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Pathogen Inactivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692614/difunctional-bacteriophage-conjugated-with-photosensitizers-for-candida-albicans-targeting-photodynamic-inactivation
#1
Shuai Dong, Hongxi Shi, Xintong Zhang, Xi Chen, Donghui Cao, Chuanbin Mao, Xiang Gao, Li Wang
Background: Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of the human microbiota, causing infections ranging from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Due to the increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant C. albicans strains, new approaches to control this pathogen are needed. Photodynamic inactivation is an emerging alternative to treat infections based on the interactions between visible light and photosensitisers, in which pheophorbide a (PPA) is a chlorophyll-based photosensitizer that could induce cell death after light irradiation...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690563/intracellular-bacterial-infections-a-challenge-for-developing-cellular-mediated-immunity-vaccines-for-farmed-fish
#2
REVIEW
Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu
Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly expanding farming systems in the world. Its rapid expansion has brought with it several pathogens infecting different fish species. As a result, there has been a corresponding expansion in vaccine development to cope with the increasing number of infectious diseases in aquaculture. The success of vaccine development for bacterial diseases in aquaculture is largely attributed to empirical vaccine designs based on inactivation of whole cell (WCI) bacteria vaccines. However, an upcoming challenge in vaccine design is the increase of intracellular bacterial pathogens that are not responsive to WCI vaccines...
April 22, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685990/the-two-component-signaling-system-vrasr-ss-is-critical-for-multidrug-resistance-and-full-virulence-in-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#3
Xiaojun Zhong, Yue Zhang, Yinchu Zhu, Wenyang Dong, Jiale Ma, Zihao Pan, Shipra Roy, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
Streptococcus suis has received increasing attention for its involvement in severe human infections worldwide, as well as in multidrug resistance. Two-component signaling systems (TCSSs) play important roles in bacterial adaptation to various environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified a novel TCSS encoded in S. suis serotype 2 (SS2), designated as VraSRSS , which is involved in bacterial pathogenicity and susceptibility to antimicrobials. Our data demonstrated that the yvqFSS gene located upstream of vraSRSS shared the same promoter with the TCSS genes, which was directly regulated by VraSRSS as showed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685225/n-halamine-incorporated-antimicrobial-nonwoven-fabrics-for-use-against-avian-influenza-virus
#4
Tian Ren, Teresa V Dormitorio, Mingyu Qiao, Tung-Shi Huang, Jean Weese
Airborne pathogens are one of the most common avenues leading to poultry diseases. Preventing the avian influenza (AI) virus from entering the chicken hatchery house is critical for reducing the spread and transmission of AI disease. Many studies have investigated the incorporation of antimicrobials into air filters to prevent viruses from entering the indoor environment. N-halamines are one of the most effective antimicrobial agents against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. In this study, 1-chloro-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-4-imidazolidinone (MC, a variety of N-halamine) was coated on nonwoven fabrics to give the fabric antimicrobial activity against the AI virus...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685222/recombinant-newcastle-disease-virus-ndv-expressing-duck-tembusu-virus-dtmuv-pre-membrane-and-envelope-proteins-protects-ducks-against-dtmuv-and-ndv-challenge
#5
Minhua Sun, Jiawen Dong, Linlin Li, Qiuyan Lin, Junying Sun, Zhicheng Liu, Haiyan Shen, Jianfeng Zhang, Tao Ren, Chunhong Zhang
The newly emerged Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is responsible for considerable economic loss in waterfowl-raising areas in China since 2010. Meanwhile, the virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has also caused sporadic outbreaks in waterfowl. The individual vaccines against both diseases are available, however, there is no bivalent or combined vaccine for either disease. Here, we constructed a recombinant NDV-vectored vaccine candidate that expresses the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes from DTMUV, designated as aGM/prM + E...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685054/analysis-of-antigen-conservation-and-inactivation-of-gamma-irradiated-avian-influenza-virus-subtype-h9n2
#6
Bahareh Salehi, Farahnaz Motamedi-Sedeh, Omid Madadgar, Iraj Khalili, Arash Ghalyan Chi Langroudi, Hermann Unger, Viskam Wijewardana
Avian influenza (AI) A subtype H9N2 virus belongs to Orthomyxoviridae family and causes low-pathogenic disease AI. The use of gamma-irradiated viral antigens has been developed in the production of effective vaccines. In this research, LPAIV H9N2 strain, A/Chicken/IRN/Ghazvin/2001, was multiplied on SPF eggs and irradiated by a Nordian gamma cell instrument. Irradiated and non-irradiated AI virus (AIV) samples were titrated by EID50 method and hemagglutinin (HA) antigen was analyzed by HA test as the WHO pattern method...
