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Mitchell E Menezes, Sarmistha Talukdar, Stephen L Wechman, Swadesh K Das, Luni Emdad, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
The incidence of melanoma has continued to increase over the past 30 years. Hence, developing effective therapies to treat both primary and metastatic melanoma are essential. While advances in targeted therapy and immunotherapy have provided novel therapeutic options to treat melanoma, gene therapy may provide additional strategies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma clinically. This review focuses upon the challenges and opportunities that gene therapy provides for targeting melanoma. We begin with a discussion of the various gene therapy targets which are relevant to melanoma...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Stuart Kyle
Affimer proteins can bind to a wide variety of target molecules. They can complement and represent a promising alternative to conventional antibodies as they can target molecules with high affinity, specificity, and stability. In addition, they can be selected and expressed in bacterial and mammalian systems. Affimer protein technology shows promise as a tool in the biologist's arsenal of the future in imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications.
March 14, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Chen Fu, Chizhu Ding, Xianchao Sun, Ailing Fu
Nanotechnology plays an important role in the development of drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis. In this study, nanocapsules containing protein-functionalized gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) as the shell and hydrophobic drug curcumin as the core were prepared as a tumor cell theranostic agent. After the nanocapsules were added into tumor cell media, they entered the cells with high efficiency and exhibited strong fluorescence within the cells. The results indicated that the nanocapsules were broken up in the cells and curcumin was released...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Chenglin Yan, Yuanyuan Wang, Qiwei Tian, Huixia Wu, Shiping Yang
Cancer theranostics agents, such as gold nanorods, represent great potential in cancer therapy. However, the big size and the low yield of the gold nanorods reported previously have limited their clinical translation. Therefore, it is significant to develop a new method to prepare the small gold nanorods (width <8 nm) at larger scale. In this report, a modified seedless method was proposed based on the effect of precursor concentration assisted synthesis of high quality small gold nanorods at large scale...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Radosław Mrówczyński, Artur Jędrzak, Kosma Szutkowski, Bartosz F Grześkowiak, Emerson Coy, Roksana Markiewicz, Teofil Jesionowski, Stefan Jurga
Polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin (SH-βCD) were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR and MRI), and doxorubicin (DOXO)-loading experiments. The liver cancer cellular internalization of DOXO-loaded nanoparticles was investigated by confocal imaging microscopy. Synthesized nanomaterials bearing a chemotherapeutic drug and a layer of polydopamine capable of absorbing near-infrared light show high performance in the combined chemo- and photothermal therapy (CT-PTT) of liver cancer due to the synergistic effect of both modalities as demonstrated in vitro...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Barbara Bassi, Giacomo Dacarro, Pietro Galinetto, Enrico Giulotto, Nicoletta Marchesi, Piersandro Pallavicini, Alessia Pascale, Stefano Perversi, Angelo Taglietti
The last decade came across an increasing demand of theranostic biocompatible nanodevices, possessing the double ability of diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we report the design, synthesis and step-by-step characterization of rationally coated gold nanostars (GNS) for SERS imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of HeLa cancer cells. The nanodevice was realized synthesizing GNS with a seed-growth approach, coating them with a controlled mixture of thiols composed of a Raman reporter and a polyethylenglicol with a terminal amino group, and then reacting these amino groups with Folic Acid (FA), in order to impart selectivity towards cancer cells which overexpress folate receptors on their membranes...
March 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Kheireddine El-Boubbou
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), particularly made of iron oxides, have been extensively studied as diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic delivery vehicles. In this review, special emphasis is set on the 'recent advancements of drug-conjugated MNPs used for therapeutic applications'. The most prevalent preparation methods and chemical functionalization strategies required for translational biomedical nanoformulations are outlined. Particular attention is, then, devoted to the tailored conjugation of drugs to the MNP carrier according to either noncovalent or covalent attachments, with advantages and drawbacks of both pathways conferred...
March 16, 2018: Nanomedicine
J Vedelago, F Mattea, M Valente
The use and implementation of nanoparticles in medicine has grown exponentially in the last twenty years. Their main applications include drug delivery, theranostics, tissue engineering and magneto function. Dosimetry techniques can take advantage of inorganic nanoparticles properties and their combination with gel dosimetry techniques could be used as a first step for their later inclusion in radio-diagnostics or radiotherapy treatments. The present study presents preliminary results of properly synthesized and purified silver nanoparticles integration with Fricke gel dosimeters...
