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Thyroid disruptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993267/on-selecting-a-minimal-set-of-in-vitro-assays-to-reliably-determine-estrogen-agonist-activity
#1
Richard Judson, Keith Houck, Eric Watt, Russell S Thomas
The US EPA is charged with screening chemicals for their ability to be endocrine disruptors through interaction with the estrogen, androgen and thyroid axes. The agency is exploring the use of high-throughput in vitro assays to use in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), potentially as replacements for lower-throughput in vitro and in vivo tests. The first replacement is an integrated computational and experimental model for estrogen receptor (ER) activity, to be used as an alternative to the EDSP Tier 1 in vitro ER binding and transactivation assays and the in vivo uterotrophic bioassay...
October 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987779/thyroid-hormone-and-estrogen-receptor-interactions-with-natural-ligands-and-endocrine-disruptors-in-the-cerebellum
#2
REVIEW
Attila Zsarnovszky, David Kiss, Gergely Jocsak, Gabor Nemeth, Istvan Toth, Tamas L Horvath
Although the effects of phytoestrogens on brain function is widely unknown, they are often regarded as "natural" and thus as harmless. However, the effects of phytoestrogens or environmental pollutants on brain function is underestimated. Estrogen (17beta-estradiol, E2) and thyroid hormones (THs) play pivoltal roles in brain development. In the mature brain, these hormones regulate metabolism on cellular and organismal levels. Thus, E2 and THs do not only regulate the energy metabolism of the entire organism, but simultaneously also regulate important homeostatic parameters of neurons and glia in the CNS...
October 5, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973696/neurodevelopment-and-thyroid-hormone-synthesis-inhibition-in-the-rat-quantitative-understanding-within-the-adverse-outcome-pathway-framework
#3
Iman Hassan, Hisham El-Masri, Patricia A Kosian, Jermaine Ford, Sigmund J Degitz, Mary E Gilbert
Adequate levels of thyroid hormones (TH) are needed for proper brain development, deficiencies may lead to adverse neurological outcomes in humans and animal models. Environmental chemicals have been linked to TH disruption, yet the relationship between developmental exposures and decline in serum TH resulting in neurodevelopmental impairment is poorly understood. The present study developed a quantitative adverse outcome pathway (qAOP) where serum thyroxin (T4) reduction following inhibition of thyroperoxidase in the thyroid gland are described and related to deficits in fetal brain TH and the development of a brain malformation, subcortical band heterotopia...
August 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937689/endocrine-disruptors-flame-retardants-and-increased-risk-of-thyroid-cancer
#4
Bilal B Mughal, Barbara A Demeneix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934726/application-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-to-u-s-epa-s-endocrine-disruptor-screening-program
#5
REVIEW
Patience Browne, Pamela D Noyes, Warren M Casey, David J Dix
BACKGROUND: The U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) screens and tests environmental chemicals for potential effects in estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone pathways, and it is one of the only regulatory programs designed around chemical mode of action. OBJECTIVES: This review describes the EDSP's use of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) and toxicity pathway frameworks to organize and integrate diverse biological data for evaluating the endocrine activity of chemicals...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895797/neuroendocrine-disruption-of-organizational-and-activational-hormone-programming-in-poikilothermic-vertebrates
#6
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Nancy D Denslow, Edward F Orlando, Juan Manuel Gutierrez-Villagomez, Vance L Trudeau
In vertebrates, sexual differentiation of the reproductive system and brain is tightly orchestrated by organizational and activational effects of endogenous hormones. In mammals and birds, the organizational period is typified by a surge of sex hormones during differentiation of specific neural circuits; whereas activational effects are dependent upon later increases in these same hormones at sexual maturation. Depending on the reproductive organ or brain region, initial programming events may be modulated by androgens or require conversion of androgens to estrogens...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879804/evaluation-of-the-endocrine-disrupting-effects-of-homosalate-hms-and-2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate-od-paba-in-rat-pups-during-the-prenatal-lactation-and-early-postnatal-periods
#7
Meltem Erol, Ismet Çok, Özlem Bostan Gayret, Pembegül Günes, Özgül Yigit, Elif Sayman, Aysegül Günes, Duygu Sultan Çelik, Sahin Hamilçikan, Serdar Altinay, Oya Ercan
Homosalate (HMS) and 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA) are ultraviolet filters. We aimed to investigate the effects of dermal exposure to HMS and OD-PABA during the prenatal, lactation, and early infancy periods on pubertal development and thyroid function in male and female rats. The thyroid glands, uteri, testes, prostate glands, and seminal vesicles were excised and weighed, the reproductive organs were analyzed histologically, and the serum hormone levels were measured. In the prenatal period, the thyroxine (T4) levels increased in the female rats in the exposed groups ( p < 0...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859501/is-there-a-hormonal-regulation-of-phagocytosis-at-unicellular-and-multicellular-levels-a-critical-review
#8
György Csaba
Phagocytosis is an ancient cell function, which is similar at unicellular and multicellular levels. Unicells synthesize, store, and secrete multicellular (mammalian) hormones, which influence their phagocytosis. Amino acid hormones, such as histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and melatonin stimulate phagocytosis, whereas peptide hormones, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin, opioids, arginine vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic peptide decreased it, independently on their chemical structure or function in multicellulars...
