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Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Eduardo A Bignon, Eva Stettner, Scott Allen Jeffers, Jimena Pérez-Vargas, Gerard Pehau-Arnaudet, M Alejandra Tortorici, Jean-Luc Jestin, Patrick England, Nicole D Tischler, Félix A Rey
Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Olga Volotskova, Larisa Dubrovsky, Michael Keidar, Michael Bukrinsky
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a specific type of partially ionized gas that is less than 104°F at the point of application. It was recently shown that CAP can be used for decontamination and sterilization, as well as anti-cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of CAP on HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). We demonstrate that pre-treatment of MDM with CAP reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5, inhibiting virus-cell fusion, viral reverse transcription and integration. In addition, CAP pre-treatment affected cellular factors required for post-entry events, as replication of VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1, which by-passes HIV receptor-mediated fusion at the plasma membrane during entry, was also inhibited...
2016: PloS One
Anders Lundgren, Björn Agnarsson, Ronald Zirbs, Vladimir P Zhdanov, Erik Reimhult, Fredrik Höök
Emerging biomedical applications such as molecular imaging and drug delivery often require directed binding of nanoparticles to cell-membrane receptors. The specific apparent affinity of such ligand-functionalized particles is size-dependent, an observation so far solely attributed to multivalent receptor-ligand interaction. We question the universality of this explanation by demonstrating that the binding kinetics also depends on weak, attractive colloidal-type interaction between nanoparticles and a lipid membrane...
October 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Tim Granath, Angela Sanchez-Sanchez, Aleksey Shmeliov, Valeria Nicolosi, Vanessa Fierro, Alain Celzard, Karl Mandel
Herein, the formation of hollow microballoons derived from superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with silica patches is reported. Depending on the experimental conditions, single- or multi-shelled superparamagnetic microballoons as well as multivesicular structures were obtained. We show how such structural changes follow a life-like process which is based on self-directing Pickering emulsions. We further demonstrate that the key towards the formation of such complex architectures is the patchy nature of the nanoparticles...
October 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Zhongbo Zhou, Yiting Tan, Yeyuan Roger Xiao, David C Stuckey
The distribution, composition and morphological structure of sub-visible particles and colloids (0.01-10 µm) in the supernatant of a lab-scale submerged anaerobic membrane reactor (SAnMBR), and their role in membrane fouling, was investigated. Photometric analysis showed that the supernatant and membrane foulants were dominated by particles and colloids (0.45-10 µm), which accounted for over 90% of the total organics (proteins and polysaccharides). Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra and monosaccharide analysis showed that these particles and colloids were rich in fluorescent proteins, rhamnose, ribose and arabinose, all of which could be related to cellular and extracellular substances...
October 26, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Yee Song Ko, Frank A Nüesch, Dragan Damjanovic, Dorina M Opris
Copolymer nanoparticles with a highly polar repeating unit are blended in an elastic matrix and poled at elevated temperatures. The composite exhibits piezoelectricity due to the overall polarization imparted by the particles, which can be easily modulated thanks to the soft matrix.
October 26, 2016: Advanced Materials
Muna Sapkota, Kusum K Kharbanda, Todd A Wyatt
BACKGROUND: Reactive aldehydes such as acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde generated as a result of alcohol metabolism and cigarette smoke exposure lead to the formation of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducted proteins (MAA adducts). These aldehydes can adduct to different proteins such as bovine serum albumin and surfactant protein A or surfactant protein D (SPD). Macrophages play an important role in innate immunity, but the effect of MAA adducts on macrophage function has not yet been examined...
