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Thyroid disruptors

Leah M Thornton, Elise M Path, Gunnar S Nystrom, Barney J Venables, Marlo K Sellin Jeffries
Exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to alter immune function in adult organisms across a variety of taxa. However, few if any studies have investigated the long-term consequences of early life stage PBDE exposures on immune function in fish. This study sought to determine the effects of early life stage BDE-47 exposure on pathogen resistance in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) following an extended depuration period (≥180 d). Minnows were exposed to BDE-47 via a combination of maternal transfer and diet through 34 days post fertilization (dpf), raised to adulthood (>215 dpf) on a clean diet, then subjected to pathogen resistance trials...
May 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Reiko Kishi, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Itoh, Machiko Minatoya, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Keiko Yamazaki, Yu Ait Bamai, Ryu Miura, Naomi Tamura
Since "Our Stolen Future" by Theo Colborn was published in 1996, global interest on the impact of chemical substances, such as the endocrine-disrupting action of chemicals, has increased. In Japan, "The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health: Malformation, Development and Allergy" was launched in 2001. It was a model of Japan Environment and Children's Study of the Ministry of the Environment. In a large-scale, Hokkaido cohort, we obtained the consent of 20,926 mothers at the organogenesis stage with the cooperation of 37 obstetrics clinics in Hokkaido...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Olulope Ajayi, Mabel Charles-Davies, John Anetor, Adeyinka Ademola
Breast cancer is broadly sub-divided into hormone responsive and non-hormone responsive subtypes. Estradiol has been associated with hormone responsive breast cancers. There is, however, a paucity of information on the role of sex hormones, gonadotropins, and thyroid hormone in non-hormone responsive breast cancer. This study aimed to determine differences in the serum levels of sex hormones, gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, and endocrine disruptors (lead, cadmium, and arsenic) in Nigerian women with hormone responsive and non-hormone responsive breast cancers...
May 18, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Aleksandra Buha, Vesna Matovic, Biljana Antonijevic, Zorica Bulat, Marijana Curcic, Elisavet A Renieri, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Amie Schweitzer, David Wallace
Humans are exposed to a significant number of chemicals that are suspected to produce disturbances in hormone homeostasis. Hence, in recent decades, there has been a growing interest in endocrine disruptive chemicals. One of the alleged thyroid disrupting substances is cadmium (Cd), a ubiquitous toxic metal shown to act as a thyroid disruptor and carcinogen in both animals and humans. Multiple PubMed searches with core keywords were performed to identify and evaluate appropriate studies which revealed literature suggesting evidence for the link between exposure to Cd and histological and metabolic changes in the thyroid gland...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Randi Grønnestad, Gro D Villanger, Anuschka Polder, Kit M Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Bjørn M Jenssen, Katrine Borgå
There is a general lack of information on the possible effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on thyroid hormones (THs) in wildlife species. The effects of PFASs, which are known endocrine disruptors, on the TH homeostasis in hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have yet to be investigated. Previously, correlations were found between plasma thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in hooded seals, and organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and hydroxyl (OH)-metabolites. Because animals are exposed to multiple contaminants simultaneously in nature, the effects of the complex contaminant mixtures that they accumulate should be assessed...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jun Wang, Daniel R Hallinger, Ashley S Murr, Angela R Buckalew, Steven O Simmons, Susan C Laws, Tammy E Stoker
Thyroid uptake of iodide via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is the first step in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones that are critical for health and development in humans and wildlife. Despite having long been a known target of endocrine disrupting chemicals such as perchlorate, information regarding NIS inhibition activity is still unavailable for the vast majority of environmental chemicals. This study applied a previously validated high-throughput approach to screen for NIS inhibitors in the ToxCast phase I library, representing 293 important environmental chemicals...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Simo P Porras, Minna Hartonen, Katriina Ylinen, Jarkko Tornaeus, Tapani Tuomi, Tiina Santonen
Resorcinol is a suspected endocrine disruptor that affects thyroid function by inhibiting thyroxin peroxidase. It may also have an impact on iodine uptake. Resorcinol has various uses; for example in the manufacture of rubber products and in wood adhesives, flame retardants, UV stabilizers, and dyes. It is also used in personal care products such as hair colorants, anti-acne preparations, and peels. The aim of this study was to assess both environmental background exposure and occupational exposure to resorcinol in Finland...