September 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857258/summary-of-the-development-the-us-environmental-protection-agency-s-medaka-extended-one-generation-reproduction-test-meogrt-using-data-from-9-multigenerational-medaka-tests
#9
Kevin Flynn, Doug Lothenbach, Frank Whiteman, Dean Hammermeister, Leslie W Touart, Joe Swintek, Norihisa Tatarazako, Yuta Onishi, Taisen Iguchi, Rodney Johnson
In response to various legislative mandates, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) formed its Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), which in turn, formed the basis of a tiered testing strategy to determine the potential of pesticides, commercial chemicals, and environmental contaminants to disrupt the endocrine system. The first tier of tests is intended to detect the potential for endocrine disruption mediated through estrogen, androgen, or thyroid pathways, whereas the second tier is intended to further characterize the effects on these pathways and to establish a dose-response relationship for adverse effects...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813693/thyrotoxicity-of-arsenate-and-arsenite-on-juvenile-mice-at-organism-subcellular-and-gene-levels-under-low-exposure
#10
Hong-Jie Sun, Shi-Wei Li, Chao Li, Wen-Qian Wang, Hong-Bo Li, Lena Q Ma
Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a worldwide issue, posing threat to human health. Arsenic is an endocrine system disruptor, however, limited information is available regarding its long-term effects on thyroid endocrine system at low exposure. In this study, we assessed the thyroid toxicity of arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII) at 10-100 μg L(-1) in juvenile mice after 8-week of exposure via drinking water. After 1-2 week, AsV and AsIII had little influence on thyroxine (T4) level (56.3-64.7 μg L(-1)) in mouse blood compared to control mice at 57...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774778/frontiers-in-endocrine-disruption-impacts-of-organotin-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#11
REVIEW
Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Marcelle Novaes Andrade, Paula Pereira-Rodrigues, Francisca Diana Paiva-Melo, Paula Soares, Jones Bernardes Graceli, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock Dias, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Leandro Miranda-Alves
Endocrine disruptors (EDs), chemical substances widely used in industry and ubiquitously distributed in the environment, are able to interfere with the synthesis, release, transport, metabolism, receptor binding, action, or elimination of endogenous hormones. EDs affect homeostasis mainly by acting on nuclear and nonnuclear steroid receptors but also on serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and orphan receptors in addition to thyroid hormone receptors. Tributyltin (TBT), an ED widely used as a pesticide and biocide in antifouling paints, has well-documented actions that include inhibiting aromatase and affecting the nuclear receptors PPARγ and RXR...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739643/histone-methyltransferase-dot1l-is-a-coactivator-for-thyroid-hormone-receptor-during-xenopus-development
#12
Luan Wen, Liezhen Fu, Yun-Bo Shi
Histone modifications are associated with transcriptional regulation by diverse transcription factors. Genome-wide correlation studies have revealed that histone activation marks and repression marks are associated with activated and repressed gene expression, respectively. Among the histone activation marks is histone H3 K79 methylation, which is carried out by only a single methyltransferase, disruptor of telomeric silencing-1-like (DOT1L). We have been studying thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent amphibian metamorphosis in two highly related species, the pseudo-tetraploid Xenopus laevis and diploid Xenopus tropicalis, as a model for postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals that is difficult to study...
July 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668442/resveratrol-has-anti-thyroid-effects-both-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#13
Cesidio Giuliani, Manuela Iezzi, Laura Ciolli, Alba Hysi, Ines Bucci, Serena Di Santo, Cosmo Rossi, Mirco Zucchelli, Giorgio Napolitano
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. We have shown previously that resveratrol decreases sodium/iodide symporter expression and iodide uptake in thyrocytes, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of resveratrol, with evaluation of the expression of additional thyroid-specific genes in the FRTL-5 rat thyroid cell line: thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, TSH receptor, Nkx2-1, Foxe1 and Pax8. We observed decreased expression of these genes in FRTL-5 cells treated with 10 μM resveratrol...
