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Pathogen Inactivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226079/alteration-of-glucocorticoid-receptors-and-exacerbation-of-inflammation-during-lytic-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-thp-1-cells
#1
Shujun Wang, Yaling Dou, Hong Yang, Anping Ni, Rui Zhang, Jiaming Qian
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with glucocorticoid resistance in ulcerative colitis (UC) and may exacerbate the disease course. However, the underlying pathogenicity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms during CMV latency and lytic infection in the human mononuclear cell line THP-1. Latent and activated CMV infection cell models were established. We performed real-time PCR and western blotting to examine changes in glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) during CMV latency and activation...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226063/advances-in-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation-at-the-nanoscale
#2
Nasim Kashef, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin
The alarming worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance amongst microbial pathogens necessitates a search for new antimicrobial techniques, which will not be affected by, or indeed cause resistance themselves. Light-mediated photoinactivation is one such technique that takes advantage of the whole spectrum of light to destroy a broad spectrum of pathogens. Many of these photoinactivation techniques rely on the participation of a diverse range of nanoparticles and nanostructures that have dimensions very similar to the wavelength of light...
August 2017: Nanophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225923/experimental-adaptation-of-human-echovirus-11-to-ultraviolet-radiation-leads-to-resistance-to-disinfection-and-ribavirin
#3
Anna Carratalà, Hyunjin Shim, Qingxia Zhong, Virginie Bachmann, Jeffrey D Jensen, Tamar Kohn
Ultraviolet light in the UVC range is a commonly used disinfectant to control viruses in clinical settings and water treatment. However, it is currently unknown whether human viral pathogens may develop resistance to such stressor. Here, we investigate the adaptation of an enteric pathogen, human echovirus 11, to disinfection by UVC, and characterized the underlying phenotypic and genotypic changes. Repeated exposure to UVC lead to a reduction in the UVC inactivation rate of approximately 15 per cent compared to that of the wild-type and the control populations...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223553/lipopolysaccharide-induces-autophagy-by-targeting-the-ampk-mtor-pathway-in-human-nasal-epithelial-cells
#4
Xue-Hai Wang, Zhong-Hua Zhang, Xiao-Lan Cai, Ping Ye, Xin Feng, Ting-Ting Liu, Xue-Zhong Li
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a well-known disease encountered in the department of otorhinolaryngology, yet little is known about its pathogenesis. Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent degradation process, has been reported to be involved in the process of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we tried to evaluate the function of autophagy in CRS as well as explore the related mechanisms. We first stained light chain 3B (LC3B) with immunohistochemistry in uncinate tissues (UT) from patients with and without CRS and found that its expression was up-regulated in CRS patients...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223034/effect-of-caliber-size-and-fat-level-on-the-inactivation-of-e-coli-o157-h7-in-dry-fermented-sausages
#5
James De Souza, Rafath Ahmed, Philip Strange, Shai Barbut, S Balamurugan
Dry fermented sausages (DFS) have been subject to numerous validation studies, as pathogen reduction heavily relies on both ingredients and processing. In this study the effect of product caliber size (32, 55, 80mm), and fat level (low, 9.67%; high, 18.46% wt/wt) on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 during DFS production was examined. Sausages containing a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at 107CFU/g were manufactured and monitored for changes in physicochemical properties and inoculated E. coli O157:H7 numbers were enumerated during the DFS production stages and log reduction rates were calculated...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222914/fibrolamellar-carcinoma-in-the-carney-complex-prkar1a-loss-instead-of-the-classic-dnajb1-prkaca-fusion
#6
P Graham Rondell, Karoline Lackner, Luigi Terracciano, Yessica González-Cantú, Joseph J Maleszewski, Patricia T Greipp, Sanford M Simon, Michael S Torbenson
Fibrolamellar carcinomas are characterized by activation of protein kinase A, a kinase composed of catalytic and regulatory subunits. PRKACA encodes a catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and almost all fibrolamellar carcinomas have a heterozygous 400kb deletion that leads to the fusion of DNAJB1 and PRKACA. The resulting DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion transcript is believed to activate protein kinase A by dysregulation of the catalytic portion of the protein. In contrast, PRKAR1A encodes one of the regulatory subunits of protein kinase A...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216216/epidemiological-and-genetic-characteristics-of-ev71-in-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-guangxi-southern-china-from-2010-to-2015
#7
Minmei Chen, Yu Ju, Min Chen, Zhenguo Xie, Kaijiao Zhou, Yi Tan, Jianjun Mo
