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Pathogen Inactivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042405/sterol-methyltransferase-a-target-for-anti-amoeba-therapy-towards-transition-state-analog-and-suicide-substrate-drug-design
#1
Medhanie E Kidane, Boden H Vanderloop, Wenxu Zhou, Crista D Thomas, Emilio Ramos, Ujjal Singha, Minu Chaudhuri, W David Nes
Ergosterol biosynthesis pathways essential to pathogenic protozoa growth (Haubrich, B. A. et al. 2015. J. Lipid Res. 56: 331-341) and absent from the human host offer new chokepoint targets. Here, we present characterization and cell-based interference of Acanthamoeba spp sterol 24/28methylases (SMT) that catalyze the committed step in C28- and C29-sterol synthesis. Intriguingly, our kinetic analyses suggest 24SMT prefers plant cycloartenol while 28SMT prefers 24(28)methylene lophenol in similar fashion to the substrate preferences of land plant SMT1 and SMT2...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034936/synergistic-antiviral-effect-of-curcumin-functionalized-graphene-oxide-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#2
Xiao Xi Yang, Chun Mei Li, Yuan Fang Li, Jian Wang, Cheng Zhi Huang
The diseases attributable to viruses remain a global burden. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is considered as the major viral pathogen of the lower respiratory tract of infants, has been implicated in severe lung disease. In this contribution, we developed a β-cyclodextrin (CD) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) composite, which displayed excellent antiviral activity and could load curcumin efficiently. RSV, a negative-sense single-stranded enveloped RNA virus, was employed as a model virus to investigate the antiviral activity of multifunctional GO...
October 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030631/viscosity-is-an-important-factor-of-resistance-to-alcohol-based-disinfectants-by-pathogens-present-in-mucus
#3
Ryohei Hirose, Takaaki Nakaya, Yuji Naito, Tomo Daidoji, Yohei Watanabe, Hiroaki Yasuda, Hideyuki Konishi, Yoshito Itoh
Alcohol-based disinfectants play an important role in the prevention of healthcare-acquired infection (HAI). We investigated whether pathogens present in mucus acquire resistance to alcohol-based disinfectants, and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Both the resistance of influenza A virus and Escherichia coli to alcohol-based disinfectants or ultraviolet irradiation and the diffusion rate of ethanol were determined in artificial mucus or sputum samples obtained from 27 individuals with acute upper respiratory infection...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028435/evaluation-of-agricultural-interventions-on-human-and-poultry-related-salmonella-enteritidis-in-british-columbia
#4
Marsha Taylor, William Cox, Michael Otterstatter, Nancy de With, Eleni Galanis
A collaborative investigation between public health and animal health led to numerous interventions along the food chain in response to an outbreak of human salmonellosis and increased incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) among poultry. Incidence of both human and chicken SE decreased substantially in 2012 and 2013 following these interventions. We used time series analysis to assess the impact of three interventions: vaccination of broiler breeder flocks, separation in the hatchery of breeder eggs, and an industry order to stop farm-gate sales of ungraded broiler hatching eggs...