April 24, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684767/individual-and-combined-efficacies-of-mild-heat-and-ultraviolet-c-radiation-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-salmonella-enterica-and-listeria-monocytogenes-in-coconut-liquid-endosperm
#7
Alonzo A Gabriel, Jeffrey M Ostonal, Jannelle O Cristobal, Gladess A Pagal, John Vincent E Armada
This study determined the inactivation kinetic parameters of selected pathogens in heat, ultraviolet-C and combined heat-UV-C treated coconut liquid endosperm. Separate cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovars, and Listeria monocytogenes strains were inoculated into coconut liquid endosperm (pH 5.15, TSS 4.4o Bx, TA 0.062% malic acid, extinction coefficient (ε) at 254 nm of 0.0154 cm-1 ) for inactivation studies. Result showed that all organisms generally exhibited a log-linear heat inactivation behavior (R2 0...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684330/novel-bioactive-peptides-from-pd-l1-2-a-type-1-ribosome-inactivating-protein-from-phytolacca-dioica-l-evaluation-of-their-antimicrobial-properties-and-anti-biofilm-activities
#8
Elio Pizzo, Katia Pane, Andrea Bosso, Nicola Landi, Sara Ragucci, Rosita Russo, Rosa Gaglione, Marcelo D T Torres, Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Angela Arciello, Alberto Di Donato, Eugenio Notomista, Antimo Di Maro
Antimicrobial peptides, also called Host Defence Peptides (HDPs), are effectors of innate immune response found in all living organisms. In a previous report, we have identified by chemical fragmentation, and characterized the first cryptic antimicrobial peptide in PD-L4, a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from leaves of Phytolacca dioica L. We applied a recently developed bioinformatic approach to a further member of the differently expressed pool of type 1 RIPs from P. dioica (PD-L1/2), and identified two novel putative cryptic HDPs in its N-terminal domain...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684046/intranasal-administration-of-a-two-dose-adjuvanted-multi-antigen-tmv-subunit-conjugate-vaccine-fully-protects-mice-against-francisella-tularensis-lvs-challenge
#9
Alison A McCormick, Aisha Shakeel, Chris Yi, Hardeep Kaur, Ahd M Mansour, Chandra Shekhar Bakshi
Tularemia is a fatal human disease caused by Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative encapsulated coccobacillus bacterium. Due to its low infectious dose, ease of aerosolized transmission, and lethal effects, the CDC lists F. tularensis as a Category A pathogen, the highest level for a potential biothreat agent. Previous vaccine studies have been conducted with live attenuated, inactivated, and subunit vaccines, which have achieved partial or full protection from F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge, but no vaccine has been approved for human use...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681899/phenalen-1-one-mediated-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-antimicrobial-efficacy-in-a-periodontal-biofilm-model-and-flow-cytometric-evaluation-of-cytoplasmic-membrane-damage
#10
Fabian Cieplik, Viktoria-Sophia Steinwachs, Denise Muehler, Karl-Anton Hiller, Thomas Thurnheer, Georgios N Belibasakis, Wolfgang Buchalla, Tim Maisch
In light of increasing resistance toward conventional antibiotics and antiseptics, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) may be a valuable alternative, especially for use in dentistry. In this regard, photosensitizers (PS) based on a phenalen-1-one structure seem to be especially favorable due to their high singlet oxygen quantum yield. However, the actual target structures of phenalen-1-one-mediated aPDT are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of aPDT mediated by phenalen-1-one derivatives SAPYR and SAGUA for inactivation of a polymicrobial biofilm consisting of three putative periodontal pathogens in vitro and to get first insights in the mechanism of action of phenalen-1-one-mediated aPDT by assessing damage of cytoplasmic membranes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680693/inactivation-of-clostridium-perfringens-spores-adhered-onto-stainless-steel-surface-by-agents-used-in-a-clean-in-place-procedure
