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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245177/microplastics-as-an-emerging-threat-to-terrestrial-ecosystems
#1
Anderson Abel de Souza Machado, Werner Kloas, Christiane Zarfl, Stefan Hempel, Matthias C Rillig
Microplastics (plastics < 5 mm, including nanoplastics which are < 0.1 μm) originate from the fragmentation of large plastic litter or from direct environmental emission. Their potential impacts in terrestrial ecosystems remain largely unexplored despite numerous reported effects on marine organisms. Most plastics arriving in the oceans were produced, used, and often disposed on land. Hence, it is within terrestrial systems that microplastics might first interact with biota eliciting ecologically relevant impacts...
December 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245133/source-identification-and-ecological-impact-evaluation-of-pahs-in-urban-river-sediments-a-case-study-in-taiwan
#2
Y T Tu, J H Ou, D C W Tsang, C D Dong, C W Chen, C M Kao
The Love River and Ho-Jin River, two major urban rivers in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, are moderately to heavily polluted because different types of improperly treated wastewaters are discharged into the rivers. In this study, sediment and river water samples were collected from two rivers to investigate the river water quality and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. The spatial distribution, composition, and source appointment of PAHs of the sediments were examined. The impacts of PAHs on ecological system were assessed using toxic equivalence quotient (TEQ) of potentially carcinogenic PAHs (TEQcarc) and sediment quality guidelines...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245131/premagnetization-enhancing-the-reactivity-of-fe0-passivated-fe0-system-for-high-concentration-p-nitrophenol-removal-in-aqueous-solution
#3
Yi Ren, Jun Li, Leiduo Lai, Bo Lai
In order to strengthen the treatment efficiency of Fe0 based system for high concentration wastewater treatment, Fe0 particles were passivated by concentrated nitric acid, and a premagnetization Fe0/(passivated Fe0) system was setup for high concentration p-nitrophenol (PNP) removal in this study. The significant parameters of this system were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the premagnetization Fe0/(passivated Fe0) system could obtain high kobs value for PNP removal (0.100 min-1) and COD removal (15...
December 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245117/gold-nanoflowers-synthesized-using-acanthopanacis-cortex-extract-inhibit-inflammatory-mediators-in-lps-induced-raw264-7-macrophages-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ap-1-pathways
#4
Sungeun Ahn, Priyanka Singh, Mi Jang, Yu-Jin Kim, Verónica Castro-Aceituno, Shakina Yesmin Simu, Yeon Ju Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
We reported the rapid synthesis (<8s) of gold nanoparticles at room temperature using Acanthopanacis cortex extract (A-AuNPs). We characterized the A-AuNPs using several analytical techniques and found that nano-flower type A-AuNPs, which are known to possess a coarse surface with a high surface to volume ratio, conferring these particles with high binding capacity for various biological molecules. After confirming the stability of the nanoparticles, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of A-AuNPs in LPS-stimulated RAW264...
November 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245060/activation-of-human-eosinophils-with-palladium-nanoparticles-pd-nps-importance-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-pd-nps-induced-cellular-adhesion
#5
P Chhay, M Murphy-Marion, Y Samson, D Girard
Palladium (Pd) is known to be released into the environment in the fine and ultrafine (at the nanoscale) airborne particle fractions mainly from automobile catalytic converters leading to an increase human exposure to this noble metal. It was reported that Pd can induce allergic reactions in individuals exposed to it via different ways. Some studies reported an increased number of eosinophils into airways following NP exposure in vivo in rodent models of allergies and inflammation. Knowing the importance of eosinophils in allergies, asthma and other lung diseases, it is surprising to observe that the direct effect of Pd at the nanoscale in eosinophils has been poorly documented...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245012/visualizing-the-assembly-pathway-of-nucleolar-pre-60s-ribosomes
#6
Lukas Kater, Matthias Thoms, Clara Barrio-Garcia, Jingdong Cheng, Sherif Ismail, Yasar Luqman Ahmed, Gert Bange, Dieter Kressler, Otto Berninghausen, Irmgard Sinning, Ed Hurt, Roland Beckmann
Eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunits are comprised of three rRNAs and ∼50 ribosomal proteins. The initial steps of their formation take place in the nucleolus, but, owing to a lack of structural information, this process is poorly understood. Using cryo-EM, we solved structures of early 60S biogenesis intermediates at 3.3 Å to 4.5 Å resolution, thereby providing insights into their sequential folding and assembly pathway. Besides revealing distinct immature rRNA conformations, we map 25 assembly factors in six different assembly states...