October 13, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026153/climate-change-induced-increases-in-precipitation-are-reducing-the-potential-for-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-to-inactivate-pathogens-in-surface-waters
#5
Craig E Williamson, Sasha Madronich, Aparna Lal, Richard G Zepp, Robyn M Lucas, Erin P Overholt, Kevin C Rose, S Geoffrey Schladow, Julia Lee-Taylor
Climate change is accelerating the release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to inland and coastal waters through increases in precipitation, thawing of permafrost, and changes in vegetation. Our modeling approach suggests that the selective absorption of ultraviolet radiation (UV) by DOM decreases the valuable ecosystem service wherein sunlight inactivates waterborne pathogens. Here we highlight the sensitivity of waterborne pathogens of humans and wildlife to solar UV, and use the DNA action spectrum to model how differences in water transparency and incident sunlight alter the ability of UV to inactivate waterborne pathogens...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026114/the-driver-landscape-of-sporadic-chordoma
#6
Patrick S Tarpey, Sam Behjati, Matthew D Young, Inigo Martincorena, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Sarah J Farndon, Charlotte Guzzo, Claire Hardy, Calli Latimer, Adam P Butler, Jon W Teague, Adam Shlien, P Andrew Futreal, Sohrab Shah, Ali Bashashati, Farzad Jamshidi, Torsten O Nielsen, David Huntsman, Daniel Baumhoer, Sebastian Brandner, Jay Wunder, Brendan Dickson, Patricia Cogswell, Josh Sommer, Joanna J Phillips, M Fernanda Amary, Roberto Tirabosco, Nischalan Pillay, Stephen Yip, Michael R Stratton, Adrienne M Flanagan, Peter J Campbell
Chordoma is a malignant, often incurable bone tumour showing notochordal differentiation. Here, we defined the somatic driver landscape of 104 cases of sporadic chordoma. We reveal somatic duplications of the notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T) in up to 27% of cases. These variants recapitulate the rearrangement architecture of the pathogenic germline duplications of T that underlie familial chordoma. In addition, we find potentially clinically actionable PI3K signalling mutations in 16% of cases...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024903/bacteria-mould-and-yeast-spore-inactivation-studies-by-scanning-electron-microscope-observations
#7
Siti N M Rozali, Elham A Milani, Rebecca C Deed, Filipa V M Silva
Spores are the most resistant form of microbial cells, thus difficult to inactivate. The pathogenic or food spoilage effects of certain spore-forming microorganisms have been the primary basis of sterilization and pasteurization processes. Thermal sterilization is the most common method to inactivate spores present on medical equipment and foods. High pressure processing (HPP) is an emerging and commercial non-thermal food pasteurization technique. Although previous studies demonstrated the effectiveness of thermal and non-thermal spore inactivation, the in-depth mechanisms of spore inactivation are as yet unclear...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024061/in-vitro-studies-of-the-antimicrobial-effect-of-non-thermal-plasma-activated-water-as-a-novel-mouthwash
#8
Yinglong Li, Jie Pan, Guopin Ye, Qian Zhang, Jing Wang, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of non-thermal plasma-activated water (PAW) as a novel mouthwash in vitro. Three representative oral pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus and Porphyromonas gingivalis - were treated with PAW. The inactivation effect was evaluated using the colony-forming unit (CFU) method, and the morphological and structural changes of a cell were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The physicochemical properties of PAW were analysed, and its influence on the leakage of intracellular proteins and DNA was evaluated...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023522/microencapsulation-of-clostridium-difficile-specific-bacteriophages-using-microfluidic-glass-capillary-devices-for-colon-delivery-using-ph-triggered-release
#9
Gurinder K Vinner, Goran T Vladisavljević, Martha R J Clokie, Danish J Malik
The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria acquiring multidrug antibiotic resistance is a global health threat to mankind. This has motivated a renewed interest in developing alternatives to conventional antibiotics including bacteriophages (viruses) as therapeutic agents. The bacterium Clostridium difficile causes colon infection and is particularly difficult to treat with existing antibiotics; phage therapy may offer a viable alternative. The punitive environment within the gastrointestinal tract can inactivate orally delivered phages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021619/pan-cancer-analysis-of-bi-allelic-alterations-in-homologous-recombination-dna-repair-genes
#10
Nadeem Riaz, Pedro Blecua, Raymond S Lim, Ronglai Shen, Daniel S Higginson, Nils Weinhold, Larry Norton, Britta Weigelt, Simon N Powell, Jorge S Reis-Filho
BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair and are germ-line cancer pre-disposition genes that result in a syndrome of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). Whether germ-line or somatic alterations in these genes or other members of the HR pathway and if mono- or bi-allelic alterations of HR-related genes have a phenotypic impact on other cancers remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we perform a pan-cancer analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set and observe that bi-allelic pathogenic alterations in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair-related genes are prevalent across many malignancies...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021148/the-voltage-sensor-of-excitation-contraction-coupling-in-mammals-inactivation-and-interaction-with-ca-2
#11
Juan Ferreira Gregorio, Germán Pequera, Carlo Manno, Eduardo Ríos, Gustavo Brum
In skeletal muscle, the four-helix voltage-sensing modules (VSMs) of CaV1.1 calcium channels simultaneously gate two Ca(2+) pathways: the CaV1.1 pore itself and the RyR1 calcium release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Here, to gain insight into the mechanism by which VSMs gate RyR1, we quantify intramembrane charge movement associated with VSM activation (sensing current) and gated Ca(2+) release flux in single muscle cells of mice and rats. As found for most four-helix VSMs, upon sustained depolarization, rodent VSMs lose the ability to activate Ca(2+) release channels opening; their properties change from a functionally capable mode, in which the mobile sensor charge is called charge 1, to an inactivated mode, charge 2, with a voltage dependence shifted toward more negative voltages...
