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Soon-Ung Park, In-Hye Lee, Seung Jin Joo, Jae-Won Ju
Site specific radionuclide dispersion databases were archived for the emergency response to the hypothetical releases of (137)Cs from the Uljin nuclear power plant in Korea. These databases were obtained with the horizontal resolution of 1.5 km in the local domain centered the power plant site by simulations of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) with the Unified Model (UM)-Local Data Assimilation Prediction System (LDAPS). The Eulerian Dispersion Model-East Asia (EDM-EA) with the UM-Global Data Assimilation Prediction System (UM-GDAPS) meteorological models was used to get dispersion databases in the regional domain...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
João P Vareda, Pedro Maximiano, Luís P Cunha, André F Ferreira, Pedro N Simões, Luísa Durães
HYPOTHESIS: Surfactants interfere with sol-gel particle/pore growth, influencing the structure and properties of silica aerogels. Their ability to induce microscopic changes in the aerogel's structure may be useful to improve/control the thermal insulation performance of aerogels. EXPERIMENTS: The influence of different types of surfactants (anionic, cationic and non-ionic) on the microstructural arrangement and macroscopic properties of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS)-based aerogels was evaluated for the first time, using an experimental and computational comparative approach...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Honghong Lyu, Bin Gao, Feng He, Andrew R Zimmerman, Cheng Ding, Hua Huang, Jingchun Tang
With the goal of combining the advantages of ball-milling and biochar technologies, a variety of ball-milled biochars (BM-biochars) were synthesized, characterized, and tested for nickel (Ni(II)) removal from aqueous solution. Ball milling increased only the external surface area of low temperature biochars, but still dramatically enhanced their ability to sorb aqueous Ni(II). For higher temperature biochars with relatively low surface area, ball milling increased both external and internal surface area. Measurements of pH, zeta potential, stability, and Boehm titration demonstrated that ball milling also added oxygen-containing functional groups (e...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ximena P Garzón-Villalba, Yougui Wu, Candi D Ashley, Thomas E Bernard
The ACGIH® Threshold Limit Value® (TLV®) is used to limit heat stress exposures so that most workers can maintain thermal equilibrium. That is, the TLV was set to an upper limit of Sustainable exposures for most people. This paper addresses the ability of the TLV to differentiate between Sustainable and Unsustainable heat exposures for four clothing ensembles over a range of environmental factors and metabolic rates (M). The four clothing ensembles (woven clothing, and particle barrier, water barrier and vapor barrier coveralls) represented a wide range of evaporative resistances...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Zaid Q Ababneh, Anas M Ababneh, Sultan Alsagabi, Fahad I Almasoud
Gulf countries are often affected by dust storms which have a significant influence on the environment and public health. The present work examines the radioactivity content in the intense dust storm occurred over Gulf countries on 1 April 2015. The results showed that the average value of 137Cs in dust samples (±SD) is 14.4 ± 1.6 Bq/kg, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than those in soil samples. 7Be was detected with a considerable amount only in dust samples. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (234,238U, 228,230,232Th, 226,228Ra and 40K) in dust samples were found to be approximately two to three times higher than the corresponding values in soil samples, which is attributed to the abundance of the finest particle size in the dust samples...
October 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Seung Kyu Lee, Sang I Kim, Jungil Lee, Insu Chang, Jang-Lyul Kim, Hyoungtaek Kim, Min Chae Kim, Bong-Hwan Kim
When neutron survey metres are calibrated in neutron fields, the results for room- and air-scattered neutrons vary according to the distance from the source and the size, shape and construction of the neutron calibration room. ISO 8529-2 recommends four approaches for correcting these effects: the shadow-cone method, semi-empirical method, generalised fit method and reduced-fitting method. In this study, neutron scattering effects are evaluated and compared using the shadow-cone and semi-empirical methods for the neutron field of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)...
