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Basic oncology

Bettina von Dessauer, Carmen Benavente, Emilia Monje, Jazmina Bongain, Nadia Ordenes
OBJECTIVE: Describe the frequency and characteristics of PICU patients who undergo a process of withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LTSV), between 2004 y 2014. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A retrospective, observational descriptive study, using two documents for quality assessment in the PICU of Hospital Roberto del Río: 1) daily individual patient tracking log and 2) daily record of quality indicators, including LTSV, both updated daily at the morning visit...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Alan Blank, Norman Otsuka, Timothy Rapp
Bone abnormalities on pediatric radiographs are not uncommon findings for both the general orthopedist as well as the specialist. Although the majority of lesions encountered are benign, the treating physician should also be aware of more concerning diagnoses. General orthopedists and pediatric orthopedists should exhibit a basic level of comfort with working up and diagnosing these benign lesions. When evaluating the pediatric patient with a bone lesion it is crucial to keep in mind important aspects of the clinical history, physical exam, and radiographic findings...
March 2018: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
James R Kerns, David Followill, Jessica Lowenstein, Andrea Molineu, Paola Alvarez, Paige A Taylor, Stephen F Kry
PURPOSE: Reference dosimetry data can provide an independent second check of acquired values when commissioning or validating a treatment planning system (TPS). The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core at Houston (IROC-Houston) has measured numerous linear accelerators throughout its existence. The results of those measurements are given here, comparing accelerators and the agreement of measurement versus institutional TPS calculations. METHODS: Data from IROC-Houston on-site reviews from 2000 through 2014 were analyzed for all Elekta accelerators, approximately 50...
March 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Neha Sharma, Rajeshwari G Annigeri
This review summarizes and interprets the rate of improvement in cancer treatments which have remained frustratingly slow despite considerable investment in oncological research. Hence, this review emphasizes on minimizing exposure of patients to ineffective investigational therapies by decreasing the number of poorly designed clinical trials through stronger collaboration between industry and academia which can be done by multidisciplinary teams who are essential to facilitate future cancer outcome studies focused on improving clinical care of cancer patients and implementing effective interventions to ultimately improve the quality and duration of survival...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Małgorzata Stelmaszuk, Tomasz Sarosiek
The diagnosis of duodenal adenocarcinoma is still a complex gastrological and oncological problem. The described case illustrates the unusual character of the course, the reasonableness of the diagnostic procedures and the scope of the therapy undertaken. The causes of anemia, which was the first symptom of the disease, were not revealed in the tests carried out at this stage - gastroscopy, colonoscopy, with normal other basic laboratory tests. At the next episode, after 6 months from the first, the presence of a bleeding lesion within the duodenum was revealed...
February 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Sophie Poty, Lynn C Francesconi, Michael Robert McDevitt, Michael J Morris, Jason S Lewis
The use of radioactive sources to deliver cytotoxic ionizing radiation to disease sites dates back to the early 20th century, with the discovery of radium and its physiological effects. Alpha-emitters are of particular interest in the field of clinical oncology for radiotherapy applications. The first part of this review explored α-emitting radionuclides' basic radiochemistry, high cell-killing potency, and availability, together with hurdles such as radiolabeling methods and daughter redistribution. The second part of this review will give an overview of the most promising and current uses of α-emitters in preclinical and clinical studies...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Mario Ganau, Marco Paris, Nikolaos Syrmos, Laura Ganau, Gianfranco K I Ligarotti, Ali Moghaddamjou, Lara Prisco, Rossano Ambu, Salvatore Chibbaro
The field of neuro-oncology is rapidly progressing and internalizing many of the recent discoveries coming from research conducted in basic science laboratories worldwide. This systematic review aims to summarize the impact of nanotechnology and biomedical engineering in defining clinically meaningful predictive biomarkers with a potential application in the management of patients with brain tumors. Data were collected through a review of the existing English literature performed on Scopus, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, and/or Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials: all available basic science and clinical papers relevant to address the above-stated research question were included and analyzed in this study...
February 26, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Georgi Tchernev
Globalisation, scientific and technical progress are the basis of numerous innovative therapies for oncologic and non-oncologic diseases. It is another matter how much and by whom they are desired, and whether they have to be applied. When and how often? Innovative approaches should go towards simplification, universal distribution and application while at the same time analysis between the potential initial investment and the achieved final result should be made. An illustrative example for this is the targeted therapy for melanoma with its low baseline criteria or basic rules for its surgical treatment...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Mersiha Mahmić-Kaknjo, Josip Šimić, Karmela Krleža-Jerić
Introduction: The aim of the IMPACT (IMProving Access to Clinical Trial data) Observatory is to assess the transformation of clinical trials (CT) related to the evolution of sharing of CT data. The objective of this study is to establish a baseline for monitoring CT data sharing by the Observatory. Materials and methods: In this scoping review we searched for publications that address sharing, dissemination, transparency or reuse of CT data published prior to December 31st 2000...
