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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914866/co-signaling-molecules-in-maternal-fetal-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Yuan-Yuan Xu, Song-Cun Wang, Da-Jin Li, Mei-Rong Du
Physiologically, a successful pregnancy requires the maternal immune system to recognize and tolerate the semiallogeneic fetus, and allow for normal invasion of trophoblasts. Thus, pregnancy complications are considered to be associated with dysfunctional maternal-fetal crosstalk. Co-signaling molecules are a group of cell surface molecules that positively or negatively modulate the immune response. Well studied in the fields of oncology and transplantation, they are also suggested to be involved in maternal-fetal crosstalk...
November 30, 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909918/review-in-vivo-optical-spectral-tissue-sensing-how-to-go-from-research-to-routine-clinical-application
#2
Lisanne L de Boer, Jarich W Spliethoff, Henricus J C M Sterenborg, Theo J M Ruers
Innovations in optical spectroscopy have helped the technology reach a point where performance previously seen only in laboratory settings can be translated and tested in real-world applications. In the field of oncology, spectral tissue sensing (STS) by means of optical spectroscopy is considered to have major potential for improving diagnostics and optimizing treatment outcome. The concept has been investigated for more than two decades and yet spectral tissue sensing is not commonly employed in routine medical practice...
December 2, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889271/assessment-of-perioperative-nutrition-practices-and-attitudes-a-national-survey-of-colorectal-and-gi-surgical-oncology-programs
#3
J D Williams, Paul E Wischmeyer
BACKGROUND: Implementation of evidence-based peri-operative nutrition in the U.S. is poorly described and hypothesized to be suboptimal. This study broadly describes practices and attitudes regarding nutrition screening/intervention in U.S. gastrointestinal and oncologic surgeons. METHODS: Nationwide nutritional practice survey of GI/Oncologic surgical faculty. RESULTS: Program response rates were 57% and 81% for colorectal and oncology fellowships, respectively...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889184/gec-estro-acrop-recommendations-for-head-neck-brachytherapy-in-squamous-cell-carcinomas-1st-update-improvement-by-cross-sectional-imaging-based-treatment-planning-and-stepping-source-technology
#4
György Kovács, Rafael Martinez-Monge, Ashwini Budrukkar, Jose Luis Guinot, Bengt Johansson, Vratislav Strnad, Janusz Skowronek, Angeles Rovirosa, Frank-André Siebert
The Head and Neck Working Group of the GEC-ESTRO (Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie - European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology) published in 2009 the consensus recommendations for low-dose rate, pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate brachytherapy in head & neck cancers. The use of brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy and/or surgery was also covered as well as the use of brachytherapy in previously irradiated patients. Given the developments in the field, these recommendations needed to be updated to reflect up-to-date knowledge...
November 23, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882746/-technique-of-pelvic-and-paraaortic-lymphadenectomy
#5
J Sláma, R Kocián
OBJECTIVE: Overview of classification, anatomical conditions, methods and complications of pelvic and paraaortic lymph-node dissection. DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Faculty Hospital and 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lymphadenectomy is classified according to its extent into sentinel lymph-node biopsy, debulking, sampling and systematic procedure and according to approach into extraperitoneal or transperitoneal procedure...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878779/total-estimated-effective-doses-from-radiologic-imaging-modalities-of-children-with-cancer-a-single-center-experience
#6
Derya Özyörük, Suna Emir, Hacı Ahmet Demir, Gülşah Bayram Kabaçam, Bahattin Tunç
BACKGROUND: Recently, awareness of the cumulative radiation exposure for pediatric oncology patients has been increasing, together with increased survival rates and longer life expectancy. The aim of our study was to quantify the amount of ionising radiation from imaging modalities of pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients who were diagnosed with childhood cancer and followed up for 5 years between 2004-2014 in our center were included in the study...
