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Miloš Vittori, Vesna Srot, Birgit Bussmann, Felicitas Predel, Peter A van Aken, Jasna Štrus
Terrestrial isopods possess large sensory setae on their walking legs. Increased fracture resistance of these elongated structures is of crucial importance, making the exoskeleton forming the setae an interesting durable material that may inspire biomimetic designs. We studied the cuticle of the sensory setae with analytical electron microscopy in order to gain detailed insights into its structure and composition at the nanometer scale and identify features that increase the fracture resistance of these minute skeletal elements...
June 9, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Javier Castro-Jiménez, Richard Sempéré
Organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers have been detected at generally high frequencies (70-98%) for the first time in the atmosphere over the NW African coastal Mediterranean. Results from sixty air samples (total suspended particles, TSP) collected between March 2015 and January 2016 in an urban coastal site (Bizerte, Tunisia) revealed ∑9 OPE concentrations of ~100-1060 pg m-3 (470 pg m-3 , median) with TCPPs, EHDPP and TiBP exhibiting the higher median concentrations (~110, 100 and 85 pg m-3 , respectively)...
June 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
María-Belén Turrión, Teresa Bueis, Francisco Lafuente, Olga López, Esther San José, Alexandros Eleftheriadis, Rafael Mulas
The main aim of this research was to assess the effects of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) addition to a burnt and unburnt calcareous soil, on the distribution of soil P forms in particle-size and extractable fractions. Three MSWC doses (1, 2 and 4% w/w) were added to burnt and unburnt soil samples and were incubated for 92 days at 29 °C and 75% of field capacity moisture. A particle-size fractionation followed by a sequential P extraction procedure was carried out. The burnt soil showed significantly lower concentrations of organic P forms (Porg ) and significantly higher concentrations of stable P forms than the unburnt soil...
June 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Růžena Píchalová, Tibor Füzik, Barbora Vokatá, Michaela Rumlová, Manuel Llano, Alžběta Dostálková, Ivana Křížová, Tomáš Ruml, Pavel Ulbrich
Retrovirus assembly is driven mostly by Gag polyprotein oligomerization, which is mediated by inter and intra protein-protein interactions among its capsid (CA) domains. Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) CA contains three cysteines (C82, C193 and C213), where the latter two are highly conserved among most retroviruses. To determine the importance of these cysteines, we introduced mutations of these residues in both bacterial and proviral vectors and studied their impact on the M-PMV life cycle. These studies revealed that the presence of both conserved cysteines of M-PMV CA is necessary for both proper assembly and virus infectivity...
June 12, 2018: Virology
Rongyan Liu, Ruiwen He, Xinyi Cui, Lena Q Ma
Contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can be absorbed on the particles of indoor dust, which may pose potential health risks. In this study, indoor dust samples were collected and sieved into 6 size fractions (i.e., <43 μm, 43-63 μm, 63-100 μm, 100-150 μm, 150-200 μm, and 200-2000 μm). Ingestion bioaccessibility of PAHs was measured by physiologically based extraction test. Bioaccessibility in fractions of 200-2000 μm was generally higher than those in other particle sizes...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jessica Fernandes, M Vivek Ghate, Sanchari Basu Mallik, Shaila A Lewis
Saxagliptin (SAX) is dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme inhibitor molecule now explored for its activity in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Being extremely hydrophilic, it is unable to permeate the blood-brain barrier by the conventional therapy modalities. Further repurposing the drug, SAX is associated with a reduction in the blood sugar level in the periphery. In the present study, the chitosan-L-valine conjugate was synthesized by carbodiimide chemistry. The conjugate was then used to prepare nanoparticles encapsulating SAX...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
L-J Chen, S Wang, L B Wilson, S Schwartz, N Bessho, T Moore, D Gershman, B Giles, D Malaspina, F D Wilder, R E Ergun, M Hesse, H Lai, C Russell, R Strangeway, R B Torbert, A F-Vinas, J Burch, S Lee, C Pollock, J Dorelli, W Paterson, N Ahmadi, K Goodrich, B Lavraud, O Le Contel, Yu V Khotyaintsev, P-A Lindqvist, S Boardsen, H Wei, A Le, L Avanov