October 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ryszard Świetlik, Marzena Trojanowska, Bożena Karbowska, Włodzimierz Zembrzuski
Speciation of volatile metals Cd, Pb, and Tl in fly ashes (FAs) produced from burning of hard coal in stocker-fired boilers (SFBs) was studied. Two grain fractions of fly ash collected in a multicyclone and battery cyclone of the systems of dust separation from three SFB units operating in various urban heating plants were analyzed. The characteristic feature of speciation of the three metals was a large share of labile fractions: Cd (av. 46.1 %), Pb (av. 39.8 %), and Tl (av. 21.6 %). The fraction which most clearly reflected the different chemical properties of the investigated metals was the oxidizable fraction: F(4)-Cd-0 %, F(4)-Pb-av...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
S E Abd Elhafez, H A Hamad, A A Zaatout, G F Malash
In the last decades, Egypt has been suffering from the phenomenon of black cloud resulting from burning rice husk and increasing the demand for water leading to the water crisis. An alternative, low-value and surplus agricultural byproduct (rice husk, RH) has an enormous potential for the removal of Cu(II) ions from water. The present study focuses on the chance of the use of rice husk as a bio-adsorbent without any chemical treatment instead of burning it and soiling the environment. The elemental, structural, morphological, surface functional, thermal, and textural characteristics of RH are determined by XRF, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TGA, and BET surface area, respectively, and contributed to the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qingqing Zhu, Minghui Zheng, Guorui Liu, Xian Zhang, Shujun Dong, Lirong Gao, Yong Liang
Size-fractionated samples of urban particulate matter (PM; ≤1.0, 1.0-2.5, 2.5-10, and >10 μm) and gaseous samples were simultaneously obtained to study the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the atmosphere in Beijing, China. Most recent investigations focused on the analysis of gaseous PCBs, and much less attention has been paid to the occurrence of PCBs among different PM fractions. In the present study, the gas-particle partitioning and size-specific distribution of PCBs in atmosphere were investigated...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Andor F van den Hoven, Jip F Prince, Rutger C G Bruijnen, Helena M Verkooijen, Gerard C Krijger, Marnix G E H Lam, Maurice A A J van den Bosch
BACKGROUND: An anti-reflux catheter (ARC) may increase the tumor absorbed dose during radioembolization (RE) by elimination of particle reflux and its effects on hemodynamics. Since the catheter is fixed in a centro-luminal position, it may also increase the predictive accuracy of a scout dose administration before treatment. The purpose of the SIM trial is to compare the effects of ARC use during RE with holmium-166 ((166)Ho) microspheres in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), with the use of a standard end-hole microcatheter...
October 25, 2016: Trials
Antonella Fogliata, Francesca Lobefalo, Giacomo Reggiori, Antonella Stravato, Stefano Tomatis, Marta Scorsetti, Luca Cozzi
PURPOSE: Small field measurements are challenging, due to the physical characteristics coming from the lack of charged particle equilibrium, the partial occlusion of the finite radiation source, and to the detector response. These characteristics can be modeled in the dose calculations in the treatment planning systems. Aim of the present work is to evaluate the MU calculation accuracy for small fields, defined by jaw or MLC, for anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB algorithms, relative to output measurements on the beam central axis...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Jeppe Brage Christensen, Heikki Tölli, Niels Bassler
PURPOSE: Dosimetry with ionization chambers in clinical ion beams for radiation therapy requires correction for recombination effects. However, common radiation protocols discriminate between initial and general recombination and provide no universal correction method for the presence of both recombination types in ion beams of charged particles heavier than protons. The advent of multiple field optimization in ion beams, allowing for complex patterns of dose delivery in both temporal and spatial domains, results in new challenges for recombination correction where the resulting recombination depends on the plan delivered...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Vasileios Prymidis, Siddharth Paliwal, Marjolein Dijkstra, Laura Filion
We study a three-dimensional system of self-propelled Lennard-Jones particles using Brownian dynamics simulations. Using recent theoretical results for active matter, we calculate the pressure and report equations of state for the system. Additionally, we chart the vapour-liquid coexistence and show that the coexistence densities can be well described using simple power laws. Lastly, we demonstrate that our out-of-equilibrium system shows deviations from both the law of rectilinear diameters and the law of corresponding states...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Samare Rostami, S Alireza Ghasemi, Ehsan Nedaaee Oskoee
