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Pathogen Inactivation

Markus Jutzi, Behrouz Mansouri Taleghani, Morven Rueesch, Lorenz Amsler, Andreas Buser
Introduction: Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) has been identified as the most prevalent transfusion-associated infectious risk. To prevent PC-related septic transfusion reactions, the Intercept® pathogen inactivation procedure was introduced for all PCs in Switzerland in 2011. Methods: Based on numbers of transfused units and mandatorily reported adverse events with high imputability, we compare the risks associated with transfusion of conventional PCs (cPCs) and pathogen-inactivated PCs (PI-PCs)...
May 2018: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Katarina Hočevar, Jan Potempa, Boris Turk
Gingipains are extracellular cysteine proteases of the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and its most potent virulence factors. They can degrade a great variety of host proteins, thereby helping the bacterium to evade the host immune response, deregulate signaling pathways, trigger anoikis and, finally, cause tissue destruction. Host cell-surface proteins targeted by gingipains are the main focus of this review and span three groups of substrates: immune-regulatory proteins, signaling pathways regulators and adhesion molecules...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Carlise Hannel Ferreira, Sabrina Candido Nunes, Vidiany Aparecida Queiroz Santos, Ernesto Chaves Pereira, Mariana de Souza Sikora
Photocatalysis over TiO2 substrates is widely used in effluent treatment specially for organic compounds and for inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms. In the present work, TiO2 coatings were synthesized by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and its pathogenic bacteria inhibitory photoactivity was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coatings were investigated for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella bongori and the results were correlated with pore diameter and crystallite size...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Larissa Karine Leite Portocarrero, Klícia Novais Quental, Luciana Paula Samorano, Zilda Najjar Prado de Oliveira, Maria Cecília da Matta Rivitti-Machado
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystemic, autosomal dominant genetic disorder with complete penetrance, that can evolve with hamartomas in multiple organs, such as skin, central nervous system, kidney and lung. Due to the wide phenotypic variability, the disease is often not recognized. Tuberous sclerosis complex affects one in 10,000 newborns and most patients are diagnosed during the first 15 months of life. The diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis were reviewed in 2012, at the second International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Matias Fingermann, Lucía Avila, Maria Belén De Marco, Luciana Vázquez, Darío Nicolás Di Biase, Andrea Verónica Müller, Mirta Lescano, José Christian Dokmetjian, Sonsire Fernández Castillo, José Luis Pérez Quiñoy
Strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause the severe Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxins are protein toxins that bind and kill microvascular cells, damaging vital organs. No specific therapeutics or vaccines have been licensed for use in humans yet. The most common route of infection is by consumption of dairy or farm products contaminated with STEC. Domestic cattle colonized by STEC strains represent the main reservoir, and thus a source of contamination. Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMV) obtained after detergent treatment of gram-negative bacteria have been used over the past decades for producing many licensed vaccines...
June 20, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Bibi Zhou, Youyun Yang, Tong Chen, Yongliang Lou, X Frank Yang
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme disease, exists in nature through a complex enzootic life cycle that involves both ticks and mammals. The B. burgdorferi genome encodes five Oligopeptide ABC transporters (Opp) that are predicted to be involve in transport of various nutrients. Previously, it was reported that OppA5 is important for the optimal production of OspC, a major virulence factor of B. burgdorferi. In this study, possible role of another Oligopeptide ABC transporter, OppA4 in ospC expression was investigated by construction of an oppA4 deletion mutant and the complemented strain...
June 15, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Jelena Patrnogic, Christa Heryanto, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding model to analyze the regulation of conserved signaling pathways. In this study, we examined whether signaling components in the Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway are involved in the response to wounding caused by either sterile injury or infection by parasitic nematodes in D. melanogaster adult flies. We found that following sterile injury, the BMP pathway Type I receptor sax and intracellular transcription factor Mad were substantially upregulated...
June 16, 2018: Gene
Sergej Franz, Martina Friesland, Vânia Passos, Daniel Todt, Graham Simmons, Christine Goffinet, Eike Steinmann
Despite increasing clinical relevance of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, caused by a rapidly emerging pathogen, recommended guidelines for its inactivation do not exist. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of CHIKV to inactivation by heat and commercially available hand, surface and WHO-recommended disinfectants to define CHIKV prevention protocols for healthcare systems.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Tippawan Jantafong, Sakchai Ruenphet, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Kazuaki Takehara
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the fourth-generation quaternary ammonium compounds, didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), on the efficacy of bacterial and viral decontamination against pathogens commonly found in livestock industry including Salmonella infantis (SI), Escherichia coli , and avian influenza virus (AIV). Materials and Methods: The DDAB was prepared at 500, 250, and 125 parts per million (ppm) for absent and present organic material...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Lu Gou, Zhichao Liu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Lei Zhang, Hailan Chen, Michael G Kong
Viruses are serious pathogenic contamination that severely affect the environment and human health. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma efficiently inactivates pathogenic bacteria, however, the mechanism of virus inactivation by plasma is not fully understood. In this study, surface plasma in argon mixed with 1% air and plasma-activated water were used to treat water containing bacteriophages. Both agents efficiently inactivated bacteriophages T4, Φ174, and MS2 in a time-dependent manner. Prolonged storage had marginal effects on the anti-viral activity of plasma-activated water...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jai W Mehat, Simon F Park, Arnoud H M van Vliet, Roberto M La Ragione
Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as an important causative agent of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite the identification of several factors contributing to infection, characterization of the virulence strategies employed by C. jejuni remains a significant challenge. Bacterial autotransporter proteins are a major class of secretory proteins in Gram-negative bacteria and notably many autotransporter proteins contribute to bacterial virulence. The aim of this study was to characterise the C...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
David Fast, Benjamin Kostiuk, Edan Foley, Stefan Pukatzki
While the structure and regulatory networks that govern type-six secretion system (T6SS) activity of Vibrio cholerae are becoming increasingly clear, we know less about the role of T6SS in disease. Under laboratory conditions, V. cholerae uses T6SS to outcompete many Gram-negative species, including other V. cholerae strains and human commensal bacteria. However, the role of these interactions has not been resolved in an in vivo setting. We used the Drosophila melanogaster model of cholera to define the contribution of T6SS to V...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Geneviève LeBel, Katy Vaillancourt, Li Yi, Marcelo Gottschalk, Daniel Grenier
Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen causing pathologies such as meningitis, sepsis, endocarditis, and arthritis. Several surface-bound and secreted proteases produced by S. suis have been identified and proposed as virulence factors. PR-39 is a proline/arginine-rich antimicrobial peptide produced by porcine leucocytes. In addition to play a role in innate immunity, this peptide possesses immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we hypothesized that proteases produced by S. suis inactivate PR-39...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Pierluigi Valente, Alessandra Romei, Manuela Fadda, Bruno Sterlini, Davide Lonardoni, Nicola Forte, Floriana Fruscione, Enrico Castroflorio, Caterina Michetti, Giorgia Giansante, Flavia Valtorta, Jin-Wu Tsai, Federico Zara, Thierry Nieus, Anna Corradi, Anna Fassio, Pietro Baldelli, Fabio Benfenati
Mutations in PRoline-Rich Transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression and/or function, emphasizing the pathogenic role of the PRRT2 deficiency. In this work, we investigated the phenotype of primary hippocampal neurons obtained from mouse embryos in which the PRRT2 gene was constitutively inactivated. Although PRRT2 is expressed by both excitatory and inhibitory neurons, its deletion decreases the number of excitatory synapses without significantly affecting the number of inhibitory synapses or the nerve terminal ultrastructure...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Chia-Lun Hsu, Yu-Jia Li, Hong-Jyuan Jian, Scott G Harroun, Shih-Chun Wei, Rini Ravindranath, Jui-Yang Lai, Chih-Ching Huang, Huan-Tsung Chang
We have developed a simple and green solution for the synthesis of catalytic gold-doped bismuth oxyiodide (Au/BiOI) nanocomposites at room temperature from an aqueous mixture of gold ions, bismuth ions, and iodide ions. Au nanoparticles (NPs) were formed in situ and doped into BiOI nanosheets. The oxygen vacancies generated in BiOI give rise to its oxidase-like activity, and Au doping facilitated the reaction leading to a 4-fold higher oxidase-like activity of the Au/BiOI nanocomposite. The Au/BiOI nanocomposites showed wide spectrum antimicrobial activity not only against non-multidrug-resistant E...
June 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Noriko Shimasaki, Akira Okaue, Ritsuko Kikuno, Katsuaki Shinohara
 Exact evaluation of the performance of surgical masks and biohazard protective clothing materials against pathogens is important because it can provide helpful information that healthcare workers can use to select suitable materials to reduce infection risk. Currently, to evaluate the protective performance of nonwoven fabrics used in surgical masks against viral aerosols, a non-standardized test method using phi-X174 phage aerosols is widely performed because actual respiratory viruses pose an infection risk during testing and the phage is a safe virus to humans...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Ulrike Blaschke, Beneditta Suwono, Sachli Zafari, Ingo Ebersberger, Evelyn Skiebe, Cy M Jeffries, Dmitri I Svergun, Gottfried Wilharm
Acinetobacter baumannii appears as an often multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen in hospitals worldwide. Its remarkable persistence in the hospital environment is probably due to intrinsic and acquired resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics, tolerance to desiccation stress, capability to form biofilms, and is possibly facilitated by surface-associated motility. Our attempts to elucidate surface-associated motility in A. baumannii revealed a mutant inactivated in a putative DNA-(adenine N6)-methyltransferase, designated A1S_0222 in strain ATCC 17978...
June 14, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Katrine Nøhr-Meldgaard, Armen Ovsepian, Hanne Ingmer, Martin Vestergaard
Development of new antibiotics is costly and time-consuming and therefore it is highly attractive if the efficacy of conventional antibiotics can be expanded. For the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, we recently demonstrated that inactivation of the ATP synthase increases the susceptibility of the pathogen 16-fold to the aminoglycoside, gentamicin. Aminoglycosides are rarely used as monotherapy against S. aureus due to the risk of resistance development and toxic effects. Here we have explored the possibility of enhancing the efficacy of aminoglycosides against S...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
George Kwabena Afari, Yen-Con Hung
The use of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water to inactivate microorganisms on foods has been extensively studied and shown to be effective. However, the prospect of the formation of "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) cells in pathogens after low free chlorine concentration (FCC) treatments under high organic loads presents safety concerns. This study investigated the effect of EO water FCC on inducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes into the VBNC state and studied possible resuscitation triggering procedures of the VBNC cells...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
David C Bloom, Robert K Tran, Joyce Feller, Richard Voellmy
Replication-competent controlled virus vectors were derived from virulent HSV-1 wildtype strain 17 syn+ by placing one or two replication-essential genes under the stringent control of a gene switch that is co-activated by heat and an antiprogestin. Upon activation of the gene switch, the vectors replicate in infected cells with an efficacy that approaches that of the wildtype virus from which they were derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activation. When administered to mice, localized application of a transient heat treatment in the presence of systemic antiprogestin results in efficient but limited virus replication at the site of administration...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
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