Electron heating at Earth's quasiperpendicular bow shock has been surmised to be due to the combined effects of a quasistatic electric potential and scattering through wave-particle interaction. Here we report the observation of electron distribution functions indicating a new electron heating process occurring at the leading edge of the shock front. Incident solar wind electrons are accelerated parallel to the magnetic field toward downstream, reaching an electron-ion relative drift speed exceeding the electron thermal speed...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Oleksandr Gamayun, Oleg Lychkovskiy, Evgeni Burovski, Matthew Malcomson, Vadim V Cheianov, Mikhail B Zvonarev
We examine stationary-state properties of an impurity particle injected into a one-dimensional quantum gas. We show that the value of the impurity's end velocity lies between zero and the speed of sound in the gas and is determined by the injection protocol. This way, the impurity's constant motion is a dynamically emergent phenomenon whose description goes beyond accounting for the kinematic constraints of the Landau approach to superfluidity. We provide exact analytic results in the thermodynamic limit and perform finite-size numerical simulations to demonstrate that the predicted phenomena are within the reach of the ultracold gas experiments...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
C L Hicks, M J Wheatley, M J Godfrey, M A Moore
The Gardner transition is the transition that at mean-field level separates a stable glass phase from a marginally stable phase. This transition has similarities with the de Almeida-Thouless transition of spin glasses. We have studied a well-understood problem, that of disks moving in a narrow channel, which shows many features usually associated with the Gardner transition. We show that some of these features are artifacts that arise when a disk escapes its local cage during the quench to higher densities...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Yevgeny V Stadnik
The exchange of a pair of low-mass neutrinos between electrons, protons, and neutrons produces a "long-range" 1/r^{5} potential, which can be sought for in phenomena originating on the atomic and subatomic length scales. We calculate the effects of neutrino-pair exchange on transition and binding energies in atoms and nuclei. In the case of atomic s-wave states, there is a large enhancement of the induced energy shifts due to the lack of a centrifugal barrier and the highly singular nature of the neutrino-mediated potential...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Yaxing Li, Pengyu Lv, Christian Diddens, Huanshu Tan, Herman Wijshoff, Michel Versluis, Detlef Lohse
Droplet evaporation of multicomponent droplets is essential for various physiochemical applications, e.g., in inkjet printing, spray cooling, and microfabrication. In this work, we observe and study the phase segregation of an evaporating sessile binary droplet, consisting of a miscible mixture of water and a surfactantlike liquid (1,2-hexanediol). The phase segregation (i.e., demixing) leads to a reduced water evaporation rate of the droplet, and eventually the evaporation process ceases due to shielding of the water by the nonvolatile 1,2-hexanediol...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Abhishek Dhar, Keiji Saito, Anjan Roy
A recent theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts that one-dimensional interacting systems with particle, momentum, and energy conservation exhibit anomalous transport that falls into two main universality classes. The classification is based on behavior of equilibrium dynamical correlations of the conserved quantities. One class is characterized by sound modes with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling, while the second class has diffusive sound modes. The heat mode follows Lévy statistics, with different exponents for the two classes...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Lulu Liu, Andrea Di Donato, Vincent Ginis, Simon Kheifets, Arman Amirzhan, Federico Capasso
Recently, it was shown that a Mie particle in an evanescent field ought to experience optical forces that depend on the helicity of the totally internally reflected beam. As yet, a direct measurement of such helicity-dependent forces has been elusive, as the widely differing force magnitudes in the three spatial dimensions place stringent demands on a measurement's sensitivity and range. In this study, we report the simultaneous measurement of all components of this polarization-dependent optical force by using a 3D force spectroscopy technique with femtonewton sensitivity...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
David Steinmetz, Benoit Creton, Veronique Lachet, Bernard Rousseau, Carlos Nieto-Draghi