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a significant public health challenge in China. Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as the predominant causative pathogen of HFMD. Since 2015, two inactivated EV71 vaccines have been approved in mainland China, and because their use could change the HFMD pathogen spectrum, this should now be monitored. However, the epidemiological and genetic trends of EV71 with respect to HFMD in Guangxi, southern China, are still not clear. In this study, we describe the epidemiological and genetic characterization of this virus in clinically-diagnosed HFMD reported from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209642/park2-loss-promotes-cancer-progression-via-redox-mediated-inactivation-of-pten
#8
Amit Gupta, Sara Anjomani-Virmouni, Nikos Koundouros, George Poulogiannis
Cancer and Parkinson disease (PD) derive from distinct alterations in cellular processes, yet there are pathogenic mutations that are unequivocally linked to both diseases. Here we expand on our recent findings that loss of parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PRKN, best known as PARK2)-which is genetically linked to PD-promotes cancer progression via redox-mediated inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by S-nitrosylation.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208746/controlled-activity-of-the-salmonella-invasion-associated-injectisome-reveals-its-intracellular-role-in-the-cytosolic-population
#9
Jessica A Klein, Jesse R Grenz, James M Slauch, Leigh A Knodler
The Salmonella invasion-associated type III secretion system (T3SS1) is an essential virulence factor required for entry into nonphagocytic cells and consequent uptake into a Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). While Salmonella is typically regarded as a vacuolar pathogen, a subset of bacteria escape from the SCV in epithelial cells and eventually hyperreplicate in the cytosol. T3SS1 is downregulated following bacterial entry into mammalian cells, but cytosolic Salmonella cells are T3SS1 induced, suggesting prolonged or resurgent activity of T3SS1 in this population...
December 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207313/regulation-of-host-pathogen-interactions-via-the-post-transcriptional-csr-rsm-system
#10
REVIEW
Maria Kusmierek, Petra Dersch
A successful colonization of specific hosts requires a rapid and efficient adaptation of the virulence-relevant gene expression program by bacterial pathogens. An important element in this endeavor is the Csr/Rsm system. This multi-component, post-transcriptional control system forms a central hub within complex regulatory networks and coordinately adjusts virulence properties with metabolic and physiological attributes of the pathogen. A key function is elicited by the RNA-binding protein CsrA/RsmA. CsrA/RsmA interacts with numerous target mRNAs, many of which encode crucial virulence factors, and alters their translation, stability or elongation of transcription...
December 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206103/a-population-of-innate-myelolymphoblastoid-effector-cell-expanded-by-inactivation-of-mtor-complex-1-in-mice
#11
Fei Tang, Peng Zhang, Peiying Ye, Christopher A Lazarski, Qi Wu, Ingrid L Bergin, Timothy P Bender, Michael N Hall, Ya Cui, Liguo Zhang, Taijiao Jiang, Yang Liu, Pan Zheng
Adaptive autoimmunity is restrained by controlling population sizes and pathogenicity of harmful clones, while innate destruction is controlled at effector phase. We report here that deletion of Rptor in mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells causes self-destructive innate immunity by massively increasing the population of previously uncharacterized innate myelolymphoblastoid effector cells (IMLECs). Mouse IMLECs are CD3-B220-NK1.1-Ter119- CD11clow/-CD115-F4/80low/-Gr-1- CD11b+, but surprisingly express high levels of PD-L1...
December 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203548/utilization-of-host-polyamines-in-alternatively-activated-macrophages-promotes-chronic-infection-by-brucella-abortus
#12
Tobias Kerrinnes, Maria G Winter, Briana M Young, Vladimir E Diaz-Ochoa, Sebastian E Winter, Renée M Tsolis
Treatment of intracellular bacterial pathogens with antibiotic therapy often requires a long course of multiple antibiotics. A barrier to developing strategies that enhance antibiotic efficacy against these pathogens is our poor understanding of the intracellular nutritional environment that maintains bacterial persistence. The intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus survives and replicates preferentially in alternatively activated macrophages (AAM), however knowledge of the metabolic adaptations promoting exploitation of this niche is limited...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203491/chemogenomic-profiling-of-the-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#13
Yaolin Chen, Jaideep Mallick, Alaa Maqnas, Yuan Sun, Baharul I Choudhury, Pierre Cote, Lan Yan, Ting-Jun-Hong Ni, Yan Li, Dazhi Zhang, Roberto Rodríguez-Ortiz, Quan-Zhen Lv, Yuan-Ying Jiang, Malcolm Whiteway
There are currently a small number of classes of antifungal drugs, and these drugs are known to target a very limited set of cellular functions. We derived a set of approximately 900 non-essential, transactivator-defective disruption strains from the tetracycline regulated GRACE strain collection of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans This strain set was screened against classic antifungal drugs to identify gene inactivations that conferred either enhanced sensitivity or increased resistance to the compounds...