#11
Yasmeen S Alzubeidi, Pathima Udompijitkul, Prabhat K Talukdar, Mahfuzur R Sarker
Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens, a leading foodborne pathogen can be cross-contaminated from food processing stainless steel (SS) surfaces to the finished food products. This is mostly due to the high resistance of C. perfringens spores adhered onto SS surfaces to various disinfectants commonly used in food industries. In this study, we aimed to investigate the survivability and adherence of C. perfringens spores onto SS surfaces and then validate the effectiveness of a simulated Clean-in-Place (CIP) regime on inactivation of spores adhered onto SS surfaces...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676249/preharvest-farming-practices-impacting-fresh-produce-safety
#12
Eduardo Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Achyut Adhikari
Advancements in agriculture and food processing techniques have been instrumental in the development of modern human societies. Vast improvements in agronomic practices, handling, and processing have allowed us to produce and preserve mass quantities of food. Yet despite all these innovations and potentially as a consequence of these mass production practices, more and more outbreaks of human pathogens linked to raw and processed foods are identified every year. It is evident that our increased capacity for microbial detection has contributed to the greater number of outbreaks detected...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669601/potent-prion-like-behaviors-of-pathogenic-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-evaluation-of-inactivation-methods
#13
Airi Tarutani, Tetsuaki Arai, Shigeo Murayama, Shin-Ichi Hisanaga, Masato Hasegawa
The concept that abnormal protein aggregates show prion-like propagation between cells has been considered to explain the onset and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, both synthetic amyloid-like fibrils and pathogenic proteins extracted from patients' brains induce self-templated amplification and cell-to-cell transmission in vitro and in vivo. However, it is unclear whether exposure to exogenous prion-like proteins can potentially cause these diseases in humans. Here, we investigated in detail the prion-like seeding activities of several kinds of pathogenic α-synuclein (α-syn), including synthetic fibrils and detergent-insoluble fractions extracted from brains of patients with α-synucleinopathies...
April 18, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669333/the-role-of-proteasome-inhibitor-mg132-in-2-4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced-atopic-dermatitis-in-nc-nga-mice
#14
Kozo Ohkusu-Tsukada, Daiki Ito, Kimimasa Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Although immunosuppressants for therapy of atopic dermatitis (AD) are still being sought, proteasome inhibitors are also potential candidates for the treatment of AD. Proteasome inhibitors exert various effects by blocking proteasomal degradation and help regulate processes such as apoptosis induction via caspase-9, cell cycle progression via cyclins, NF-κB inactivation via IκB, and downregulation of antigen cross-presentation. The cells targeted by proteasome inhibitors are therefore activated cells undergoing proliferation or differentiation, and antigen-presenting cells carrying out protein degradation...
