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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332322/tumor-immunology-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Chi Young Jung, Scott J Antonia
Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although progress in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been made over the past decade, the 5-year survival rate in patients with lung cancer remains only 10%-20%. Obviously, new therapeutic options are required for patients with advanced NSCLC and unmet medical needs. Cancer immunotherapy is an evolving treatment modality that uses a patient's own immune systems to fight cancer...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327681/updated-national-comprehensive-cancer-network-guidelines-for-treatment-of-head-and-neck-cancers-2010-2017
#2
Małgorzata Wierzbicka, Joanna Napierała
INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations have been changing over the years to improve treatment outcomes and quality of life of Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to present currently recommended Head and Neck Cancer treatment guidelines based on the literature review with particular emphasis on novel approaches the NCCN algorithms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The review of literature covering articles published in the last five years and pointing out essential changes in HNC treatment regarding evidence based medicine...
December 30, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313596/miaquant-a-novel-system-for-automatic-segmentation-measurement-and-localization-comparison-of-different-biomarkers-from-serialized-histological-slices
#3
Elena Casiraghi, Mara Cossa, Veronica Huber, Licia Rivoltini, Matteo Tozzi, Antonello Villa, Barbara Vergani
In the clinical practice, automatic image analysis methods quickly quantizing histological results by objective and replicable methods are getting more and more necessary and widespread. Despite several commercial software products are available for this task, they are very little flexible, and provided as black boxes without modifiable source code. To overcome the aforementioned problems, we employed the commonly used MATLAB platform to develop an automatic method, MIAQuant, for the analysis of histochemical and immunohistochemical images, stained with various methods and acquired by different tools...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304904/liquid-biopsy-from-basic-research-to-clinical-practice
#4
Mónica Macías, Estibaliz Alegre, Angel Díaz-Lagares, Ana Patiño, Jose L Pérez-Gracia, Miguel Sanmamed, Rafael López-López, Nerea Varo, Alvaro González
Liquid biopsy refers to the molecular analysis in biological fluids of nucleic acids, subcellular structures, especially exosomes, and, in the context of cancer, circulating tumor cells. In the last 10 years, there has been an intensive research in liquid biopsy to achieve a less invasive and more precise personalized medicine. Molecular assessment of these circulating biomarkers can complement or even surrogate tissue biopsy. Because of this research, liquid biopsy has been introduced in clinical practice, especially in oncology, prenatal screening, and transplantation...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296842/adolescent-and-young-adult-lymphoma-collaborative-efforts-toward-optimizing-care-and-improving-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Justine M Kahn, Nmazuo W Ozuah, Kieron Dunleavy, Tara O Henderson, Kara Kelly, Ann LaCasce
Lymphomas are responsible for approximately 20% to 25% of annual cancer diagnoses in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population. In 2006, the National Cancer Institute and the Lance Armstrong Foundation developed a joint Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group (AYAO-PRG) to formally address the unique cancer burden of patients age 15 to 39 years. As part of their recommendations, the AYAO-PRG identified 5 imperatives for improving outcomes of AYAs with cancer. Broadly, the recommended areas of focus included research, awareness and education, investigational infrastructure, care delivery, and advocacy...
October 10, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286493/twenty-five-years-of-the-national-academy-of-medical-sciences-of-ukraine-progress-and-priorities-for-future-of-radiation-medicine-and-biology
#6
D Bazyka
After the creation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine in 1993 the Research Center for Radiation Medicine was among the first institutions to join the Academy (fig. 1). Estab lishing the Academy was among the first steps of the independent Ukrainian government and aimed to provide a high level health care for population. It was extremely needed for the minimization of Chornobyl medical consequences. This choice was related to a growing recognition of the scientific research in fulfilling the Сenter's mission - study of the effects of low dose radiation on human body and radiation protection of the exposed population...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280656/-prevalence-of-malnutrition-to-income-in-a-basic-general-hospital
#7
Juan Bautista Molina Soria, Gabriela Lobo Támer, Antonio Jesús Pérez de la Cruz, María Dolores Ruiz-López
OBJECTIVE: The main objective has been to evaluate and quantify the prevalence of malnutrition at admission, the degree of severity and the correlation with the nutritional parameters in a basic general hospital of the first level. METHODS: Observational, transverse, and randomized study of 244 patients (59.8% male and 40.2% female) performed during the first 24 hours of hospital admission and with a nutritional assessment including nutritional screening (CONUT®), anthropometric parameters, other analytical parameters and a quantification of hospital stay...