October 11, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020439/non-leachable-imidazolium-incorporated-composite-for-disruption-of-bacterial-clustering-exopolysaccharide-matrix-assembly-and-enhanced-biofilm-removal
#12
Geelsu Hwang, Bernard Koltisko, Xiaoming Jin, Hyun Koo
Surface-grown bacteria and production of an extracellular polymeric matrix modulate the assembly of highly cohesive and firmly attached biofilms, making them difficult to remove from solid surfaces. Inhibition of cell growth and inactivation of matrix-producing bacteria can impair biofilm formation and facilitate removal. Here, we developed a novel non-leachable antibacterial composite with potent antibiofilm activity by directly incorporating polymerizable imidazolium-containing resin (Anti Bacterial Resin with Carbonate linkage; ABR-C) into a methacrylate-based scaffold (ABR Modified Composite; ABR-MC) using an efficient yet simplified chemistry...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017943/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-non-mineral-oil-adjuvanted-injectable-vaccine-for-the-protection-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-against-flavobacterium-psychrophilum
#13
R Hoare, S-J Jung, T P H Ngo, K Bartie, J Bailey, K D Thompson, A Adams
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome which has had a major impact on global salmonid aquaculture. Recent outbreaks in Atlantic salmon in Scotland and Chile have added to the need for a vaccine to protect both salmon and trout. At present no licensed vaccines are available in Europe, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to contain disease outbreaks. Outbreaks generally occur in fry at temperatures between 10 and 15 °C. Recently outbreaks in larger fish have given added impetus to the development of a vaccine which can provide long term protection from this highly heterogeneous pathogen...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017551/comparative-efficacy-of-the-leucofeligen%C3%A2-felv-rcp-and-purevax%C3%A2-rcp-felv-vaccines-against-infection-with-circulating-feline-calicivirus
#14
T Almeras, P Schreiber, S Fournel, V Martin, C S Nicolas, C Fontaine, C Lesbros, S Gueguen
BACKGROUND: Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common virus, found worldwide, mainly responsible for chronic ulceroproliferative faucitis and periodontitis. This virus has a high mutation rate, leading to the presence of numerous FCV strains in the field. The objectives of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two vaccines (Leucofeligen™ FeLV/RCP and Purevax™ RCP FeLV), which differ by their nature (live vs. inactivated) and the vaccinal strains, against circulating FCV strains...