December 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202854/neuronal-ccl2-expression-drives-inflammatory-monocyte-infiltration-into-the-brain-during-acute-virus-infection
#14
Charles L Howe, Reghann G LaFrance-Corey, Emma N Goddery, Renee K Johnson, Kanish Mirchia
BACKGROUND: Viral encephalitis is a dangerous compromise between the need to robustly clear pathogen from the brain and the need to protect neurons from bystander injury. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection of C57Bl/6 mice is a model of viral encephalitis in which the compromise results in hippocampal damage and permanent neurological sequelae. We previously identified brain-infiltrating inflammatory monocytes as the primary driver of this hippocampal pathology, but the mechanisms involved in recruiting these cells to the brain were unclear...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200116/paraneoplastic-disorders
#15
Eric Lancaster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes target specific areas of the nervous system with pathogenic autoantibodies or T-cell responses. Each syndrome conveys a risk of particular tumors. Expanded paraneoplastic antibody testing has led to improved diagnosis but created challenges involving appropriate interpretation of test results. RECENT FINDINGS: Peripheral nervous system paraneoplastic disorders such as myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome involve pathogenic autoantibodies...
December 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196970/endocannabinoid-hydrolases-in-avian-hd11-macrophages-identified-by-chemoproteomics-inactivation-by-small-molecule-inhibitors-and-pathogen-induced-downregulation-of-their-activity
#16
Jung Hwa Lee, Xiang Hou, Evangel Kummari, Abdolsamad Borazjani, Mariola J Edelmann, Matthew K Ross
The endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous arachidonoyl-containing lipid mediators with important roles in host defense. Macrophages are first-line defenders of the innate immune system and biosynthesize large amounts of eCBs when activated. The cellular levels of eCBs are controlled by the activities of their biosynthetic enzymes and catabolic enzymes, which include members of the serine hydrolase (SH) superfamily. The physiologic activity of SHs can be assessed in a class-specific way using chemoproteomic activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) methods...
December 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196290/evolution-and-diversity-of-inherited-spiroplasma-in-myrmica-ants
#17
Matthew J Ballinger, Logan D Moore, Steve J Perlman
Microbial partners play an important role in the biology and ecology of animals. In insects, maternally-transmitted symbionts are especially common and can have host effects ranging from reproductive manipulation to nutrient provisioning and defense against natural enemies. In this study, we report a genus-wide association of Myrmica ants with the inherited bacterial symbiont, Spiroplasma We screen Myrmica ants collected from the wild, including the invasive European fire ant, Myrmica rubra, and find an extraordinarily high prevalence of this symbiont - 8 of 9 species, 42 of 43 colonies, and 250 of 276 individual workers were harboring Spiroplasma - only one host species was uninfected...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196005/inactivation-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-bacillus-cereus-by-power-ultrasound-during-the-curing-processing-in-brining-liquid-and-beef
#18
Dacheng Kang, Yuhe Jiang, Lujuan Xing, Guanghong Zhou, Wangang Zhang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound on the number of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus in brining and beef during the curing processing. The mechanisms of the inactivation for the pathogens were preliminarily explored. The ultrasound intensity (2.39, 6.23, 11.32 and 20.96Wcm-2) and sonication time (30, 60, 90 and 120min) at 10°C were assessed in brine and meat. Plate count data indicated that 20.96Wcm-2 for 120min was the optimal treatment for bacterial reductions...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195919/s-glutathionylation-of-p47phox-sustains-superoxide-generation-in-activated-neutrophils
#19
Sheela Nagarkoti, Megha Dubey, Deepika Awasthi, Vikas Kumar, Tulika Chandra, Sachin Kumar, Madhu Dikshit
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) induced conformational changes of proteins can cause their activation or inactivation. Neutrophils clear pathogen through phagocytosis and oxidative burst generation, while participate in inflammation through sustained and uncontrolled generation of ROS. In activated PMNs, cytosolic NOX-2 subunit p47phox following phosphorylation interacts with p67phox, p40phox and along with Rac2 translocate to the membrane. Phosphorylation of p47phox subunit occurs in both short spurts as well as sustained ROS generation, suggesting towards the unidentified molecular mechanism(s) driving these two diverse outcomes by various stimuli...
November 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195159/inactivation-kinetics-and-efficiencies-of-uv-leds-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-legionella-pneumophila-and-surrogate-microorganisms
#20
Surapong Rattanakul, Kumiko Oguma
To demonstrate the effectiveness of UV light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) to disinfect water, UV-LEDs at peak emission wavelengths of 265, 280, and 300 nm were adopted to inactivate pathogenic species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila, and surrogate species, including Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis spores, and bacteriophage Qβ in water, compared to conventional low-pressure UV lamp emitting at 254 nm. The inactivation profiles of each species showed either a linear or sigmoidal survival curve, which both fit well with the Geeraerd's model...
November 23, 2017: Water Research
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