel, there has been a growing debate on the choice of end points in clinical trials in oncology. This debate basically hinges on the choice between overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). PFS is advantageous because it is measured earlier than OS, requires a smaller sample size than OS to achieve the desired power, and is not influenced by cross-over. On the other hand, PFS is prone to measurement error and bias, and may not capture the entire treatment effect on the outcomes of most interest to patients with an incurable disease: a prolonged survival and improved quality of life...
March 23, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333866/prevention-of-gastrointestinal-side-effects-in-paediatric-oncology-what-are-the-guidelines
#2
Karis K F Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal side-effects, particularly with regard to alimentary tract mucositis and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), continue to be frequent and debilitating symptomatic conditions among children and adolescents receiving cytotoxic cancer therapy. Further avenues of progress for mucositis and CINV prevention in paediatric oncology setting are warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: The current article reviews the major guidelines and literature published in 2016 pertaining to the prevention of mucositis and CINV...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328309/ibpro-a-novel-short-duration-teaching-course-in-advanced-physics-and-biology-underlying-cancer-radiotherapy
#3
Michael C Joiner, Monica W Tracey, Sara E Kacin, Jay W Burmeister
This article provides a summary and status report of the ongoing advanced education program IBPRO - Integrated course in Biology and Physics of Radiation Oncology. IBPRO is a five-year program funded by NCI. It addresses the recognized deficiency in the number of mentors available who have the required knowledge and skill to provide the teaching and training that is required for future radiation oncologists and researchers in radiation sciences. Each year, IBPRO brings together 50 attendees typically at assistant professor level and upwards, who are already qualified/certified radiation oncologists, medical physicists or biologists...
March 22, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315527/standards-of-practice-applying-genetics-and-genomics-resources-to-oncology%C3%A2
#4
Alice S Kerber, Nancy J Ledbetter
Knowledge about genetics and genomics and its application to oncology care is rapidly expanding and evolving. As a result, oncology nurses at all levels must develop and maintain their knowledge of genetics and genomics, as well as be aware of resources to guide practice. This article focuses on implementation of the standards described in the updated Genetics/Genomics Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice by the basic practitioner.
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April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297627/clinical-and-technical-aspects-of-genomic-diagnostics-for-precision-oncology
#5
Yuri Sheikine, Frank C Kuo, Neal I Lindeman
The emergence of precision medicine has been predicated on significant recent advances in diagnostic technology, particularly the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Although the chemical technology underlying NGS is complex, and the computational biology expertise required to build systems to facilely interpret the results is highly specialized, the variables involved in designing and deploying a genomic testing program for cancer can be readily understood and applied by understanding several basic considerations...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294139/imaging-to-study-solid-tumour-origin-and-progression-lessons-from-research-and-clinical-oncology
#6
REVIEW
Stefania Raimondo, Giovanni Zito
Biomedical imaging in recent decades has clarified our understanding of normal and pathological cellular processes in vivo. In particular, this approach recently provided insights into processes occurring at a molecular or genetic level rather than at the anatomical level. The evolution of this discipline by engineering have led to its integration into biomedical research to (1) increase sensitivity and resolution imaging and to (2) improve tissue and cell specificity. Currently, imaging approaches are used in three different biomedical areas: (a) identification of cellular processes in physiological and disease state, (b) in vivo single cell imaging, and (c) identification of new prognostic and therapeutical strategies...
March 15, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255687/identification-of-the-orsellinic-acid-synthase-pks63787-for-the-biosynthesis-of-antroquinonols-in-antrodia-cinnamomea
#7
Po-Wei Yu, Ting-Yu Cho, Ruey-Fen Liou, Shean-Shong Tzean, Tzong-Huei Lee
Antrodia cinnamomea, an endemic basidiomycete used as a health food in Taiwan, is known to synthesize antroquinonols, which were reported to have notable medicinal potential in oncology and immunology. However, the biosynthetic pathway of these compounds is currently unclear. Our previous study showed that a pks63787 knockout mutant of A. cinnamomea (∆pks63787) is deficient in the biosynthesis of several aromatic metabolites. In this study, we pointed by phylogenetic analysis that pks63787 likely encodes an orsellinic acid synthase...