September 14, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277647/what-can-we-see-with-ivim-mri
#8
Denis Le Bihan
Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) refers to translational movements which within a given voxel and during the measurement time present a distribution of speeds in orientation and/or amplitude. The IVIM concept has been used to estimate perfusion in tissues as blood flow in randomly oriented capillaries mimics a pseudo-diffusion process. IVIM-based perfusion MRI, which does not require contrast agents, has gained momentum recently, especially in the field oncology. In this introductory review the basic concepts, models, technical requirements and limitations inherent to IVIM-based perfusion MRI are outlined, as well as new, non-perfusion applications of IVIM MRI, such as virtual MR Elastography...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274757/oncologic-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-what-all-physicians-need-to-know
#9
REVIEW
Jaime L Montilla-Soler, Rikesh J Makanji, Bruce J Barron
Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) hybrid exams (PET/CT, PET/MRI) have become the most common PET imaging tool in the evaluation of the oncologic patient. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that physicians who take care of oncology patients in any capacity, need to be familiar with the basics of when these exams are indicated, how to best prepare the patients, understand the benefits and limitations of the procedure. Additionally, it is important to understand which medical conditions and medications need to be controlled in order to maintain the diagnostic accuracy of these tests...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260595/the-affect-regulation-in-cancer-framework-understanding-affective-responding-across-the-cancer-trajectory
#10
Maria Kangas, James J Gross
Affective dimensions of cancer have long been a central concern in the field of psycho-oncology. Recent developments in the field of affective science suggest the value of incorporating insights from the burgeoning literature on affect regulation. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to build on prior work in this area by applying a process-oriented affect regulation framework to the various phases of the cancer trajectory. The Affect Regulation in Cancer framework is adapted from Gross' process model of emotion regulation, and its aim is to integrate recent advances in affective science with work in the field of psycho-oncology...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223477/immuno-oncology-from-the-perspective-of-somatic-evolution
#11
REVIEW
Santiago González, Nadezda Volkova, Philip Beer, Moritz Gerstung
The past years have witnessed significant success for cancer immunotherapies that activate a patient's immune system against their cancer cells. At the same time our understanding of the genetic changes driving tumor evolution have progressed dramatically. The study of cancer genomes has shown that tumors are best understood as cell populations governed by the rules of evolution, leading to the emergence and spread of cell lineages with pathogenic mutations. Moreover, somatic evolution can explain the acquisition of mutations conferring drug resistance in the ever-lasting battle for reaching even fitter cell states...
December 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219027/effectiveness-of-psycho-educational-interventions-with-telecommunication-technologies-on-emotional-distress-and-quality-of-life-of-adult-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review
#12
Ana Bártolo, Emelda Pacheco, Fabiana Rodrigues, Anabela Pereira, Sara Monteiro, Isabel M Santos
PURPOSE: To provide a comprehensive review of psycho-educational interventions using telecommunication technologies developed for adult cancer patients, assessing their effectiveness in reducing emotional distress and improving quality of life (QoL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A narrative approach was used for extraction and synthesis of the data. Relevant studies were identified through the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection (through EBSCOhost), and CENTRAL...
December 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214584/personalized-medicine-what-s-in-it-for-rare-diseases
#13
Sebastian Schee Genannt Halfmann, Laura Mählmann, Lada Leyens, Matthias Reumann, Angela Brand
Personalised Medicine has become a reality over the last years. The emergence of 'omics' and big data has started revolutionizing healthcare. New 'omics' technologies lead to a better molecular characterization of diseases and a new understanding of the complexity of diseases. The approach of PM is already successfully applied in different healthcare areas such as oncology, cardiology, nutrition and for rare diseases. However, health systems across the EU are often still promoting the 'one-size fits all' approach, even if it is known that patients do greatly vary in their molecular characteristics and response to drugs and other interventions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212475/implementation-of-shared-decision-making-in-oncology-development-and-pilot-study-of-a-nurse-led-decision-coaching-programme-for-women-with-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#14
Birte Berger-Höger, Katrin Liethmann, Ingrid Mühlhauser, Anke Steckelberg
BACKGROUND: To implement informed shared decision-making (ISDM) in breast care centres, we developed and piloted an inter-professional complex intervention. METHODS: We developed an intervention consisting of three components: an evidence-based patient decision aid (DA) for women with ductal carcinoma in situ, a decision-coaching led by specialised nurses (breast care nurses and oncology nurses) and structured physician encounters. In order to enable professionals to gain ISDM competencies, we developed and tested a curriculum-based training programme for specialised nurses and a workshop for physicians...
