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Thyroid disruptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611697/high-throughput-screening-and-quantitative-chemical-ranking-for-sodium-iodide-symporter-nis-inhibitors-in-toxcast-phase-i-chemical-library
#1
Jun Wang, Daniel Hallinger, Ashley Murr, Angela Buckalew, Steven O'Neal Simmons, Susan C Laws, Tammy Stoker
Thyroid uptake of iodide via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is the first step in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones that are critical for health and development in humans and wildlife. Despite having long been a known target of endocrine disrupting chemicals such as perchlorate, information regarding NIS inhibition activity is still unavailable for the vast majority of environmental chemicals. This study applied a previously validated high-throughput approach to screen for NIS inhibitors in the ToxCast phase I library, representing 293 important environmental chemicals...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596886/environmental-and-occupational-exposure-to-resorcinol-in-finland
#2
Simo P Porras, Minna Hartonen, Katriina Ylinen, Jarkko Tornaeus, Tapani Tuomi, Tiina Santonen
Resorcinol is a suspected endocrine disruptor that affects thyroid function by inhibiting thyroxin peroxidase. It may also have an impact on iodine uptake. Resorcinol has various uses; for example in the manufacture of rubber products and in wood adhesives, flame retardants, UV stabilizers, and dyes. It is also used in personal care products such as hair colorants, anti-acne preparations, and peels. The aim of this study was to assess both environmental background exposure and occupational exposure to resorcinol in Finland...
March 26, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569622/global-epidemiology-of-hyperthyroidism-and-hypothyroidism
#3
REVIEW
Peter N Taylor, Diana Albrecht, Anna Scholz, Gala Gutierrez-Buey, John H Lazarus, Colin M Dayan, Onyebuchi E Okosieme
Thyroid hormones are essential for growth, neuronal development, reproduction and regulation of energy metabolism. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are common conditions with potentially devastating health consequences that affect all populations worldwide. Iodine nutrition is a key determinant of thyroid disease risk; however, other factors, such as ageing, smoking status, genetic susceptibility, ethnicity, endocrine disruptors and the advent of novel therapeutics, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, also influence thyroid disease epidemiology...
March 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529566/determining-the-presence-of-chemicals-with-suspected-endocrine-activity-in-drinking-water-from-the-madrid-region-spain-and-assessment-of-their-estrogenic-androgenic-and-thyroidal-activities
#4
Y Valcárcel, A Valdehíta, E Becerra, M López de Alda, A Gil, M Gorga, M Petrovic, D Barceló, J M Navas
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are natural or man-made chemicals that can affect the health of organisms by interfering with their normal hormonal functions. Many of these substances can cause their effects at very low doses and, considering the key role played by the endocrine system on development, organisms in early phases of growth (foetal, childhood, puberty) are especially sensitive to the action of EDs. In addition, when combined, they can show additive, antagonistic and synergistic activities. Taking all this into account it is essential to determine the presence of this kind of compounds in drinking water...
February 22, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500802/sex-differences-in-the-production-of-slc5a5-thyroid-peroxidase-and-thyroid-hormones-in-pubertal-rats-exposed-to-endocrine-disruptor-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-ddt-during-postnatal-ontogeny
#5
N V Yaglova, Yu P Sledneva, S V Nazimova, S S Obernikhin, V V Yaglov
Sex differences in the expression of iodide transporter SLC5A5 and thyroid peroxidase in thyroid follicular epithelium and thyroid serum profile were assessed in pubertal rats exposed to endocrine disruptor DDT starting from the first postnatal day. It was found that exposure to DDT reduced expression of SLC5A5 in peripheral regions of thyroid lobes in males and in central regions in females. The most pronounced sex differences were observed in thyroid peroxidase expression that remained sensitive to thyroid stimulating hormone regulation in males and lost sensitivity to pituitary stimulation in females after exposure to disruptor, which determines more pronounced hypothyroidism in females...