March 2, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252835/experiences-of-aromatherapy-massage-among-adult-female-cancer-patients-a-qualitative-study
#8
Alice N L Kwong, Simone S M Ho, Karen W S Wan, Rosita M L Ho, K M Chow
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the experiences towards aromatherapy massage (ATM) use, and to examine the perceived benefits and adverse effects of ATM among adult female cancer patients. METHOD: A qualitative research design was used. Fifteen women with cancer were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Sample recruitment was undertaken through cancer self-help groups and referrals of a private aromatherapy clinic by convenience sampling. The interview data were analyzed by thematic analysis...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246179/targeting-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-for-therapeutic-gain
#9
Rosemary J Akhurst
Transforming growth factor βs (TGF-βs) are closely related ligands that have pleiotropic activity on most cell types of the body. They act through common heterotetrameric TGF-β type II and type I transmembrane dual specificity kinase receptor complexes, and the outcome of signaling is context-dependent. In normal tissue, they serve a role in maintaining homeostasis. In many diseased states, particularly fibrosis and cancer, TGF-β ligands are overexpressed and the outcome of signaling is diverted toward disease progression...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228841/an-update-on-the-management-of-breast-cancer-in-africa
#10
REVIEW
V Vanderpuye, S Grover, N Hammad, PoojaPrabhakar, H Simonds, F Olopade, D C Stefan
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the challenges of cancer management and attempts at improving outcomes in Africa. Even though South and North Africa are better resourceds to tackle the burden of breast cancer, similar poor prognostic factors are common to all countries. The five-year overall Survival rate for breast cancer patients does not exceed 60% for any low and middle-income country (LMIC) in Africa. In spite of the gains achieved over the past decade, certain characteristics remain the same such as limited availability of breast conservation therapies, inadequate access to drugs, few oncology specialists and adherence to harmful socio-cultural practices...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218708/oncologic-photodynamic-therapy-basic-principles-current-clinical-status-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Demian van Straten, Vida Mashayekhi, Henriette S de Bruijn, Sabrina Oliveira, Dominic J Robinson
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved cancer therapy, based on a photochemical reaction between a light activatable molecule or photosensitizer, light, and molecular oxygen. When these three harmless components are present together, reactive oxygen species are formed. These can directly damage cells and/or vasculature, and induce inflammatory and immune responses. PDT is a two-stage procedure, which starts with photosensitizer administration followed by a locally directed light exposure, with the aim of confined tumor destruction...
February 18, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192596/integrating-next-generation-sequencing-into-pediatric-oncology-practice-an-assessment-of-physician-confidence-and-understanding-of-clinical-genomics
#12
Liza-Marie Johnson, Jessica M Valdez, Emily A Quinn, April D Sykes, Rose B McGee, Regina Nuccio, Stacy J Hines-Dowell, Justin N Baker, Chimene Kesserwan, Kim E Nichols, Belinda N Mandrell
BACKGROUND: The incorporation of genomic testing to identify targetable somatic alterations and predisposing germline mutations into the clinical setting is becoming increasingly more common. Despite its potential usefulness, to the authors' knowledge physician confidence with regard to understanding and applying genomic testing remains unclear, particularly within the realm of pediatric oncology. METHODS: Before initiating an institutional feasibility study regarding the integration of clinical genomic testing, the authors surveyed pediatric oncologists regarding their confidence around understanding of genomic testing, perceived usefulness of test results, preferences around the disclosure of germline test results, and possible risks and benefits of testing...
February 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187513/collaboration-to-accelerate-proteogenomics-cancer-care-the-department-of-veterans-affairs-department-of-defense-and-the-national-cancer-institute-s-applied-proteogenomics-organizational-and-learning-apollo-network
#13
L D Fiore, H Rodriguez, C D Shriver
The ability to interrogate cancer at the proteogenomic level has the potential to transform oncology care from trial-and-error treatment strategies based on the anatomy and genomic profiling of tumors to one that is precisely based on the tumor's molecular profile. The next step in the evolution of precision oncology is developing proteogenomic approaches that make no exclusive assumptions a priori as to the molecular level of the patient's disease. The DoD, VA, and NCI responded to the Cancer Moonshot initiative by linking each agency's unique capabilities in clinical and basic science, computing, and high-throughput sequencing...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173885/cultural-influences-upon-advance-care-planning-in-a-family-centric-society
#14
Keson Tay, Rachel Jia Yu Lee, Shin Wei Sim, Sumytra Menon, Ravindran Kanesvaran, Lalit Kumar Radha Krishna
OBJECTIVE: Advanced care plans (ACPs) are designed to convey the wishes of patients with regards to their care in the event of incapacity. There are a number of prerequisites for creation of an effective ACP. First, the patient must be aware of their condition, their prognosis, the likely trajectory of the illness, and the potential treatment options available to them. Second, patient input into ACP must be free of any coercive factors. Third, the patient must be able to remain involved in adapting their ACP as their condition evolves...