March 1, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Arezoo Mohammadi Gazestani, Samideh Khoei, Sepideh Khoee, Soraya Emamgholizadeh Minaei, Manijeh Motevalian
Magnetite nanographene oxide has exhibited great potential in drug delivery and photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer treatment. Here we developed 5-fluorouracil-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coated magnetite nanographene oxide (NGO-SPION-PLGA-5-Fu) to simplify combined PTT and chemotherapy in one complex. The nanocarrier was synthesized using a modified O1 /W1 /O2 /W2 multiple emulsion solvent evaporation method and was characterized for size, zeta potential, drug loading, in vitro and in vivo release...
March 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Xiaoye Yang, Xiaoqun Shi, Jianbo Ji, Guangxi Zhai
The development of imaging-guided smart drug delivery systems for combinational photodynamic/chemotherapy of the tumor has become highly demanded in oncology. Herein, redox-responsive theranostic polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated innovatively using low molecular weight heparin (LWMH) as the backbone. Chlorin e6 (Ce6) and alpha-tocopherol succinate (TOS) were conjugated to LMWH via cystamine as the redox-sensitive linker, forming amphiphilic Ce6-LMWH-TOS (CHT) polymer, which could self-assemble into NPs in water and encapsulate paclitaxel (PTX) inside the inner core (PTX/CHT NPs)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Ozgur Mete, Sylvia L Asa, Thomas J Giordano, Mauro Papotti, Hironobu Sasano, Marco Volante
Careful morphological evaluation forms the basis of the workup of an adrenal cortical neoplasm. However, the adoption of immunohistochemical biomarkers has added tremendous value to enhance diagnostic accuracy. The authors provide a brief review of immunohistochemical biomarkers that have been used in the confirmation of adrenal cortical origin and in the detection of the source of functional adrenal cortical proliferations, as well as diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic biomarkers of adrenal cortical carcinoma...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Liuqi Peng, Xuan Mei, Jun He, Jiekun Xu, Weiku Zhang, Ruizheng Liang, Min Wei, David G Evans, Xue Duan
2D nanomaterials have attracted considerable research interest in drug delivery systems, owing to their intriguing quantum size and surface effect. Herein, Gd3+ -doped monolayered-double-hydroxide (MLDH) nanosheets are prepared via a facile bottom-up synthesis method, with a precisely controlled composition and uniform morphology. MLDH nanosheets as drug carrier are demonstrated in coloading of doxorubicin and indocyanine green (DOX&ICG), with an ultrahigh drug loading content (LC) of 797.36% and an encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 99...
March 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Carlos E Catalano
Viral particles provide an attractive platform for the engineering of semisynthetic therapeutic nanoparticles. They can be modified both genetically and chemically in a defined manner to alter their surface characteristics, for targeting specific cell types, to improve their pharmacokinetic features and to attenuate (or enhance) their antigenicity. These advantages derive from a detailed understanding of virus biology, gleaned from decades of fundamental genetic, biochemical, and structural studies that have provided mechanistic insight into virus assembly pathways...
March 13, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Christian Filss, Alexander Heinzel, Berthold Miiller, Andreas T J Vogg, Karl-Josef Langen, Felix M Mottaghy
AIM: In metastatic prostate cancer patients PSMA targeting radioligands have gained significant impact as theranostic probes. In this study a correlation between total tumor volume (TTV) and measured kidney dose as well as salivary glands (SG) uptake in177 Lu-PSMA-617 therapy was evaluated. METHODS: Eleven consecutive prostate cancer patients receiving a first cylcle of177 Lu-PSMA-617 (administered activity of approximately 6GBq) were included. The68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT scan previous to therapy was used to determine TTV and SG uptake (glandulae submandibularis) employing PMOD version 3...