February 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
Valentin Fuster
Each week, I record audio summaries for every article in JACC, as well as an issue summary. While this process has been time-consuming, I have become quite familiar with every paper that we publish. Thus, I personally select papers (both original investigations and review articles) from 15 distinct specialties each year for your review. In addition to my personal choices, I have included manuscripts that have been the most accessed or downloaded on our websites, as well as those selected by the JACC Editorial Board members...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Gerald W Prager, Sofia Braga, Branislav Bystricky, Camilla Qvortrup, Carmen Criscitiello, Ece Esin, Gabe S Sonke, Guillem Argilés Martínez, Jean-Sebastian Frenel, Michalis Karamouzis, Michiel Strijbos, Ozan Yazici, Paolo Bossi, Susana Banerjee, Teresa Troiani, Alexandru Eniu, Fortunato Ciardiello, Josep Tabernero, Christoph C Zielinski, Paolo G Casali, Fatima Cardoso, Jean-Yves Douillard, Svetlana Jezdic, Keith McGregor, Gracemarie Bricalli, Malvika Vyas, André Ilbawi
The cancer burden is rising globally, exerting significant strain on populations and health systems at all income levels. In May 2017, world governments made a commitment to further invest in cancer control as a public health priority, passing the World Health Assembly Resolution 70.12 on cancer prevention and control within an integrated approach. In this manuscript, the 2016 European Society for Medical Oncology Leadership Generation Programme participants propose a strategic framework that is in line with the 2017 WHO Cancer Resolution and consistent with the principle of universal health coverage, which ensures access to optimal cancer care for all people because health is a basic human right...
2018: ESMO Open
David B Bekelman, Rachel Johnson-Koenke, Daniel W Bowles, Stacy M Fischer
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer could benefit from early primary (i.e., basic) palliative care. Scalable models of care delivery are needed. OBJECTIVE: Examine the feasibility of a stepped peer navigator and social work intervention developed to improve palliative care outcomes. DESIGN: Single-arm prospective clinical trial. The peer navigator educated patients to advocate for pain and symptom management with their healthcare providers, motivated patients to pursue advance care planning, and discussed the role of hospice...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
L Filograna, N Magarelli, F Cellini, S Manfrida, A Leone, C Colosimo, V Valentini
Malignant spinal bone marrow disorders are one of the major causes of significant morbidity and reduction in quality of life in oncological patients. Thus, the characterization of these conditions is of crucial importance in the management of these patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a vital role in differentiation between benign and malignant spinal bone marrow disorders. However, morphological imaging features, based on T1 and T2 relaxation properties, might fail in differentiating between these conditions because signal characteristics may overlap...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Imran Shair Mohammad, Wei He, Lifang Yin
Indeed, multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a significant obstacle to effective chemotherapy. The overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters is a principal cause of enhanced cytotoxic drug efflux and treatment failure in various types of cancers. At cellular level, the pumps of ABC family regulate the transportation of numerous substances including drugs in and out of the cells. In past, the overexpression of ABC pumps suggested a well-known mechanism of drug resistance in cancers as well as infectious diseases...
February 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
George Bozas, Natalie Jeffery, Deiva Ramanujam-Venkatachala, Ged Avery, Andrew Stephens, Hilary Moss, June Palmer, Mandi Elliott, Anthony Maraveyas
Background: An incidental/unsuspected diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (IPE) in cancer patients is a frequent occurrence. This single-institution analysis of uniformly managed patients investigates short and long-term outcomes and proposes a prognostic risk score, aiming to assist clinical decision-making. Methods: Data from a prospectively recorded cohort of 234 consecutive cancer patients with IPE were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression and the Cox regression survival methods were used to identify factors with independent association with early (30-day, 3-month, 6-month) mortality and survival...
2018: Thrombosis Journal
M S Biji, Sampada Dessai, N Sindhu, Sithara Aravind, B Satheesan
Context: This study was designed to translate and validate the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) distress thermometer (DT) in regional language " Malayalam" and to see the feasibility of using it in our patients. Aims: (1) To translate and validate the NCCN DT. (2) To study the feasibility of using validated Malayalam translated DT in Malabar Cancer center. Settings and Design: This is a single-arm prospective observational study...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Mehran Makvandi, Edouard Dupis, Jonathan W Engle, F Meiring Nortier, Michael E Fassbender, Sam Simon, Eva R Birnbaum, Robert W Atcher, Kevin D John, Olivier Rixe, Jeffrey P Norenberg
Alpha-emitters are radionuclides that decay through the emission of high linear energy transfer α-particles and possess favorable pharmacologic profiles for cancer treatment. When coupled with monoclonal antibodies, peptides, small molecules, or nanoparticles, the excellent cytotoxic capability of α-particle emissions has generated a strong interest in exploring targeted α-therapy in the pre-clinical setting and more recently in clinical trials in oncology. Multiple obstacles have been overcome by researchers and clinicians to accelerate the development of targeted α-therapies, especially with the recent improvement in isotope production and purification, but also with the development of innovative strategies for optimized targeting...
February 8, 2018: Targeted Oncology
James X Sun, Yuting He, Eric Sanford, Meagan Montesion, Garrett M Frampton, Stéphane Vignot, Jean-Charles Soria, Jeffrey S Ross, Vincent A Miller, Phil J Stephens, Doron Lipson, Roman Yelensky
A key constraint in genomic testing in oncology is that matched normal specimens are not commonly obtained in clinical practice. Thus, while well-characterized genomic alterations do not require normal tissue for interpretation, a significant number of alterations will be unknown in whether they are germline or somatic, in the absence of a matched normal control. We introduce SGZ (somatic-germline-zygosity), a computational method for predicting somatic vs. germline origin and homozygous vs. heterozygous or sub-clonal state of variants identified from deep massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of cancer specimens...
February 7, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Adriana Albini, Marco Gallo
Notwithstanding massive efforts and investment in improving cancer therapy, the limited progress made in reducing overall mortality has mostly been achieved through early diagnosis. Mortality rates for cardiovascular disease are in decline, a success attributable in large part to an active prevention approach coupled with identification of risk factors and biomarkers. Promising natural and synthetic molecules including numerous flavonoids have the potential to be used in diabetes care and in prevention of cardiovascular pathologies...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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