November 23, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858357/surface-plasmon-resonance-analysis-of-heparin-binding-angiogenic-growth-factors
#7
Marco Rusnati, Antonella Bugatti
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is an optical technique to evaluate biomolecular interactions. Briefly, SPR measures the capacity of two molecules to bind each other by detecting reflected light from a prism-gold film interface. One of the two putative interactants (called ligand) is chemically immobilized onto the gold film. When the sensor is exposed to a sample containing the second interactant (called analyte), its binding to the immobilized ligand causes a change of the refractive index of the material above the gold surface that is monitored as a real-time graph of the response units against time, producing a real-time graph called sensorgram...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843637/critically-ill-patients-with-cancer-chances-and-limitations-of-intensive-care-medicine-a-narrative-review
#8
REVIEW
Peter Schellongowski, Wolfgang R Sperr, Philipp Wohlfarth, Paul Knoebl, Werner Rabitsch, Herbert H Watzke, Thomas Staudinger
This narrative review deals with the challenge of defining adequate therapy goals and intensive care unit (ICU) admission criteria for critically ill patients with cancer. Several specific complications of critically ill patients with cancer require close collaborations of intensive care and cancer specialists. Intensivists require a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy of common cancer-specific problems. Cancer specialists must be knowledgeable in preventing, detecting and treating imminent or manifest organ failures...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812280/a-modular-repository-based-infrastructure-for-simulation-model-storage-and-execution-support-in-the-context-of-in-silico-oncology-and-in-silico-medicine
#9
Nikolaos A Christodoulou, Nikolaos E Tousert, Eleni Ch Georgiadi, Katerina D Argyri, Fay D Misichroni, Georgios S Stamatakos
The plethora of available disease prediction models and the ongoing process of their application into clinical practice - following their clinical validation - have created new needs regarding their efficient handling and exploitation. Consolidation of software implementations, descriptive information, and supportive tools in a single place, offering persistent storage as well as proper management of execution results, is a priority, especially with respect to the needs of large healthcare providers. At the same time, modelers should be able to access these storage facilities under special rights, in order to upgrade and maintain their work...
2016: Cancer Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781239/-the-third-component-in-surgical-anatomy-and-its-impacts
#10
Jianping Gong
Surgical or local anatomy consists of two components conventionally, organs and their blood supply. In fact, they are enveloped by the fascia membrane and serous membrane. This is the third component in surgical or local anatomy, which is omitted by surgeons for many years. The omitted reasons are failed recognition and unknown function. Re-understanding of the third component in surgical or local anatomy will make some changes in the local anatomy, tumor pathology, oncology surgery and operations. Firstly, the third component makes surgical anatomy developed from organ anatomy, blood vessel anatomy to membrane anatomy, which consists of the mesentery in broad sense and its bed, both include serous membrane and fascia membrane...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769636/empowering-patients-for-radiation-therapy-safety-results-of-the-empathy-study
#11
J-E Bibault, A Pernet, V Mollo, L Gourdon, O Martin, P Giraud
PURPOSE: With the increase of treatment complexity, enhancing safety is a key concern in radiation oncology. Beyond the involvement of the healthcare professional, patient involvement and empowerment could play a major role in that setting. We explored how patients perceived and fulfilled that role during their radiation treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was administered to all patients treated in our department between November 2013 and May 2014...
December 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742116/perfusion-imaging-in-neuro-oncology-basic-techniques-and-clinical-applications
#12
Brent Griffith, Rajan Jain
Perfusion imaging is a method for assessing the flow of blood occurring at the tissue level and can be accomplished by both CT and MR perfusion techniques. The use of perfusion imaging has increased substantially in the past decade, particularly in neuro-oncologic imaging, where it is has been used for brain tumor grading and directing biopsies or targeted therapy, as well as for the evaluation of treatment response and disease progression. This article discusses the basic principles and techniques of perfusion imaging, as well as its applications in neuro-oncology...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741957/where-teachers-are-few-documenting-available-faculty-in-five-tanzanian-medical-schools
#13
Charles A Mkony, Ephata E Kaaya, Alex J Goodell, Sarah B Macfarlane
BACKGROUND: Faced with one of the lowest physician-to-population ratios in the world, the Government of Tanzania is urging its medical schools to train more physicians. The annual number of medical students admitted across the country rose from 55 in the 1990s to 1,680 approved places for the 2015/16 academic year. These escalating numbers strain existing faculty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania. DESIGN: We identified faculty lists published on the Internet by five Tanzanian medical schools for the 2011/12 academic year and analyzed the appointment status, rank, discipline, and qualifications of faculty members...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738626/cerenkov-luminescence-imaging-cli-for-image-guided-cancer-surgery
#14
REVIEW
M R Grootendorst, M Cariati, A Kothari, D S Tuch, A Purushotham
Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a novel molecular optical imaging technique based on the detection of optical Cerenkov photons emitted by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents. The ability to use clinically approved tumour-targeted tracers in combination with small-sized imaging equipment makes CLI a particularly interesting technique for image-guided cancer surgery. The past few years have witnessed a rapid increase in proof-of-concept preclinical studies in this field, and several clinical trials are currently underway...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729327/connecting-t-issues-how-research-in-fascia-biology-can-impact-integrative-oncology
#15
Helene M Langevin, Patricia Keely, Jun Mao, Lisa M Hodge, Robert Schleip, Gary Deng, Boris Hinz, Melody A Swartz, Beverley A de Valois, Suzanna Zick, Thomas Findley
Complementary and integrative treatments, such as massage, acupuncture, and yoga, are used by increasing numbers of cancer patients to manage symptoms and improve their quality of life. In addition, such treatments may have other important and currently overlooked benefits by reducing tissue stiffness and improving mobility. Recent advances in cancer biology are underscoring the importance of connective tissue in the local tumor environment. Inflammation and fibrosis are well-recognized contributors to cancer, and connective tissue stiffness is emerging as a driving factor in tumor growth...