December 6, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205797/stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-history-current-status-and-opportunities
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey Meyer, Amit G Singal
A variety of surgical and other local-regional approaches to the management of hepatocellular carcinoma are in clinical use. External beam radiation therapy is a relative newcomer to the portfolio of treatment options. Advances in planning and delivery of radiation therapy, developing in parallel with and inspiring changing paradigms of tumor management in the field of radiation oncology, have led to growing interest in radiation therapy as a viable treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma as well as other liver tumors...
December 5, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205442/palliative-care-for-end-of-life-patients-in-a-basic-emergency-service
#16
REVIEW
Maria Eduarda Diniz Pereira, António Barbosa, Maria Dos Anjos Dixe
This research sought to describe the care provided by the nursing staff of the Western Department of the Basic Emergency Service for end-of-life patients. This was a retrospective, quantitative, exploratory and descriptive (level I) study, which sought to research the nursing records of 83 patients from admission to death. Patients who met the following inclusion criteria were considered eligible: adults; had an oncological or nononcological, advanced and irreversible chronic disease; and died in the Basic Emergency Service in the period from January 2011 to December 2012...
December 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188307/-criteria-for-resectability-of-pancreatic-cancer-and-postoperative-imaging
#17
L Grenacher, M Juchems
By improving the techniques of pancreatic surgery, the mortality and morbidity for pancreatic carcinoma could be significantly reduced. For radiologists a profound knowledge of the surgical techniques is of decisive importance. Based on this knowledge postoperative complications can be reliably uncovered and local recurrences can be detected at an early stage. The complications resulting from pancreatic surgery can be severe and often necessitate a radiological intervention. As pancreatic cancer itself is a severe disease with a poor 5‑year survival, which can only be improved by an R0 resection, it is crucial to identify using imaging those patients who are primarily operable or who can potentially achieve an operable condition through neoadjuvant chemotherapy (borderline) and inoperable patients to avoid postoperative complications which would additionally weaken them and result in unnecessary delays in initiating palliative therapy...
November 29, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168653/utilizing-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer-an-interview-with-ajay-goel
#18
Ajay Goel
Ajay Goel, PhD, is a Professor and Director, Center for Gastrointestinal Research, and Director, Center for Translational Genomics and Oncology, at the Baylor Scott & White Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, Texas. Dr Goel has spent more than 20 years researching cancer and has been the lead author or contributor to over 240 scientific articles published in peer-reviewed international journals and several book chapters. He is also a primary inventor on more than 15 international patents aimed at developing various biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of gastrointestinal cancers...
November 23, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167827/hepatocellular-cancer-and-recurrence-after-liver-transplantation-what-about-the-impact-of-immunosuppression
#19
REVIEW
Jan Lerut, Samuele Iesari, Maxime Foguenne, Quirino Lai
Liver transplantation (LT) has originally been designed to treat hepatobiliary malignancies. The initial results of LT for hepatocellular cancer (HCC) were, however, dismal this mainly due to the poor patient selection procedure. Better surgical and perioperative care and, especially, the refinement of selection criteria led to a major improvement of results, making HCC nowadays (again!) one of the leading indications for LT. This evolution is clearly shown by the innumerable reports aiming to further extend inclusion criteria for LT in HCC patients...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159773/japan-society-of-gynecologic-oncology-guidelines-2015-for-the-treatment-of-vulvar-cancer-and-vaginal-cancer
#20
Toshiaki Saito, Tsutomu Tabata, Hitoshi Ikushima, Hiroyuki Yanai, Hironori Tashiro, Hitoshi Niikura, Takeo Minaguchi, Toshinari Muramatsu, Tsukasa Baba, Wataru Yamagami, Kazuya Ariyoshi, Kimio Ushijima, Mikio Mikami, Satoru Nagase, Masanori Kaneuchi, Nobuo Yaegashi, Yasuhiro Udagawa, Hidetaka Katabuchi
BACKGROUND: Vulvar cancer and vaginal cancer are relatively rare tumors, and there had been no established treatment principles or guidelines to treat these rare tumors in Japan. The first version of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology (JSGO) guidelines for the treatment of vulvar cancer and vaginal cancer was published in 2015 in Japanese. OBJECTIVE: The JSGO committee decided to publish the English version of the JSGO guidelines worldwide, and hope it will be a useful guide to physicians in a similar situation as in Japan...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
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