September 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662416/a-multi-tiered-in-vivo-quantitative-assay-suite-for-environmental-disruptors-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling
#14
Brenda J Mengeling, Yuzhu Wei, Lucia N Dobrawa, Mischa Streekstra, Jochem Louisse, Vikrant Singh, Latika Singh, Pamela J Lein, Heike Wulff, Albertinka J Murk, J David Furlow
The essential role of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in mammalian development warrants the examination of man-made chemicals for its disruption. Among vertebrate species, the molecular components of TH signaling are highly conserved, including the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), their heterodimer binding partners the retinoid-X receptors (RXRs), and their DNA recognition sequences (TREs). This molecular conservation allows examination of potential TH disruption in the tractable, in vivo model system of amphibian metamorphosis...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634053/using-short-term-bioassays-to-evaluate-the-endocrine-disrupting-capacity-of-the-pesticides-linuron-and-fenoxycarb
#15
Petra Spirhanzlova, Bert De Groef, Freda E Nicholson, Sylvia V H Grommen, Giulia Marras, Anthony Sébillot, Barbara A Demeneix, Sophie Pallud-Mothré, Gregory F Lemkine, Andrew J Tindall, David Du Pasquier
Several short-term whole-organism bioassays based on transgenic aquatic models are now under validation by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) to become standardized test guidelines for the evaluation of the endocrine activity of substances. Evaluation of the endocrine disrupting capacity of pesticides will be a domain of applicability of these future reference tests. The herbicide linuron and the insecticide fenoxycarb are two chemicals commonly used in agricultural practices...
June 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632039/thiocyanate-a-review-and-evaluation-of-the-kinetics-and-the-modes-of-action-for-thyroid-hormone-perturbations
#16
REVIEW
Marie-Emilie Willemin, Annie Lumen
Exposure of the population to thiocyanate is predominantly through the diet and cigarette smoke. Thiocyanate is a potential thyroid disruptor due to its capacity to inhibit the uptake of iodide by the thyroid. Thiocyanate also interacts with the enzymatic reactions associated with iodide organification and thyroid hormone synthesis. Quantification of the dose-response relationships of thiocyanate and alteration in thyroid hormone levels is important for evaluating the risk of exposure to thiocyanate in humans...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569618/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-triclosan-on-reproductive-and-thyroid-endpoints-in-the-adult-wistar-female-rat
#17
Gwendolyn W Louis, Daniel R Hallinger, M Janay Braxton, Alaa Kamel, Tammy E Stoker
Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor in the rat. Previously, subchronic TCS treatment to female rats was found to advance puberty and potentiate the effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth when EE and TCS were co-administered prior to weaning. In the pubertal study, a decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations with no significant change in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was also observed. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize the influence of TCS on the reproductive and thyroid axes of the female rat using a chronic exposure regimen...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545819/comparative-approaches-to-understanding-thyroid-hormone-regulation-of-neurogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Jean-David Gothié, Barbara Demeneix, Sylvie Remaud
Thyroid hormone (TH) signalling, an evolutionary conserved pathway, is crucial for brain function and cognition throughout life, from early development to ageing. In humans, TH deficiency during pregnancy alters offspring brain development, increasing the risk of cognitive disorders. How TH regulates neurogenesis and subsequent behaviour and cognitive functions remains a major research challenge. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TH signalling on proliferation, survival, determination, migration, differentiation and maturation have been studied in mammalian animal models for over a century...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521160/evidence-for-bisphenol-a-induced-disruption-of-maternal-thyroid-homeostasis-in-the-pregnant-ewe-at-low-level-representative-of-human-exposure
#19
Davy Guignard, Véronique Gayrard, Marlène Z Lacroix, Sylvie Puel, Nicole Picard-Hagen, Catherine Viguié
Many uncertainties remain regarding the potential of bisphenol A (BPA) as a thyroid disruptor in mammals and the relevance of experimental data to humans. The relevance of the exposure schemes used in experimental in vivo studies is also a major source of uncertainty when analysing the risk of BPA exposure for human health. In this context, the goals of our study, conducted in an ovine model relevant to human gestation and thyroid physiologies, were to: 1) determine the equivalence of subcutaneous and dietary exposures and 2) determine if environmentally relevant doses of BPA can alter gestational and newborn thyroid functions...
September 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454037/agricultural-expansion-as-risk-to-endangered-wildlife-pesticide-exposure-in-wild-chimpanzees-and-baboons-displaying-facial-dysplasia
#20
Sabrina Krief, Philippe Berny, Francis Gumisiriza, Régine Gross, Barbara Demeneix, Jean Baptiste Fini, Colin A Chapman, Lauren J Chapman, Andrew Seguya, John Wasswa
Prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can affect development and induce irreversible abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. The northern part of Kibale National Park, a mid-altitude rainforest in western Uganda, is largely surrounded by industrial tea plantations and wildlife using this area (Sebitoli) must cope with proximity to human populations and their activities. The chimpanzees and baboons in this area raid crops (primarily maize) in neighboring gardens. Sixteen young individuals of the 66 chimpanzees monitored (25%) exhibit abnormalities including reduced nostrils, cleft lip, limb deformities, reproductive problems and hypopigmentation...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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