We present an accurate and efficient algorithm to calculate the electrostatic interaction of charged point particles with partially periodic boundary conditions that are confined along the non-periodic direction by two parallel metallic plates. The method preserves the original boundary conditions, leading to an exact solution of the problem. In addition, the scaling complexity is quasilinear O(Nln(N)), where N is the number of particles in the simulation box. Based on the superposition principle in electrostatics, the problem is split into two electrostatic problems where each can be calculated by the appropriate Poisson solver...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Henry S Ashbaugh, Natalia da Silva Moura, Hayden Houser, Yang Wang, Amy Goodson, J Wesley Barnett
Theoretical descriptions of molecular-scale solvation frequently invoke contributions proportional to the solvent exposed area, under the tacit expectation that those contributions are tied to a surface tension for macroscopic surfaces. Here we examine the application of revised scaled-particle theory (RSPT) to extrapolate molecular simulation results for the wetting of molecular-to-meso-scale repulsive solutes in liquid water and decane to determine the interfacial free energies of hard, flat surfaces. We show that the RSPT yields interfacial free energies at ambient pressures that are consistently greater than that obtained from the liquid-vapor surface tensions of water and decane by ∼4%...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Roland Kjellander
Screened electrostatic interactions in ionic liquids are investigated by means of exact statistical mechanical analysis combined with physical arguments that enhance the transparency and conceptual accessibility of the analysis and results. The constituent ions and immersed particles in the liquid can have arbitrary shapes and any internal charge distributions. The decay of the screened electrostatic potential and the free energy of interaction in ionic liquids can be exponentially damped oscillatory (like in molten simple salts) as well as plain exponential and long-ranged (like in dilute electrolyte solutions)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yohanna Seminovski, Polina Tereshchuk, Adam Kiejna, Juarez L F Da Silva
Finite site platinum particles, Ptn, supported on reduced or unreduced cerium oxide surfaces, i.e., CeO2-x(111) (0<x<12), have been employed and studied as catalysts for a wide range of applications, which includes hydrogen production using the ethanol steam reforming processes. Our atomic-level understanding of the interaction of Pt with CeO2-x has been improved in the last years; however, the identification of the active sites on the Ptn/CeO2-x(111) substrates is still far from complete. In this work, we applied density functional theory based calculations with the addition of the on-site Coulomb interactions (DFT+U) for the investigation of the active sites and the role of the Pt oxidation state on the adsorption properties of water and ethanol (probe molecules) on four selected substrates, namely, Pt(111), Pt4/Pt(111), CeO2(111), and Pt4/CeO2(111)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jian Qin, Juan J de Pablo, Karl F Freed
Charged dielectric spheres embedded in a dielectric medium provide the simplest model for many-body systems of polarizable ions and charged colloidal particles. We provide a multiple scattering formulation for the total electrostatic energy for such systems and demonstrate that the polarization energy can be rapidly evaluated by an image method that generalizes the image methods for conducting spheres. Individual contributions to the total electrostatic energy are ordered according to the number of polarized surfaces involved, and each additional surface polarization reduces the energy by a factor of (a/R)(3)ϵ, where a is the sphere radius, R the average inter-sphere separation, and ϵ the relevant dielectric mismatch at the interface...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
D L Bones, J C Gómez Martín, C J Empson, J D Carrillo Sánchez, A D James, T P Conroy, J M C Plane
On entering the Earth's atmosphere, micrometeoroids partially or completely ablate, leaving behind layers of metallic atoms and ions. The relative concentration of the various metal layers is not well explained by current models of ablation. Furthermore, estimates of the total flux of cosmic dust and meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere vary over two orders of magnitude. To better constrain these estimates and to better model the metal layers in the mesosphere, an experimental Meteoric Ablation Simulator (MASI) has been developed...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
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