October 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990766/efficient-bacterial-inactivation-by-transition-metal-catalyzed-auto-oxidation-of-sulfite
#15
Long Chen, Min Tang, Chuan Chen, Mingguang Chen, Kai Luo, Jing Xu, Danna Zhou, Feng Wu
Disinfection is an indispensable process in wastewater treatment plants. New bacterial inactivation technologies are of increasing interest and persistent demand. A category of simple and efficient bactericidal systems have been established in this study, i.e., the combination of divalent transition metal (Mn(II), Co(II), Fe(II), or Cu(II)) and sulfite. In these systems, metal catalyzed auto-oxidation of sulfite was manifested to generate reactive intermediary SO4•- that played the major role in Escherichia coli inactivation at pH 5-8...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985053/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-malate-synthase-g-from-opportunistic-pathogen-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
Alyssa C McVey, Prasanthi Medarametla, Xavier Chee, Sean Bartlett, Antti Poso, David R Spring, Taufiq Rahman, Martin Welch
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen recognized as a critical threat by the World Health Organization because of the dwindling number of effective therapies available to treat infections. Over the past decade, it has become apparent that the glyoxylate shunt plays a vital role in sustaining P. aeruginosa during infection scenarios. The glyoxylate shunt comprises two enzymes: isocitrate lyase and malate synthase isoform G. Inactivation of these enzymes has been reported to abolish the ability of P...
October 6, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984234/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-produces-an-entc-dependent-catecholate-siderophore-that-is-distinct-from-enterobactin
#17
Megan Y Nas, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a Gram-negative, multi-drug-resistant bacterium, is increasingly recognized as a key opportunistic pathogen. Thus, we embarked upon an investigation of S. maltophilia iron acquisition. To begin, we determined that the genome of strain K279a is predicted to encode a complete siderophore system, including a biosynthesis pathway, an outer-membrane receptor for ferrisiderophore, and other import and export machinery. Compatible with these data, K279a and other clinical isolates of S...
October 6, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983800/a-potentially-crucial-role-of-the-pkd1-c-terminal-tail-in-renal-prognosis
#18
Eiji Higashihara, Shigeo Horie, Moritoshi Kinoshita, Peter C Harris, Takatsugu Okegawa, Mitsuhiro Tanbo, Hidehiko Hara, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Kaori Shigemori, Haruna Kawano, Isao Miyazaki, Shinya Kaname, Kikuo Nutahara
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD) often results in renal failure. Recently, allelic influences of PKD1 mutation types on renal survival were extensively investigated. Here, we analyzed integrated influences of PKD1 mutation types and positions on renal survival. METHODS: We included 338 (82 pedigrees) and 72 (12 pedigrees) patients with PKD1 and PKD2 mutations, respectively, identified through comprehensive gene analysis of 101 probands with ADPKD...
October 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972902/sludge-disinfection-using-electrical-thermal-treatment-the-role-of-ohmic-heating
#19
Ziqiang Yin, Michael Hoffmann, Sunny Jiang
Electrical heating has been proposed as a potential method for pathogen inactivation in human waste sludge, especially in decentralized wastewater treatment systems. In this study, we investigated the heat production and E. coli inactivation in wastewater sludge using electrical thermal treatment. Various concentrations of NaCl and NH4Cl were tested as electrolyte to enhance conductivity in sludge mixtures. At same voltage input (18V), sludge treated with direct current (DC) exhibited slower ascent of temperature and lower energy efficiencies for heat production comparing to that using alternate current (AC)...
September 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971872/kinetics-of-sulbactam-hydrolysis-by-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-their-inhibition
#20
Adam B Shapiro
Sulbactam is one of 4 β-lactamase inhibitors in current clinical use to counteract drug resistance caused by degradation of β-lactam antibiotics by these bacterial enzymes. As a β-lactam itself, sulbactam is susceptible to degradation by β-lactamases. We investigated the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of sulbactam hydrolysis by 14 β-lactamases representing clinically widespread groups within all 4 Ambler classes: CTX-M-15, KPC-2, SHV-5, and TEM-1 for class A; IMP-1, NDM-1, and VIM-1 for class B; Acinetobacter baumannii ADC-7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC and Enterobacter cloacae P99 for class C; and OXA-10, OXA-23, OXA-24, and OXA-48 for class D...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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