November 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720536/pathophysiology-and-contributing-factors-in-postprostatectomy-incontinence-a-review
#16
John Heesakkers, Fawzy Farag, Ricarda M Bauer, Jaspreet Sandhu, Dirk De Ridder, Arnulf Stenzl
CONTEXT: The incidence and awareness of postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI) has increased during the past few years, probably because of an increase in prostate cancer surgery. Many theories have been postulated to explain the pathophysiology of PPI. OBJECTIVE: The current review scrutinizes various pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the occurrence of PPI. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search was conducted on PubMed and EMBASE for publications on PPI...
October 6, 2016: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711956/-psycho-oncologic-care-by-a-consultation-liaison-service-differences-between-oncologic-patients-with-and-without-psychiatric-comorbidity
#17
Juan Valdes-Stauber, Susanne Bachthaler
Background: Psycho-oncologic consultation and liaison services (CLS) are mainly psychosomatic oriented teams in acute care hospitals. Their interventions are electively, setting-related or universal like in accredited centers. Objectives: We investigated whether clinical and care-related differences between cancer patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity exist as well as between patients treated in oncologic centers and aside thereof. We also investigated possible differences according to psychiatric as well as to oncologic diagnoses...
October 6, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709079/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-techniques-and-their-development-for-radiation-therapy-planning-and-monitoring-in-the-head-and-neck-cancers
#18
Jing Yuan, Gladys Lo, Ann D King
Radiation therapy (RT), in particular intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), is becoming a more important nonsurgical treatment strategy in head and neck cancer (HNC). The further development of IMRT imposes more critical requirements on clinical imaging, and these requirements cannot be fully fulfilled by the existing radiotherapeutic imaging workhorse of X-ray based imaging methods. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has increasingly gained more interests from radiation oncology community and holds great potential for RT applications, mainly due to its non-ionizing radiation nature and superior soft tissue image contrast...
August 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702751/patient-derived-tumour-xenografts-for-breast-cancer-drug-discovery
#19
John Cassidy, Ankita Sati Batra, Wendy Greenwood, Alejandra Bruna
Despite remarkable advances in our understanding of the drivers of human malignancies, new targeted therapies often fail to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials. Indeed, the cost of bringing a new agent to market has risen substantially in the last several decades, in part fuelled by extensive reliance on preclinical models that fail to accurately reflect tumour heterogeneity. In order to halt unsustainable rates of attrition in the drug discovery process we must develop a new generation of preclinical models capable of reflecting the complex heterogeneity found in human cancers...
October 4, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692444/basics-of-confocal-microscopy-and-the-complexity-of-diagnosing-skin%C3%A2-tumors-new-imaging-tools-in-clinical-practice-diagnostic-workflows-cost-estimate-and%C3%A2-new-trends
#20
Syril Keena T Que, Jane M Grant-Kels, Caterina Longo, Giovanni Pellacani
The use of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and other noninvasive imaging devices can potentially streamline clinical care, leading to more precise and efficient management of skin cancer. This article explores the potential role of RCM in cutaneous oncology, as an adjunct to more established techniques of detecting and monitoring for skin cancer, such as dermoscopy and total body photography. Discussed are current barriers to the adoption of RCM, diagnostic workflows and standards of care in the United States and Europe, and medicolegal issues...
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
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