October 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Pieter Jan Kole, Ansje J Löhr, Frank G A J Van Belleghem, Ad M J Ragas
Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-)plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100%) are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%), artificial turf (12-50%), brake wear (8%) and road markings (5%)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sunhyo Kim, Jee Woong Choi
The underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) is a system that exchanges data between numerous sensor nodes deployed in the sea. The UWASN uses an underwater acoustic communication technique to exchange data. Therefore, it is important to design a robust system that will function even in severely fluctuating underwater communication conditions, along with variations in the ocean environment. In this paper, a new algorithm to find the optimal deployment positions of underwater sensor nodes is proposed. The algorithm uses the communication performance surface, which is a map showing the underwater acoustic communication performance of a targeted area...
October 20, 2017: Sensors
María Esther Díaz Martínez, Rosalba Argumedo-Delira, Gabriela Sánchez-Viveros, Alejandro Alarcón, Libia Iris Trejo-Téllez
This work assessed the ability of Lolium perenne and Medicago sativa for extracting lead (Pb) from particulate printed circuit computer boards (PCB) mixed in sand with the following concentrations: 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g of PCB, and including a control treatment without PCB. The PCB were obtained from computers, and grinded in two particle sizes: 0.0594 mm (PCB1) and 0.0706 mm (PCB2). The PCB particle sizes at their corresponding concentrations were applied to L. perenne and M. sativa by using three experimental assays...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Satoshi Iso, Pasquale D Serpico, Kengo Shimada
If the electroweak sector of the standard model is described by classically conformal dynamics, the early Universe evolution can be substantially altered. It is already known that-contrarily to the standard model case-a first-order electroweak phase transition may occur. Here we show that, depending on the model parameters, a dramatically different scenario may happen: A first-order, six massless quark QCD phase transition occurs first, which then triggers the electroweak symmetry breaking. We derive the necessary conditions for this dynamics to occur, using the specific example of the classically conformal B-L model...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Gael Sentís, John Calsamiglia, Ramon Muñoz-Tapia
The detection of change points is a pivotal task in statistical analysis. In the quantum realm, it is a new primitive where one aims at identifying the point where a source that supposedly prepares a sequence of particles in identical quantum states starts preparing a mutated one. We obtain the optimal procedure to identify the change point with certainty-naturally at the price of having a certain probability of getting an inconclusive answer. We obtain the analytical form of the optimal probability of successful identification for any length of the particle sequence...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Davide Girolami, Tommaso Tufarelli, Cristian E Susa
We propose an information-theoretic framework to quantify multipartite correlations in classical and quantum systems, answering questions such as what is the amount of seven-partite correlations in a given state of ten particles? We identify measures of genuine multipartite correlations, i.e., statistical dependencies that cannot be ascribed to bipartite correlations, satisfying a set of desirable properties. Inspired by ideas developed in complexity science, we then introduce the concept of weaving to classify states that display different correlation patterns, but cannot be distinguished by correlation measures...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Brando Bellazzini, Alberto Mariotti, Diego Redigolo, Filippo Sala, Javi Serra
We study the effective theory of a generic class of hidden sectors where supersymmetry is broken together with an approximate R-symmetry at low energy. The light spectrum contains the gravitino and the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of the R-symmetry, the R-axion. We derive new model-independent constraints on the R-axion decay constant for R-axion masses ranging from GeV to TeV, which are of relevance for hadron colliders, lepton colliders, and B factories. The current bounds allow for the exciting possibility that the first sign of supersymmetry will be the R-axion...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Naila A Mugheirbi, Patrick J Marsac, Lynne S Taylor
For amorphous solid dispersions, understanding the phase behavior of a given drug-polymer blend and factors that influence miscibility is crucial to design an optimally performing formulation. However, it can be challenging to fully map the phase behavior of some systems, especially those produced using a co-solvent system. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of phase separation in itraconazole-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (ITZ-HPMC) blends fabricated using solvent evaporation processes, including spin coating and spray drying, has been carried out...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Na Kyung Kwon, Tae Kyung Lee, Sang Kyu Kwak, So Youn Kim
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect relies on the shape, size, and dispersion state of metal nanoparticles and can potentially be employed in many applications such as chemical/biological sensor, optoelectronics, and photocatalyst. While complicated synthetic approaches changing shape and size of nanoparticles can control the intrinsic LSPR effect, here we show that controlling interparticle interactions with silica-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@SiO2 NPs) is a powerful approach, permitting wide range of optical bandwidth of gold nanoparticles with great stability...