February 8, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167827/utilizing-the-power-of-cerenkov-light-with-nanotechnology
#15
REVIEW
Travis M Shaffer, Edwin C Pratt, Jan Grimm
The characteristic blue glow of Cerenkov luminescence (CL) arises from the interaction between a charged particle travelling faster than the phase velocity of light and a dielectric medium, such as water or tissue. As CL emanates from a variety of sources, such as cosmic events, particle accelerators, nuclear reactors and clinical radionuclides, it has been used in applications such as particle detection, dosimetry, and medical imaging and therapy. The combination of CL and nanoparticles for biomedicine has improved diagnosis and therapy, especially in oncological research...
February 7, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161118/more-efficient-compliance-with-european-medicines-agency-and-food-and-drug-administration-regulations-for-pediatric-oncology-drug-development-problems-and-solutions
#16
Christopher-Paul Milne
The morbidity and mortality toll of pediatric cancer affects the public health of children worldwide, but despite the gains in the fight against cancer, more progress needs to take place against this disease, which is a leading cause of death and chronic disability in children. In response, leading regulatory authorities in the developed world have been ratcheting up their efforts to induce the private sector to expand their research and development focus during drug development for adult cancers to include children...
February 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156597/the-effect-of-early-palliative-care-consultation-for-survival-in-patients-with-unresectable-pancreatic-cancer
#17
Fumio Omata, Yoshiyuki Fujita, Akitoshi Hayashi
131 Background: Additional early palliative care consultation (EPCC) on standard oncology care (SOC) was reported to prolong survival of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer by one randomized controlled trial. However, its survival benefits for the patients with other advanced cancer have not fully been investigated yet. Pancreatic cancer is one of neoplastic diseases which seldom can be diagnosed in early stage and it is important to know the effectiveness of EPCC. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of EPCC for survival of unresectable pancreatic cancer(UPC)...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156587/palliative-outpatient-hot-clinic-rapid-access-for-oncology-patients-visiting-emergency-department-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-singapore-a-1-year-experience
#18
Mervyn Yong Hwang Koh, Jia Fang Lee
137 Background: Oncology patients often present with symptoms at Emergency Department (ED). While most patients require admission for further management, some patients can be discharged from ED with outpatient follow-up. However, most patients were given 4 to 6 week appointment. In the light of this service gap, our department collaborated with ED to facilitate rapid access to Palliative Outpatient Hot Clinic (POHC) within 3 working days from ED visit in 2015. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients seen in the ED who satisfied the referral criteria to POHC...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156533/palliative-care-always-as-a-massive-open-online-course-mooc-to-build-primary-palliative-care-in-a-global-audience
#19
Kavitha Ramchandran, Joshua Fronk, Judy Passaglia, Kelly Bugos, Manuela Kogon, Lori Klein, Ellen Brown, Sandy Chan, Lynn Hutton, Grace Lyo, Kimberly Frost Sickler
123 Background: Primary palliative care (PC) is critical to improve access to PC from the point of diagnosis. Still, barriers exist to providing primary PC worldwide, including a lack of awareness, time, and training. Interactive online learning experiences can help overcome these. This project describes a massive open online course (MOOC)--Palliative Care Always--designed to build primary PC skills in a global audience. METHODS: A team of PC providers and online instructional experts developed 12 modules that included: patient scenes, brief lectures, empathy exercises, and Google Hangout discussions...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156502/symptom-distress-and-patterns-of-palliative-care-referral-among-oncology-outpatients
#20
Craig D Blinderman
185 Background: The early implementation of palliative care services is recognized as an important aspect of oncologic care. However, rates of referral to palliative care services among oncology patients are still low, and the decision to refer is frequently at the discretion of the treating oncologist or by patient request. We sought to better identify the patterns of referral to outpatient palliative care, as well as patient symptom burden in an effort to target early and high-yield palliative care interventions...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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