April 18, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664914/ahl-lactonase-expression-in-three-marine-emerging-pathogenic-vibrio-spp-reduces-virulence-and-mortality-in-brine-shrimp-artemia-salina-and-manila-clam-venerupis-philippinarum
#15
Marta Torres, José Carlos Reina, Juan Carlos Fuentes-Monteverde, Gerardo Fernández, Jaime Rodríguez, Carlos Jiménez, Inmaculada Llamas
Bacterial infectious diseases produced by Vibrio are the main cause of economic losses in aquaculture. During recent years it has been shown that the expression of virulence genes in some Vibrio species is controlled by a population-density dependent gene-expression mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS), which is mediated by the diffusion of signal molecules such as N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). QS disruption, especially the enzymatic degradation of signalling molecules, known as quorum quenching (QQ), is one of the novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of bacterial infections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662232/characterization-of-aiik-an-ahl-lactonase-from-kurthia-huakui-lam0618-t-and-its-application-in-quorum-quenching-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#16
Weiwei Dong, Jie Zhu, Xiang Guo, Delong Kong, Qi Zhang, Yiqing Zhou, Xiaoyang Liu, Shumiao Zhao, Zhiyong Ruan
N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) act as the key quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules in gram-negative bacteria, which coordinates gene expression and then activates various processes, including biofilm formation and production of virulence factors in some pathogens. Quorum quenching (QQ), which is the inactivation of the signal molecules by means of enzymatic degradation or modification, inhibits the processes of QS rather than killing the pathogens and is a promising antipathogenic strategy to control the bacterial pathogens...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662082/hadd-a-novel-fatty-acid-synthase-type-ii-protein-is-essential-for-alpha-and-epoxy-mycolic-acid-biosynthesis-and-mycobacterial-fitness
#17
Cyril Lefebvre, Richard Boulon, Manuelle Ducoux, Sabine Gavalda, Françoise Laval, Stevie Jamet, Nathalie Eynard, Anne Lemassu, Kaymeuang Cam, Marie-Pierre Bousquet, Fabienne Bardou, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Mamadou Daffé, Annaïk Quémard
Mycolic acids (MAs) have a strategic location within the mycobacterial envelope, deeply influencing its architecture and permeability, and play a determinant role in the pathogenicity of mycobacteria. The fatty acid synthase type II (FAS-II) multienzyme system is involved in their biosynthesis. A combination of pull-downs and proteomics analyses led to the discovery of a mycobacterial protein, HadD, displaying highly specific interactions with the dehydratase HadAB of FAS-II. In vitro activity assays and homology modeling showed that HadD is, like HadAB, a hot dog folded (R)-specific hydratase/dehydratase...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658349/biodegradable-hybrid-structured-nanofibrous-membrane-supported-chemoprotective-gene-therapy-enhances-chemotherapy-tolerance-and-efficacy-in-malignant-glioma-rats
#18
Shih-Jung Liu, Tao-Chieh Yang, Shun-Tai Yang, Ying-Chun Chen, Yuan-Yun Tseng
Chemotherapy is ineffective for treating malignant glioma (MG) because of the low therapeutic levels of pharmaceuticals in tumour tissues and the well-known tumour resistance. The resistance to alkylators is modulated by the DNA repair protein O6 -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). O6 -benzylguanine (O6 -BG) can irreversibly inactivate AGT by competing with O6 -methylguanine and has been confirmed to increase the therapeutic activity of alkylators. We developed hybrid-structured poly[(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide] nanofibrous membranes (HSNMs) that enable the sequential and sustained release of O6 -BG and two alkylators (carmustine and temozolomide [TMZ])...
April 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657407/intranasal-administration-of-inactivated-avian-influenza-virus-of-h5n1-subtype-vaccine-induced-systemic-immune-response-in-chicken-and-mice
#19
I N Suartha, G A A Suartini, I W Wirata, N M A R K Dewi, G N N Putra, G A Y Kencana, G N Mahardika
Aim: The need for non-parenteral administration of inactivated avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (AIV-H5N1) vaccine is paramount. Here, we provide preliminary data on the immune response of chicken and mice after intranasal administration of AIV-H5N1-inactivated vaccine with ISCOMS, Inmunair (INM), and combined ISCOMS and INM as an adjuvant. Materials and Methods: The AIV isolate of A/Chicken/Denpasar/01/2004 (H5N1) was cultivated in specific pathogen-free chicken eggs and inactivated with formaldehyde...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650464/clioquinol-an-alternative-antimicrobial-agent-against-common-pathogenic-microbe
#20
Z You, X Ran, Y Dai, Y Ran
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are very common in dermatology and the use of antimicrobial formulations are important in treating these diseases. With the increasing of drug-resistant strains, researchers need to find ways to enhance the effectiveness and/or reduce the drug resistance. Clioquinol was one of antiseptics that can inactivate microbes. It was lack of data of antimicrobial activity; meanwhile it was infrequently used in infection. In order to research the antimicrobial spectrum and activity of topical 3% clioquinol cream among common pathogenic microorganisms compared with other common topical pharmaceuticals, we used modified agar diffusion assay to judge drug susceptibility and compared with broth microdilution assay...
April 10, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
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