October 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Meihua Bi, Yanan Hao, Jiameng Zhang, Ming Lei, Ke Bi
Polymer nanocomposites are a promising substitute for energy-storage dielectric materials in pulsed power systems. A barium titanate/polyvinylidenefluoride (BT/PVDF) nanocomposite is one of the most widely studied composite systems due to its comprehensive excellent dielectric properties. As the dielectric response of nanocomposites depends strongly on the size of the fillers, in this study, BT/PVDF nanocomposites with 92.3 nm, 17.8 nm and 5.9 nm BT particle fillers are fabricated to reveal the particle size effect of the fillers on the energy storage performance of the polymer nanocomposites...
October 20, 2017: Nanoscale
Shengju Zhou, Lin Wang, Mengjun Chen, Baoyong Liu, Xiaofeng Sun, Meirong Cai, Hongguang Li
Superstructures from fullerene C60-containing compounds, especially those tethered to rigid functional groups with defined shapes, remain largely unexplored. Being the smallest diamondoid, adamantane (Ad) can be viewed as a promising building block for the construction of well-defined superstructures. Here, we report the syntheses of 1 : 1 (4a) and 2 : 1 (4b) Ad-C60 hybrid molecules, which were then used to construct superstructures in binary solvent mixtures via a modified liquid/liquid interfacial precipitation (LLIP) method using CHCl3 as a good solvent...
October 20, 2017: Nanoscale
Victor Bandlow, Susanne Liese, Daniel Lauster, Kai Ludwig, Roland R Netz, Andreas Herrmann, Oliver Seitz
Attachment of the Influenza A virus onto host cells involves multivalent interactions between virus surface hemagglutinin (HA) and sialoside-containing glyco ligands. Despite the development of extremely powerful multivalent bind-ers of the Influenza virus and other viruses, comparably little is known about the optimal spacing of HA ligands, which ought to bridge binding sites within or across the trimeric HA molecules. To explore the criteria for ligand economical high affinity binding, we systematically probed distance-affinity relationships by means of two differently behaving scaffold types based on i) flexible polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates and ii) rigid self-assembled DNA·PNA complexes...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Javier Castro Jiménez, Badreddine Barhoumi, Andrea Paluselli, Marc Tedetti, Begoña Jiménez, Juan Muñoz-Arnanz, Henri Wortham, Mohamed Ridha Driss, Richard Sempéré
A comparative study for 62 toxic chemicals based on the monthly collection of aerosol samples during 2015-2016 in two coastal cities at both the African (Bizerte, Tunisia) and European (Marseille, France) edges of the W Mediterranean basin is presented. Legacy polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ18PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (Σ17PCDD/Fs) show generally higher median levels at the African edge (2.1 and 0.2 pg m-3, respectively) compared to the European coastal site (1.0 and 0.08 pg m-3, respectively)...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Eun-Kyoung Bang, Hanna Cho, Sean S-H Jeon, Na Ly Tran, Dong-Kwon Lim, Wooyoung Hur, Taebo Sim
Although various delivery systems for nucleic acids have been reported, development of an efficient and non-toxic delivery carrier is still a key subject for gene therapy. In order to find new efficient delivery carriers for nucleic acids, we synthesized amphiphilic peptides composed of a guanidino group, an oleyl group, and a cysteine. We prepared both linear and branched types of peptides, and found that the linear peptides were superior to the branched peptides as nucleic acid carriers. Our study also suggested that the intermolecular cysteine disulfides might allow the linear peptides to form the optimal particle sizes with nucleic acids for cellular uptake...
October 20, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
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