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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777172/narcolepsy-and-other-central-hypersomnias
#1
Yves Dauvilliers, Lucie Barateau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article focuses on the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and management of narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and other central disorders of hypersomnolence, as defined in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3). RECENT FINDINGS: In ICSD-3, the names of some central disorders of hypersomnolence have been changed: narcolepsy with cataplexy and narcolepsy without cataplexy have been renamed narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2, respectively...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735675/treatment-of-narcolepsy-and-other-organic-hypersomnias-in-children
#2
REVIEW
Suresh Kotagal
The comprehensive management of chronic disorders such as hypersomnias of childhood requires combining life-style changes with rational pharmacotherapy that is based on treating the symptoms that are most bothersome, the age, comorbidities, and metabolic and endocrine status of the patient. The excessive sleepiness of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia is best treated with dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate preparations or modafinil/armodafinil. Cataplexy treatment requires sodium oxybate, tricyclic agents, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
June 20, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722021/activation-of-the-gabaergic-parafacial-zone-maintains-sleep-and-counteracts-the-wake-promoting-action-of-the-psychostimulants-armodafinil-and-caffeine
#3
Christelle Anaclet, Kobi Griffith, Patrick M Fuller
We previously reported that acute and selective activation of GABA-releasing parafacial zone (PZ(Vgat)) neurons in behaving mice produces slow-wave-sleep (SWS), even in the absence of sleep deficit, suggesting that these neurons may represent, at least in part, a key cellular substrate underlying sleep drive. It remains, however, to be determined if PZ(Vgat) neurons actively maintain, as oppose to simply gate, SWS. To begin to experimentally address this knowledge gap, we asked whether activation of PZ(Vgat) neurons could attenuate or block the wake-promoting effects of two widely used wake-promoting psychostimulants, armodafinil or caffeine...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603108/a-validated-stability-indicating-rp-hplc-method-for-estimation-of-armodafinil-in-pharmaceutical-dosage-forms-and-characterization-of-its-base-hydrolytic-product
#4
Kambham Venkateswarlu, Ardhgeri Rangareddy, Kanaka Narasimhaiah, Hemraj Sharma, Naga Mallikarjuna Raja Bandi
The main objective of present study was to develop a RP-HPLC method for estimation of Armodafinil in pharmaceutical dosage forms and characterization of its base hydrolytic product. The method was developed for Armodafinil estimation and base hydrolytic products were characterized. The separation was carried out on C18 column by using mobile phase as mixture of water and methanol (45:55%v/v). Eluents were detected at 220nm at 1ml/min. Stress studies were performed with milder conditions followed by stronger conditions so as to get sufficient degradation around 20%...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490912/update-on-the-treatment-of-narcolepsy-clinical-efficacy-of-pitolisant
#5
REVIEW
Michael W Calik
Narcolepsy is a neurological disease that affects 1 in 2,000 individuals and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). In 60-70% of individuals with narcolepsy, it is also characterized by cataplexy or a sudden loss of muscle tone that is triggered by positive or negative emotions. Narcolepsy decreases the quality of life of the afflicted individuals. Currently used drugs treat EDS alone (modafinil/armodafinil, methylphenidate, and amphetamine), cataplexy alone ("off-label" use of antidepressants), or both EDS and cataplexy (sodium oxybate)...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448998/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-armodafinil-therapy-for-hypersomnia-associated-with-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-pilot-study
#6
Maria I Lapid, Karen M Kuntz, Sara S Mason, Jeremiah A Aakre, Emily S Lundt, Walter Kremers, Laura A Allen, Daniel A Drubach, Bradley F Boeve
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypersomnia is common in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of armodafinil for hypersomnia associated with DLB. METHODS: We performed a 12-week pilot trial of armodafinil therapy (125-250 mg orally daily) in DLB outpatients with hypersomnia. The patients underwent neurologic examinations, a neuropsychological battery, laboratory testing, electrocardiography, and polysomnography. Efficacy was assessed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks...