March 27, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Peter N Taylor, Diana Albrecht, Anna Scholz, Gala Gutierrez-Buey, John H Lazarus, Colin M Dayan, Onyebuchi E Okosieme
Thyroid hormones are essential for growth, neuronal development, reproduction and regulation of energy metabolism. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are common conditions with potentially devastating health consequences that affect all populations worldwide. Iodine nutrition is a key determinant of thyroid disease risk; however, other factors, such as ageing, smoking status, genetic susceptibility, ethnicity, endocrine disruptors and the advent of novel therapeutics, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, also influence thyroid disease epidemiology...
May 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Y Valcárcel, A Valdehíta, E Becerra, M López de Alda, A Gil, M Gorga, M Petrovic, D Barceló, J M Navas
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are natural or man-made chemicals that can affect the health of organisms by interfering with their normal hormonal functions. Many of these substances can cause their effects at very low doses and, considering the key role played by the endocrine system on development, organisms in early phases of growth (foetal, childhood, puberty) are especially sensitive to the action of EDs. In addition, when combined, they can show additive, antagonistic and synergistic activities. Taking all this into account it is essential to determine the presence of this kind of compounds in drinking water...
June 2018: Chemosphere
N V Yaglova, Yu P Sledneva, S V Nazimova, S S Obernikhin, V V Yaglov
Sex differences in the expression of iodide transporter SLC5A5 and thyroid peroxidase in thyroid follicular epithelium and thyroid serum profile were assessed in pubertal rats exposed to endocrine disruptor DDT starting from the first postnatal day. It was found that exposure to DDT reduced expression of SLC5A5 in peripheral regions of thyroid lobes in males and in central regions in females. The most pronounced sex differences were observed in thyroid peroxidase expression that remained sensitive to thyroid stimulating hormone regulation in males and lost sensitivity to pituitary stimulation in females after exposure to disruptor, which determines more pronounced hypothyroidism in females...
March 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Rikke Poulsen, Nina Cedergreen, Tyrone Hayes, Martin Hansen
Nitrate is heavily used as an agricultural fertilizer and is today a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Environmental endocrine effects caused by nitrate have received increasing attention over the last 15 years. Nitrate is hypothesized to interfere with thyroid and steroid hormone homeostasis and developmental and reproductive end points. The current review focuses on aquatic ecotoxicology with emphasis on field and laboratory controlled in vitro and in vivo studies. Furthermore, nitrate is just one of several forms of nitrogen that is present in the environment and many of these are quickly interconvertible...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Misa Hayashi, Kumi Futawaka, Midori Matsushita, Mayuko Hatai, Noriko Yoshikawa, Kazuki Nakamura, Tetsuya Tagami, Kenji Moriyama
Cigarette smoke contains over 4800 compounds, including at least 200 toxicants or endocrine disruptors. Currently, effects of cigarette smoke on thyroid hormone (TH) levels remains to be clarified. Here, we demonstrate that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) possesses thyroid hormone properties and acts synergistically as a partial agonist for thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in the presence of TH. In transient gene expression experiments, CSE stimulated transcriptional activity with TH in a dose-dependent manner...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Pei Zhang, Min Yang, Li Zeng, Changjiang Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Triclosan, as an antimicrobial agent and a potential endocrine disruptor, has been used extensively in diverse products, resulting in widespread human exposure. In recent years, studies suggest that triclosan could disturb thyroid functions and decline thyroid hormones (THs). METHODS: To verify our hypothesis that the MAPK pathway may function significantly in triclosan-induced hypothyroidism, Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with triclosan for 31 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with triclosan in the presence/absence of NAC, inhibitors (SB203580 and SB202474), or TRHr siRNA...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ru Bao Sun, Shuai Shang, Wei Zhang, Ben Cheng Lin, Qiang Wang, Yun Shi, Zhu Ge Xi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxicity, metabolic disturbance activity and endocrine disrupting activity of mice treated by Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). METHODS: In this study, Balb/C mice were treated orally by gavage with various doses of DBDPE. After 30 days of treatment, mice were sacrificed; blood, livers and thyroid glands were obtained, and hepatic microsomes were isolated. Biochemical parameters including 8 clinical chemistry parameters, blood glucose and hormone levels including insulin and thyroid hormone were assayed...