March 3, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494771/nitrate-an-environmental-endocrine-disruptor-a-review-of-evidence-and-research-needs
#6
Rikke Poulsen, Nina Cedergreen, Tyrone Hayes, Martin Hansen
Nitrate is heavily used as an agricultural fertilizer and is today a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Environmental endocrine effects caused by nitrate have received increasing attention over the last 15 years. Nitrate is hypothesized to interfere with thyroid and steroid hormone homeostasis and developmental and reproductive end points. The current review focuses on aquatic ecotoxicology with emphasis on field and laboratory controlled in vitro and in vivo studies. Furthermore, nitrate is just one of several forms of nitrogen that is present in the environment and many of these are quickly interconvertible...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491215/cigarette-smoke-extract-disrupts-transcriptional-activities-mediated-by-thyroid-hormones-and-its-receptors
#7
Misa Hayashi, Kumi Futawaka, Midori Matsushita, Mayuko Hatai, Noriko Yoshikawa, Kazuki Nakamura, Tetsuya Tagami, Kenji Moriyama
Cigarette smoke contains over 4800 compounds, including at least 200 toxicants or endocrine disruptors. Currently, effects of cigarette smoke on thyroid hormone (TH) levels remains to be clarified. Here, we demonstrate that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) possesses thyroid hormone properties and acts synergistically as a partial agonist for thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in the presence of TH. In transient gene expression experiments, CSE stimulated transcriptional activity with TH in a dose-dependent manner...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462796/p38-trhr-dependent-regulation-of-tpo-in-thyroid-cells-contributes-to-the-hypothyroidism-of-triclosan-treated-rats
#8
Pei Zhang, Min Yang, Li Zeng, Changjiang Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Triclosan, as an antimicrobial agent and a potential endocrine disruptor, has been used extensively in diverse products, resulting in widespread human exposure. In recent years, studies suggest that triclosan could disturb thyroid functions and decline thyroid hormones (THs). METHODS: To verify our hypothesis that the MAPK pathway may function significantly in triclosan-induced hypothyroidism, Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with triclosan for 31 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with triclosan in the presence/absence of NAC, inhibitors (SB203580 and SB202474), or TRHr siRNA...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409581/endocrine-disruption-activity-of-30-day-dietary-exposure-to-decabromodiphenyl-ethane-in-balb-c-mouse
#9
Ru Bao Sun, Shuai Shang, Wei Zhang, Ben Cheng Lin, Qiang Wang, Yun Shi, Zhu Ge Xi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxicity, metabolic disturbance activity and endocrine disrupting activity of mice treated by Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). METHODS: In this study, Balb/C mice were treated orally by gavage with various doses of DBDPE. After 30 days of treatment, mice were sacrificed; blood, livers and thyroid glands were obtained, and hepatic microsomes were isolated. Biochemical parameters including 8 clinical chemistry parameters, blood glucose and hormone levels including insulin and thyroid hormone were assayed...
January 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407805/tetrabromobisphenol-a-caused-neurodevelopmental-toxicity-via-disrupting-thyroid-hormones-in-zebrafish-larvae
#10
Biran Zhu, Gang Zhao, Lihua Yang, Bingsheng Zhou
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), has resulted in worldwide environmental contamination. TBBPA has been reported as a thyroid endocrine disruptor and a potential neurotoxicant. However, the underlying mechanism is still not clear. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (2 h post-fertilization, hpf) were exposed to different concentrations of TBBPA (50, 100, 200 and 400 μg/L) alone or in combination with 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3, 20 μg/L + TBBPA, 200 μg/L)...
February 1, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360537/photoprotection-of-ultraviolet-b-filters-updated-review-of-endocrine-disrupting-properties
#11
REVIEW
Margarida Lorigo, Melissa Mariana, Elisa Cairrao
The Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is emitted by the sun and is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. There are three types of UV rays (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C), however only UV-A and UV-B have biologic effects in humans, with UV-B radiation being primarily responsible for these effects. Among the measures of photoprotection advised by the health authorities, the topical application of sunscreens (containing UV-B filters) is the preferred worldwide. Currently, octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) is the most commonly used UV-B filter in sunscreens...
March 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194390/thyroid-disrupting-chemicals
#12
REVIEW
Valeria Calsolaro, Giuseppe Pasqualetti, Filippo Niccolai, Nadia Caraccio, Fabio Monzani
Endocrine disruptor compounds are exogenous agents able to interfere with a gland function, exerting their action across different functional passages, from the synthesis to the metabolism and binding to receptors of the hormone produced. Several issues, such as different levels and time of exposure and different action across different ages as well as gender, make the study of endocrine disruptors still a challenge. The thyroid is very sensitive to the action of disruptors, and considering the importance of a correct thyroid function for physical and cognitive functioning, addressing this topic should be considered a priority...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139221/evaluation-of-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis-function-by-chronic-perchlorate-exposure-in-male-rats
#13
Caroline Serrano-Nascimento, Jamile Calil-Silveira, Rafael Dalbosco, Telma Tenorio Zorn, Maria Tereza Nunes
Perchlorate is a widespread endocrine disruptor that was previously correlated with increased serum TSH levels and decreased thyroid hormones production both in animals and humans. Even so, the regulation of gene/protein expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid by chronic perchlorate exposure was not completely elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the disruption of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis by chronic perchlorate exposure. Male Wistar rats were treated or not with NaClO4 in the drinking water (35 mg/Kg/day) for 60 days...
February 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128804/hexachlorobenzene-as-a-persistent-organic-pollutant-toxicity-and-molecular-mechanism-of-action
#14
REVIEW
Beata Starek-Świechowicz, Bogusława Budziszewska, Andrzej Starek
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide widely distributed in the environment. Chronic exposure of humans to HCB leads to a number of effects, such as triggering of porphyria, microsomal enzyme induction, thyroid dysfunctions, neurological symptoms, and immunological disorders. In animals, HCB induced hepatic porphyria, neurotoxic effects, and toxic effects on the thyroid function, reproductive system, and immune system. HCB as a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a hormonal disruptor...
