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Tanvi M Deshpande, Anisul Quadir, Sakae Obara, Stephen W Hoag
Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) has been widely used in amorphous solid dispersions and as an enteric coating polymer. Under aqueous coating conditions and at elevated coating temperatures, HPMCAS particles tend to aggregate and clog the spray-nozzle, hence interrupting the coating process. This research focused on how plasticizers and surfactants, excipients used for aqueous coating, affect the properties and stability of HPMCAS. This information would be useful in identifying suitable excipients for developing a stable HPMCAS aqueous enteric coating formulation...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Haidy Abbas, Rabab Kamel, Nesrine El-Sayed
In this study, Compritol ATO-based Resveratrol colloidal carriers (CCCs) were prepared. In most formulae, the use of a binary-mixture of surfactants improved the physicochemical properties. CCC6 (containing P407/P188 as bi-surfactants) attained the highest drug loading, release efficiency during 24 hr and occlusive effect for 48 hr; in addition to, a uniform particle size distribution within the desired range. In-vivo studies were done based on the analysis of anti-oxidant markers [catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)], anti-inflammatory markers [interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and rat Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)] and anti-wrinkling markers [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) and Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], after UVB-irradiation...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Mohammad A M Momin, Ian G Tucker, Colin S Doyle, John A Denman, Shubhra Sinha, Shyamal C Das
High dose delivery of drugs to the lung using a dry powder inhaler (DPI) is an emerging approach to combat drug-resistant local infections. To achieve this, highly aerosolizable powders are required. We hypothesized that co-spray-drying kanamycin, a hydrophilic hygroscopic antibiotic, with rifampicin, a hydrophobic antibiotic, would produce inhalable particles with surfaces enriched in rifampicin. Such particles would have higher aerosolization than kanamycin alone, and minimise the mass of powder for inhalation avoiding use of non-active excipients...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Su Jin Choi, Hye Sun Kim
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X chromosome-linked disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Many previous studies reported that the skeletal muscles of DMD patients were more susceptible to oxidative stress than those of healthy people. However, not much has been known about the responsible mechanism of the differential susceptibility. In this study, we established dystrophin knock-down (DysKD) cell lines by transfection of dystrophin shRNA lentiviral particles into C2 cells and found that DysKD myotubes are more vulnerable to menadione-induced oxidative stress than control myotubes...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Qianqian Yang, Gaoying Sun, Haiyan Yin, Hongrui Li, Zhixin Cao, Jinghan Wang, Meijuan Zhou, Haibo Wang, Jianfeng Li
Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase, which acts as a molecular sensor of mitochondrial health necessary for mitochondrial quality control. The present study was designed to examine whether PINK1 expressed in C57BL/6 murine cochlea and HEI-OC1 cells and, if so, to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying the action of PINK1 in cisplatin-induced death of sensory hair cells (HCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in vitro. The expression pattern of PINK1, formation of parkin particles, and autophagy were determined by immunofluorescent staining...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Leona M Fahey, Michél K Nieuwoudt, Philip J Harris
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares (PLS-1) regression was used to predict the lignin contents and monosaccharide compositions of milled wood of Pinus radiata. The effects of particle size and moisture content were investigated by collecting NIR spectra of four sample types: large (<0.422 mm) and small (<0.178 mm) particles, in both ambient and dry conditions. PLS-1 models were constructed using mixtures of compression wood (CW) and opposite wood (OW) that provided a linear range of cell-wall compositions...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tiina Titma
The precise knowledge on various interactions of metal nanoparticles (NP) in a living organism is scarce. It is expected that metals can bind to nucleic acids, peptides and proteins (e.g. enzymes), and modify the functioning of vital cellular compartments after entering the organism. The predictive factors for quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship (QNAR) analysis could enhance efficient and harmless usage of nanoparticles (NPs) in the industry as well in the medicine. The studies value the composition of the NP corona determined by time, temperature and source of protein which has been found to implicate the physiological behaviour of NPs...