January 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Biran Zhu, Gang Zhao, Lihua Yang, Bingsheng Zhou
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), has resulted in worldwide environmental contamination. TBBPA has been reported as a thyroid endocrine disruptor and a potential neurotoxicant. However, the underlying mechanism is still not clear. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (2 h post-fertilization, hpf) were exposed to different concentrations of TBBPA (50, 100, 200 and 400 μg/L) alone or in combination with 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3, 20 μg/L + TBBPA, 200 μg/L)...
April 2018: Chemosphere
Margarida Lorigo, Melissa Mariana, Elisa Cairrao
The Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is emitted by the sun and is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. There are three types of UV rays (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C), however only UV-A and UV-B have biologic effects in humans, with UV-B radiation being primarily responsible for these effects. Among the measures of photoprotection advised by the health authorities, the topical application of sunscreens (containing UV-B filters) is the preferred worldwide. Currently, octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) is the most commonly used UV-B filter in sunscreens...
March 2018: Steroids
Valeria Calsolaro, Giuseppe Pasqualetti, Filippo Niccolai, Nadia Caraccio, Fabio Monzani
Endocrine disruptor compounds are exogenous agents able to interfere with a gland function, exerting their action across different functional passages, from the synthesis to the metabolism and binding to receptors of the hormone produced. Several issues, such as different levels and time of exposure and different action across different ages as well as gender, make the study of endocrine disruptors still a challenge. The thyroid is very sensitive to the action of disruptors, and considering the importance of a correct thyroid function for physical and cognitive functioning, addressing this topic should be considered a priority...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Caroline Serrano-Nascimento, Jamile Calil-Silveira, Rafael Dalbosco, Telma Tenorio Zorn, Maria Tereza Nunes
Perchlorate is a widespread endocrine disruptor that was previously correlated with increased serum TSH levels and decreased thyroid hormones production both in animals and humans. Even so, the regulation of gene/protein expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid by chronic perchlorate exposure was not completely elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the disruption of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis by chronic perchlorate exposure. Male Wistar rats were treated or not with NaClO4 in the drinking water (35 mg/Kg/day) for 60 days...
February 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Beata Starek-Świechowicz, Bogusława Budziszewska, Andrzej Starek
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide widely distributed in the environment. Chronic exposure of humans to HCB leads to a number of effects, such as triggering of porphyria, microsomal enzyme induction, thyroid dysfunctions, neurological symptoms, and immunological disorders. In animals, HCB induced hepatic porphyria, neurotoxic effects, and toxic effects on the thyroid function, reproductive system, and immune system. HCB as a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a hormonal disruptor...
December 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Frederic D L Leusch, Natalie H Aneck-Hahn, Jo-Anne E Cavanagh, David Du Pasquier, Timo Hamers, Armelle Hebert, Peta A Neale, Marco Scheurer, Steven O Simmons, Merijn Schriks
Environmental chemicals can induce thyroid disruption through a number of mechanisms including altered thyroid hormone biosynthesis and transport, as well as activation and inhibition of the thyroid receptor. In the current study six in vitro bioassays indicative of different mechanisms of thyroid disruption and one whole animal in vivo assay were applied to 9 model compounds and 4 different water samples (treated wastewater, surface water, drinking water and ultra-pure lab water; both unspiked and spiked with model compounds) to determine their ability to detect thyroid active compounds...
January 2018: Chemosphere
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