In this work, liquid-liquid systems are studied by means of coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations (CG-MC) and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD). A methodology is proposed to reproduce liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) and to provide variation of interfacial tension (IFT) as a function of the solute concentration. A key step is the parameterization method based on the use of Flory-Huggins parameter between DPD beads to calculate solute/solvent interactions. Parameters are determined using a set of experimental compositional data of LLE following four different approaches...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Alvaro Rubio-Garc Iacute A, Diego Ricardo Alcoba, Pablo Capuzzi, Jorge Dukelsky
The variational reduced density matrix theory has been recently applied with great success to models within the truncated doubly-occupied configuration interaction space, which corresponds to the seniority zero subspace. Conservation of the seniority quantum number restricts the Hamiltonians to be based on the SU(2) algebra. Among them there is a whole family of exactly solvable Richardson-Gaudin pairing Hamiltonians. We benchmark the variational theory against two different exactly solvable models, the Richardson-Gaudin-Kitaev and the reduced BCS Hamiltonians...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
David C Westerly, Reza A Behbahani, Brian Kavanagh, Arthur Liu, Moyed Miften, Natalie J Serkova, Quentin Diot
PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging remains limited by the cost associated with on-site production of short half-life, positron emitting isotopes. In this work, we examine the use of a pulse line ion accelerator (PLIA) to accelerate protons for single-dose PET isotope production. METHODS: Time-domain electromagnetic field and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were performed for a 1.5 m PLIA structure modeled in CST Microwave Studio and Particle Studio software...
June 15, 2018: Medical Physics
Zhaozhi Huang, Ingolf Gruen, Bongkosh Vardhanabhuti
The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of alginate on in vitro gastric digestion and sucrose release of soy protein isolate (SPI) in model beverages. Model beverages containing 5% w/w SPI, 0% to 0.20% w/w alginate, and 10% w/w sucrose were prepared by heating the mixtures at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 6.0 or 7.0. Characterizations of beverages included determination of zeta potential, particle size and rheological properties. Digestion patterns and sucrose release profiles were determined during 2 hr in vitro gastric digestion using SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis, respectively...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Shuo Wang, Cong Ma, Yin Zhu, Yangkun Yang, Guocheng Du, Ji Li
FeCl3 , quick lime, and cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) were used for excess sludge conditioning from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the dewatering performance by different chemical conditioners was investigated. Experimental results showed that FeCl3 could make small and concentrated sludge particles. Furthermore, new mineral phase structures for building a dewatering framework were obtained by the addition of quick lime, and the coagulation capacity was enhanced by the formation of colloid hydroxyl polymer, which was induced due to the alkaline environment...
June 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anna Godi, Marianna Martinelli, Mahmoud Haque, Shaowei Li, Qinjian Zhao, Ningshao Xia, Clementina E Cocuzza, Simon Beddows
Background: Naturally-occurring variants of Human papillomavirus (HPV) 58 have been defined as lineages and sublineages but little is known about the impact of this diversity on protein function. We investigate the impact of variation within the major (L1) and minor (L2) capsid proteins of HPV58 on susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies. Methods: Pseudovirus (PsV) representing A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, C, D1 and D2 variants were evaluated for their susceptibility to antibodies elicited during natural infection, preclinical antisera generated against virus-like particles and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Matthias P L Sentis, Fabrice R A Onofri, Fabrice Lamadie
The image of the photonic jet (also called caustic) formed by a large, transparent, and spherical particle, reconstructed by digital in-line holography, is shown to be similar to the Airy pattern observed at the focus of a diffraction-limited lens. The analysis of this image, real or virtual depending on whether the particle relative refractive index is above or below one, allows characterizing the particle composition via its refractive index. Experiments clearly demonstrate the value of this method for the simultaneous 3D characterization and differentiation of the dynamics, size, and composition of gas, liquid, and solid particles in multiphase flows...
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
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