2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443381/pharmacological-management-of-narcolepsy-with-and-without-cataplexy
#7
REVIEW
Ulf Kallweit, Claudio L Bassetti
Narcolepsy is an orphan neurological disease and presents with sleep-wake, motoric, neuropsychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is most commonly caused by an immune-mediated process including genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the selective loss of hypocretin-producing neurons. Narcolepsy has a major impact on workableness and quality of life. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the temporal available treatment options for narcolepsy (type 1 and 2) in adults, including authorization status by regulatory agencies...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424564/new-developments-in-the-management-of-narcolepsy
#8
REVIEW
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Narcolepsy is a life-long, underrecognized sleep disorder that affects 0.02%-0.18% of the US and Western European populations. Genetic predisposition is suspected because of narcolepsy's strong association with HLA DQB1*06-02, and genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in T-cell receptor loci. Narcolepsy pathophysiology is linked to loss of signaling by hypocretin-producing neurons; an autoimmune etiology possibly triggered by some environmental agent may precipitate hypocretin neuronal loss...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379012/phase-transfer-and-ion-pairing-catalysis-of-pentanidiums-and-bisguanidiniums
#9
Lili Zong, Choon-Hong Tan
Catalysts accelerate biological processes and organic reactions in a controlled and selective fashion. There are continuing efforts in asymmetric catalysis to develop efficient catalysts with broad reaction scope and industrial practicability. Among the various modes of asymmetric catalysis, phase-transfer catalysis has attracted intense interest due to its facile scale up and low catalyst loading. Chiral quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts are well-studied classes of chiral phase-transfer catalysts, and they are typically composed of sp(3)-hybridized quaternary onium salts...
April 5, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364461/double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study-of-armodafinil-treatment-of-daytime-sleepiness-associated-with-treated-nocturia
#10
Andrew D Krystal, Xavier A Preud'homme
Study Objectives: Nocturia, voids which disturb sleep, is the most common cause of awakenings and is associated with daytime sleepiness. Because the standard treatments for the most common causes of nocturia are relatively ineffective, many treated patients with nocturia are left with residual sleepiness. We carried out this pilot study to evaluate the potential of armodafinil to be an effective means of addressing the sleepiness that persists in many nocturia patients, despite their receiving standard therapy...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256707/dopaminergic-agents-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
A G Szmulewicz, F Angriman, C Samamé, A Ferraris, D Vigo, S A Strejilevich
OBJECTIVE: To systematically examine the effects of dopaminergic agents (modafinil, armodafinil, pramipexole, methylphenidate, and amphetamines) on bipolar depression outcomes. METHODS: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of treatment with dopaminergic agents in bipolar depression. In a secondary analysis, findings from both randomized controlled trials and high-quality observational studies were pooled by means of meta-analytic procedures to explore dopaminergic treatment-related new mania...
June 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144880/use-of-stimulants-in-bipolar-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Giulio Perugi, Giulia Vannucchi, Fulvio Bedani, Ettore Favaretto
Several international guidelines indicate stimulants, including methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamines and derivatives, modafinil, and armodafinil among the second-third-line choices for bipolar depression. Efficacy of stimulants has been also reported for the management of residual depressive symptoms such as fatigue and sleepiness and for the management of affective, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms in children and adult bipolar patients with comorbid ADHD. Few case reports show positive results with MPH in the treatment of resistant mania...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128982/social-support-insomnia-and-adherence-to-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-after-cancer-treatment
#13
Charles Kamen, Sheila N Garland, Charles E Heckler, Anita R Peoples, Ian R Kleckner, Calvin L Cole, Michael L Perlis, Gary R Morrow, Karen M Mustian, Joseph A Roscoe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: While cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to be efficacious in treating cancer survivors' insomnia, 30-60% of individuals have difficulty adhering to intervention components. Psychosocial predictors of adherence and response to CBT-I, such as social support, have not been examined in intervention studies for cancer survivors. PARTICIPANTS: Data from a randomized placebo-controlled 2 x 2 trial of CBT-I and armodafinil (a wakefulness promoting agent) were used to assess adherence...
January 27, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114089/-non-conventional-pharmacological-agents-for-the-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder-%C3%AE-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#14
REVIEW
K N Fountoulakis, D Balaris, V Nikolaou, J Νimatoudis
Bipolar disorder (BD) has a complex and variable clinical picture which is characterized by many different phacets and phases and as a result its therapeutical options are also complex and often unsatisfactory. Typically the so-called "mood stabilizers" are used in the treatment of BD and in this class lithium and specific antiepileptics are included. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature concerning the presence of randomized double blind clinical trials of 'non conventional' pharmaceutical treatment options...