February 16, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Adewale Adewuyi, Chiagoziem A Otuechere, Olusegun L Adebayo, Chibuzo Anazodo, Fabiano V Pereira
Nanocellulose is currently gaining attention due to its unique properties. This attention includes its application as building blocks for developing novel functional materials, plant drug and also in drug delivery systems. However, its safety remains largely untested or less understood. Thus, sulphonated nanocellulose (KSS) was prepared from cellulose (KSC) isolated from Khaya senegalensis seed (KS). KS, KSC and KSS were characterized using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), particle size distribution (PSD), zeta potential and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
February 16, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Joachim Laun, Wouter Marchal, Vanessa Trouillet, Alexander Welle, An T Hardy, Marlies K Van Bael, Christopher Barner-Kowollik, Tanja Junkers
Efficient and simple polymer conjugation reactions are critical for introducing functionalities on surfaces. For polymer surface grafting, post polymerization modifications are often required, which can impose a significant synthetic hurdle. Here, we report two strategies that allow for reversible surface engineering via nitrone-mediated radical coupling (NMRC). Macroradicals stemming from activation of polymers generated by copper-mediated radical polymerization are grafted via radical trapping with a surface-immobilized nitrone or a solution-borne nitrone...
February 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zixiang Cui, Juan Zhang, Yongqiang Xue, Huijuan Duan
Owing to their excellent adsorption properties compared with those of the corresponding bulk materials, nanoparticles have been widely applied in many fields. Their properties depend on the thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption, which depend on the particle size. In this paper, we present universal theories of the thermodynamics and kinetics for nano-adsorption that have been developed over the past few years. Theoretically, we have derived relationships between the adsorption thermodynamic properties and the particle size, as well as those between the adsorption kinetic parameters and the particle size...
February 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Navaporn Sritong, Siwat Chumsook, Sineenat Siri
Due to size- and shape-dependent properties, a shape-controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is one of the research challenging topics for their production and potential applications. This work reported the simple eco-friendly syntheses of different shaped AgNPs controlled by the plasmid DNA content and light emitting diodes (LEDs) irradiation. The synthesized AgNPs appeared as yellow, orange and green colloidal AgNPs, which transmission electron microscope (TEM) images revealed their different shapes; spherical AgNPs, a mixture of spherical and hexagonal AgNPs, and a mixture of spherical, hexagonal and corner-truncated triangle AgNPs, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Guillaume David, Marie-Laure Fogeron, Maarten Schledorn, Roland Montserret, Uta Haselmann, Susanne Penzel, Aurelie Badillo, Lauriane Lecoq, Patrice André, Michael Nassal, Ralf Bartenschlager, Beat H Meier, Anja Böckmann
Viral membrane proteins are prime targets in the combat against infection. Still, their structure determination remains a challenge, both with respect to sample preparation, and the need for structural methods allowing analysis in a native-like lipid environment. Cell-free protein synthesis and solid-state NMR are promising approaches in this context, one with respect to its high potential of native expression of complex proteins, and the other for its ability to analyze membrane proteins in lipids. We here show that milligram amounts of the small envelope protein of the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) can be produced using cell-free expression, and that the protein self-assembles into subviral particles...
February 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
P Xu, Y Lan, Z Xing, E Eiser
Synthetic LAPONITE®-clay particles with platelet-like shape display strong aging when dispersed in aqueous solutions, preventing the latter from reaching their natural liquid-crystalline equilibrium state. Here we introduce a facile method that successfully prevents this aging behaviour and enables accessing the systems' liquid-crystal and crystalline phases. We graft the comb-like polymer PLL-PEG (poly(l-lysine)-g-poly(ethylene glycol)) onto the clay surfaces from solution, thereby screening the negative surface charges and thus ensuring steric stabilisation...
February 19, 2018: Soft Matter
Hannaneh Hojaiji, Haik Kalantarian, Alex A T Bui, Christine E King, Majid Sarrafzadeh
This paper introduces the design, calibration, and validation of a low-cost portable sensor for the real-time measurement of dust particles within the environment. The proposed design consists of low hardware cost and calibration based on temperature and humidity sensing to achieve accurate processing of airborne dust density. Using commercial particulate matter sensors, a highly accurate air quality monitoring sensor was designed and calibrated using real world variations in humidity and temperature for indoor and outdoor applications...