December 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107228/comparison-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-bioassays-to-measure-thyroid-hormone-disrupting-activity-in-water-extracts
#15
Frederic D L Leusch, Natalie H Aneck-Hahn, Jo-Anne E Cavanagh, David Du Pasquier, Timo Hamers, Armelle Hebert, Peta A Neale, Marco Scheurer, Steven O Simmons, Merijn Schriks
Environmental chemicals can induce thyroid disruption through a number of mechanisms including altered thyroid hormone biosynthesis and transport, as well as activation and inhibition of the thyroid receptor. In the current study six in vitro bioassays indicative of different mechanisms of thyroid disruption and one whole animal in vivo assay were applied to 9 model compounds and 4 different water samples (treated wastewater, surface water, drinking water and ultra-pure lab water; both unspiked and spiked with model compounds) to determine their ability to detect thyroid active compounds...
January 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101780/thyroid-disrupting-effects-of-halogenated-and-next-generation-chemicals-on-the-swim-bladder-development-of-zebrafish
#16
Amy Godfrey, Blair Hooser, Ahmed Abdelmoneim, Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freemanc, Maria S Sepúlveda
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter thyroid function and adversely affect growth and development. Halogenated compounds, such as perfluorinated chemicals commonly used in food packaging, and brominated flame retardants used in a broad range of products from clothing to electronics, can act as thyroid disruptors. Due to the adverse effects of these compounds, there is a need for the development of safer next generation chemicals. The objective of this study was to test the thyroid disruption potential of old use and next generation halogenated chemicals...
December 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078070/endocrine-disruptors-affect-larval-zebrafish-behavior-testing-potential-mechanisms-and-comparisons-of-behavioral-sensitivity-to-alternative-biomarkers
#17
Thomas W K Fraser, Abdolrahman Khezri, Anna M Lewandowska-Sabat, Theodore Henry, Erik Ropstad
Larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a tool for assessing endocrine disruption during early development. Here, we investigated the extent to which a simple light/dark behavioral test at five days post fertilization could compliment current methods within the field. We exposed fertilized embryos to hormones (17β-estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, progesterone, and hydrocortisone) and other relevant compounds (17α ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, bisphenol S, nonylphenol, flutamide, nilutamide, linuron, drospirenone, potassium perchlorate, mifepristone, and fadrozole) to screen for behavioral effects between 96 and 118h post fertilization (hpf)...
December 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040951/perfluoroalkyl-substances-bone-density-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-obese-8-12-year-old-children-a-pilot-study
#18
Naila Khalil, James R Ebert, Masato Honda, Miryoung Lee, Ramzi W Nahhas, Antti Koskela, Thomas Hangartner, Kurunthachalam Kannan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), have been associated with adverse bone, and metabolic changes in adults. However association of PFASs with bone health in children is understudied. Considering their role as endocrine disruptors, we examined relationships of four PFASs with bone health in children. METHODS: In a cross sectional pilot study, 48 obese children aged 8-12 years were enrolled from Dayton's Children Hospital, Ohio...
January 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993267/on-selecting-a-minimal-set-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-assays-to-reliably-determine-estrogen-agonist-activity
#19
Richard S Judson, Keith A Houck, Eric D Watt, Russell S Thomas
The US EPA is charged with screening chemicals for their ability to be endocrine disruptors through interaction with the estrogen, androgen and thyroid axes. The agency is exploring the use of high-throughput in vitro assays to use in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), potentially as replacements for lower-throughput in vitro and in vivo tests. The first replacement is an integrated computational and experimental model for estrogen receptor (ER) activity, to be used as an alternative to the EDSP Tier 1 in vitro ER binding and transactivation assays and the in vivo uterotrophic bioassay...
October 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987779/thyroid-hormone-and-estrogen-receptor-interactions-with-natural-ligands-and-endocrine-disruptors-in-the-cerebellum
#20
REVIEW
Attila Zsarnovszky, David Kiss, Gergely Jocsak, Gabor Nemeth, Istvan Toth, Tamas L Horvath
Although the effects of phytoestrogens on brain function is widely unknown, they are often regarded as "natural" and thus as harmless. However, the effects of phytoestrogens or environmental pollutants on brain function is underestimated. Estrogen (17beta-estradiol, E2) and thyroid hormones (THs) play pivotal roles in brain development. In the mature brain, these hormones regulate metabolism on cellular and organismal levels. Thus, E2 and THs do not only regulate the energy metabolism of the entire organism, but simultaneously also regulate important homeostatic parameters of neurons and glia in the CNS...
January 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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