October 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105576/effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-and-armodafinil-on-quality-of-life-in-cancer-survivors-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Anita R Peoples, Sheila N Garland, Michael L Perlis, Josée Savard, Charles E Heckler, Charles S Kamen, Julie L Ryan, Karen M Mustian, Michelle C Janelsins, Luke J Peppone, Gary R Morrow, Joseph A Roscoe
PURPOSE: Cancer-related insomnia is associated with diminished quality of life (QOL), suggesting that improvement in insomnia may improve QOL in cancer survivors. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to improve insomnia, but less is known regarding its effect on QOL and whether improvement in insomnia corresponds to improved QOL. The present analysis examines the effects of CBT-I, with and without armodafinil, on QOL both directly and indirectly through improvements of insomnia...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869124/bisguanidinium-dinuclear-oxodiperoxomolybdosulfate-ion-pair-catalyzed-enantioselective-sulfoxidation
#16
Lili Zong, Chao Wang, Adhitya Mangala Putra Moeljadi, Xinyi Ye, Rakesh Ganguly, Yongxin Li, Hajime Hirao, Choon-Hong Tan
Catalytic use of peroxomolybdate for asymmetric transformations has attracted increasing attention due to its catalytic properties and application in catalysis. Herein, we report chiral bisguanidinium dinuclear oxodiperoxomolybdosulfate [BG](2+)[(μ-SO4)Mo2O2(μ-O2)2(O2)2](2-) ion pair, as a catalyst for enantioselective sulfoxidation using aqueous H2O2 as the terminal oxidant. The ion pair catalyst is isolatable, stable and useful for the oxidation of a range of dialkyl sulfides. The practical utility was illustrated using a gram-scale synthesis of armodafinil, a commercial drug, with the catalyst generated in situ from 0...
November 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634806/double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-study-of-armodafinil-treatment-of-daytime-sleepiness-associated-with-treated-nocturia
#17
Andrew D Krystal, Xavier A Preud'homme
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Nocturia, voids which disturb sleep, is the most common cause of awakenings and is associated with daytime sleepiness. Because the standard treatments for the most common causes of nocturia are relatively ineffective, many treated patients with nocturia are left with residual sleepiness. We carried out this pilot study to evaluate the potential of Armodafinil to be an effective means of addressing the sleepiness that persists in many nocturia patients despite their receiving standard therapy...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549768/management-of-narcolepsy
#18
REVIEW
Lucie Barateau, Régis Lopez, Yves Dauvilliers
Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and type 2 (NT2) are two rare neurological diseases, classified as central disorders of hypersomnolence. The pathophysiology of NT1 is well known; it is caused by the selective destruction of hypocretin (Hcrt) neurons, by a highly suspected autoimmune process. On the contrary, little is known about NT2 etiology, sharing with NT1 somnolence and signs of dysregulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but not cataplexy. Management strategies are rather codified, at least in adults, with a lifelong treatment required in NT1, whereas no pharmacological study focused only on NT2 patients, with sometimes spontaneous improvement or disappearance of their symptoms...
October 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545285/the-unique-psychostimulant-profile-of-%C3%A2-modafinil-investigation-of-behavioral-and-neurochemical-effects-in-mice
#19
Maddalena Mereu, Lauren E Chun, Thomas E Prisinzano, Amy H Newman, Jonathan L Katz, Gianluigi Tanda
Blockade of dopamine (DA) reuptake via the dopamine transporter (DAT) is a primary mechanism identified as underlying the therapeutic actions of (±)-modafinil (modafinil) and its R-enantiomer, armodafinil. Herein, we explored the neurochemical and behavioral actions of modafinil to better characterize its psychostimulant profile. Swiss-Webster mice were implanted with microdialysis probes in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS) or core (NAC) to evaluate changes in DA levels related to acute reinforcing actions of drugs of abuse...
January 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542881/residual-daytime-sleepiness-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-after-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-optimization-causes-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Julia L Chapman, Yasmina Serinel, Nathaniel S Marshall, Ronald R Grunstein
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but it is also common in the general population. When sleepiness remains after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA, comorbid conditions or permanent brain injury before CPAP therapy may be the cause of the residual sleepiness. There is currently no broad approach to treating residual EDS in patients with OSA. Individual assessment must be made of comorbid conditions and medications, and of lifestyle factors that may be contributing to the sleepiness...
September 2016: Sleep Medicine Clinics
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