March 2017: 2017 IEEE Sens Appl Symp (SAS) (2017)
Qinglin Deng, Mengjiao Li, Junyong Wang, Kai Jiang, Zhigao Hu, Junhao Chu
Orthorhombic Nb$_2$O$_5$ (T-Nb$_2$O$_5$) has structural merit but poor electrical conductivity, limiting their applications in energy storage. Although graphene is frequently adopted to effectively improve its electrochemical properties, the ordinary modified methods cannot meet the growing demands for high-performance. Here, we demonstrate that different graphene modified routes play a vital role in affecting the electrochemical performances of T-Nb$_2$O$_5$. By only manual shaking within one minute, Nb$_2$O$_5$ nano-particles can be rapidly adsorbed onto graphene, then the free-anchored T-Nb$_2$O$_5$@graphene three-dimensional networks (NG-3D) can be successfully prepared based on hydrogel method...
February 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Maurice Garcia-Sciveres, N Wermes
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments ATLAS and CMS have established hybrid pixel detectors as the instrument of choice for particle tracking and vertexing in high rate and radiation environments, as they operate close to the LHC interaction points. With the High Luminosity-LHC upgrade now in sight, for which the tracking detectors will be completely replaced, new generations of pixel detectors are being devised. They have to address enormous challenges in terms of data throughput and radiation levels, ionizing and non-ionizing, that harm the sensing and readout parts of pixel detectors alike...
February 19, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Vasily N Danilevich, Andrey L Mulyukin, Andrey V Machulin, Vladimir V Sorokin, Sergey A Kozlov
Our previous studies demonstrated the formation of structurally diverse DNA-containing microparticles (DNA MPs) in PCR with Mg-pyrophosphate (MgPPi) as the structure-forming component. These DNA MPs were referred to major structural types: microdisks (2D MPs) with nanometer thickness and 3D MPs with sophisticated morphology and constructed from intersecting disks and their segments. Little is known about factors that influence both the morphology and size of DNA MPs, and the present study was aimed at fulfilling this gap...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Elizabeth G Graham-Gurysh, Sneha Kelkar, Eleanor McCabe-Lankford, Narayanan Kuthirummal, Theodore Brown, Nancy Kock, Aaron M Mohs, Nicole Levi-Polyachenko
Judicious combination of semiconducting polymers with alternating electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) segments created hybrid nanoparticles with amplified energy transfer and red-shifted emission, while simultaneously providing photothermal capabilities. Hybrid D-A polymer particles (H-DAPPs) passively localized within orthotopic breast tumors, serving as bright fluorescent beacons. Laser stimulation induced heat generation on par with gold nanorods, resulting in selective destruction of the tumor. H-DAPPs can also undergo multiple thermal treatments, with no loss of fluorescence intensity or photothermal potential...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Enrico Battiston, Maria C Salvatici, Alessandro Lavacchi, Antonietta Gatti, Stefano Di Marco, Laura Mugnai
BACKGROUND: The present study evaluates a biocompatible material for plant protection to reduce the amount of active substance applied. We used a synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) that has been studied extensively due its bioactivity and biocompatibility. Aggregation between HA nanoparticles and four copper(II) compounds applied in Vitis vinifera L. leaves as pesticide was studied. Formulations were characterised by XRD, DLS, electron microscopy and applied in planta to verify the particle aggregation and efficiency in controlling the pathogen, Plasmopara viticola...
February 19, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jun-Seob Kim, Nityananda Chowdhury, Ryota Yamasaki, Thomas K Wood
Bacteria are often thought of as having two dormant phenotypes: the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state and the persister state. Here we investigate the relatedness of the two stress-induced phenotypes at the single-cell level and examine cell morphology and quantify cell resuscitation. Using the classic starvation conditions to create VBNC cells, we found that the majority of the remaining Escherichia coli population are spherical, have empty cytosol, and fail to resuscitate; however, some of the spherical cells resuscitate immediately (most probably those with dense cytosol)...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
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