February 2018: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Bowen Yang, Han Lin, Chen Dai, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi
"Smart" bioresponsive materials, which are sensitive to biological signals or pathological abnormalities, are appealing therapeutic platforms for the development of next-generation cancer theranostics. In this work, a novel "stepwise extraction" strategy has been proposed and demonstrated in constructing injectable bioresponsive composite implant, which features unique theranostic responsivenesses to exogenous and external triggers. The as-designed implant exhibits theranostic functions and biodegradability for cancer treatment based on the change of intratumoral microenvironment and the needs of therapeutic process...
March 7, 2018: Biomaterials
Yalan Rui, Bo Pang, Jinnan Zhang, Yuxi Liu, Huixin Hu, Zicun Liu, Sarah Ama Baidoo, Chang Liu, Yu Zhao, Siwen Li
A polyelectrolyte microcapsule-based layer-by-layer (LbL) technique has been widely used as a multifunctional vehicle for combined tumor therapy. Meanwhile, with the rapid development of combined tumour therapy, the challenge for designing multifunctional drug delivery system has attracted much more attention. Herein, we developed a new type of microcapsule (MC) system called MPA@siRNA@DOX@MC, which conjugated with siRNA and DOX as well as ICG-Der-02 (MPA) by electrostatic absorption. MPA as indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence dye, exhibiting high fluorescence emission and photothermal conversion ability under NIR laser irradiation, was uploaded onto this drug system for realizing the controllable drug release and cancer theranostics...
March 11, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Zhanfeng Li, Zonghua Wang, Xiaoyu Du, Chao Shi, Xuejun Cui
Stimuli-responsive polymer microcapsules (PMs) fabricated by the sonochemical method have emerged for developing useful drug delivery systems, and the latest developments are mainly focusing on the synthetic strategies and properties such as structure, size, stability, loading capacity, drug delivery, and release. There, the primary attribution of sonochemistry is to offer a simple and practical approach for the preparation of PMs. Structure, size, stability, and properties of PMs are designed mainly according to synthetic materials, implementation schemes, or specific demands...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Dipendra Gyawali, Jimin P Kim, Jian Yang
A novel photo-crosslinkable nanogel is prepared from a biodegradable polymer template with intrinsic photoluminescence and high photostability. The fluorescent nanogels display excellent biodegradability and cytocompatibility owed to the facile synthesis scheme involving a solvent-and surfactant-free one-pot reaction, derived entirely from biocompatible monomers citric acid, maleic acid, L-cysteine, and poly(ethylene glycol). The resultant nanogels are less than 200 nm in diameter with a narrow size distribution and monodispersity, and demonstrate long-term structural stability in biological buffer for two weeks...
March 2018: Bioactive Materials
Yu Cheng, Xiaoxiao Tan, Jinping Wang, Yidan Wang, Yilin Song, Qing You, Qi Sun, Li Liu, Siyu Wang, Fengping Tan, Jiao Li, Nan Li
Recently, ultrasmall gadolinium oxide (Gd2 O3 ) nanoparticles with high longitudinal relaxation rate have received enormous attention. However, it can't be concentrated in tumor site through intravenous administration due to its ultrasmall size. In this project, we coated ultrasmall Gd2 O3 nanoparticles with a near-infrared (NIR) light-absorbing polymer polypyrrole (PPy), modifying with hyaluronic acid (HA) and loaded aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc), the Gd2 O3 @PPy/AlPc-HA nanoparticles could be used for fluorescence (FL)/magnetic resonance (MR)/photoacoustic (PA) imaging guided as well as remotely controlled PTT/PDT combined anti-tumor therapy...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Xiaowei Wang, Amy Kate Searle, Jan David Hohmann, Ao Leo Liu, Meike-Kristin Abraham, Jathushan Palasubramaniam, Bock Lim, Yu Yao, Maria Wallert, Eefang Yu, Yung-Chih Chen, Karlheinz Peter
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an often deadly disease without medical, non-invasive treatment options. The upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on aortic endothelium provides an early target epitope for a novel biotechnological theranostic approach. MicroRNA-126 was used as a therapeutic agent, based on its capability to downregulate VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells and thereby reduces leukocyte adhesion and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Ultrasound microbubbles were chosen as carriers, allowing both molecular imaging as well as targeted therapy of AAA...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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