December 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244949/growth-kinetics-and-size-distribution-dynamics-of-viscous-secondary-organic-aerosol
#7
Rahul A Zaveri, John E Shilling, Alla Zelenyuk, Jiumeng Liu, David M Bell, Emma L D'Ambro, Cassandra J Gaston, Joel A Thornton, Alexander Laskin, Peng Lin, Jacqueline M Wilson, Richard C Easter, Jian Wang, Allan K Bertram, Scot T Martin, John H Seinfeld, Douglas R Worsnop
Low bulk diffusivity inside viscous semisolid atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can prolong equilibration timescale, but its broader impacts on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics are poorly understood. Here we present quantitative insights into the effects of bulk diffusivity on the growth and evaporation kinetics of SOA formed under dry conditions from photooxidation of isoprene in the presence of a bimodal aerosol consisting of Aitken (ammonium sulfate) and accumulation (isoprene or -pinene SOA) mode particles...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244948/residential-coal-combustion-as-a-source-of-levoglucosan-in-china
#8
Caiqing Yan, Mei Zheng, Amy P Sullivan, Guofeng Shen, Yingjun Chen, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Siyi Cai, Yury Desyaterik, Xiaoying Li, Tian Zhou, Örjan Gustafsson, Jeffrey L Collett
Levoglucosan (LG) has been widely identified as a specific marker for biomass burning (BB) sources, and frequently utilized in estimating the BB contribution to atmospheric fine particles all over the world. However, this study provides direct evidence to show that coal combustion (CC) is also a source of LG, especially in the wintertime in Northern China based on both source testing and ambient measurement. Our results show that low temperature residential CC could emit LG with emission factors (EF) ranging from 0...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244872/the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-is-required-for-african-swine-fever-replication
#9
Lucía Barrado-Gil, Inmaculada Galindo, Diego Martínez-Alonso, Sergio Viedma, Covadonga Alonso
Several viruses manipulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to initiate a productive infection. Determined viral proteins are able to change the host's ubiquitin machinery and some viruses even encode their own ubiquitinating or deubiquitinating enzymes. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a gene homologous to the E2 ubiquitin conjugating (UBC) enzyme. The viral ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCv1) is expressed throughout ASFV infection and accumulates at late times post infection. UBCv is also present in the viral particle suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway could play an important role at early ASFV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244848/surface-modified-nanoparticles-as-anti-biofilm-filler-for-dental-polymers
#10
Nathan Zaltsman, Andrei C Ionescu, Ervin I Weiss, Eugenio Brambilla, Shaul Beyth, Nurit Beyth
The objective of the study was to synthesis silica nanoparticles modified with (i) a tertiary amine bearing two t-cinnamaldehyde substituents or (ii) dimethyl-octyl ammonium, alongside the well-studied quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles. These were to be evaluated for their chemical and mechanical properties, as well for antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. Samples were incorporated in commercial dental resin material and the degree of monomer conversion, mechanical strength, and water contact angle were tested to characterize the effect of the nanoparticles on resin material...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244817/curcumin-inhibits-activation-induced-by-urban-particulate-material-or-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-in-primary-human-endothelial-cells
#11
Angélica Montiel-Dávalos, Guadalupe Jazmin Silva Sánchez, Elizabeth Huerta-García, Cristhiam Rueda-Romero, Giovanny Soca Chafre, Irma B Mitre-Aguilar, Ernesto Alfaro-Moreno, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Rebeca López-Marure
Curcumin has protective effects against toxic agents and shows preventive properties for various diseases. Particulate material with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm (PM10) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) induce endothelial dysfunction and activation. We explored whether curcumin is able to attenuate different events related to endothelial activation. This includes adhesion, expression of adhesion molecules and oxidative stress induced by PM10 and TiO2-NPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with 1, 10 and 100 μM curcumin for 1 h and then exposed to PM10 at 3 μg/cm2 or TiO2-NPs at 10 μg/cm2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244781/influence-of-sterilization-and-preservation-procedures-on-the-integrity-of-serum-protein-coated-magnetic-nanoparticles
#12
Silvio Dutz, Stephanie Wojahn, Christine Gräfe, Andreas Weidner, Joachim H Clement
Protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for various medical applications. Prior to their application into a biological system, one has to guarantee that the particle dispersions are free from pathogens or any other microbiologic contamination. Furthermore, to find entrance into clinical routine, the nanoparticle dispersions have to be storable for several months. In this study, we tested several procedures for sterilization and preservation of nanoparticle containing liquids on their influence on the integrity of the protein coating on the surface of these particles...
December 15, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244773/nanoscale-phase-evolution-during-continuum-decomposition-of-fe-cr-alloys
#13
Yongsheng Li, Lihui Zhu, Chengwei Liu, Shujing Shi
The continuum decomposition of the Fe-Cr alloys from initial phase separation to steady-state coarsening with concentrations varying from 25 at % Cr and 30 at % Cr to 33 at % Cr aged at 750 K was studied by utilizing three-dimensional phase-field simulations. The dynamic stages of separation of nanoscale Cr-enriched α' phase were distinguished by the evolution of the volume fraction, particle number density and the average particle radius of the α' phase. The stage of steady-state coarsening was characterized with an equilibrium volume fraction and decreasing particle number density...
December 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244747/ophthalmic-formulation-containing-nilvadipine-nanoparticles-prevents-retinal-dysfunction-in-rats-injected-with-streptozotocin
#14
Saori Deguchi, Hiroko Otake, Yosuke Nakazawa, Noriko Hiramatsu, Naoki Yamamoto, Noriaki Nagai
Retinopathy leads to irreparable vision loss via capillary closure and areas of nonperfusion. However, the current instillation systems do not allow a sufficient amount of drug required to treat retinopathy to reach the posterior segment (retina); therefore, a new formulation targeting the posterior segment is expected as therapy for retinopathy. We prepared ophthalmic formulations containing nilvadipine nanoparticles (NILnano), and demonstrated whether the instillation of NILnano can prevent retinal dysfunction in rats injected with excessive streptozotocin (STZ rats) in this study...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244715/response-characterization-of-an-inexpensive-aerosol-sensor
#15
Joel Kuula, Timo Mäkelä, Risto Hillamo, Hilkka Timonen
Inexpensive aerosol sensors have been considered as a complementary option to address the issue of expensive but low spatial coverage air quality monitoring networks. However, the accuracy and response characteristics of these sensors is poorly documented. In this study, inexpensive Shinyei PPD42NS and PPD60PV sensors were evaluated using a novel laboratory evaluation method. A continuously changing monodisperse size distribution of particles was generated using a Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator. Furthermore, the laboratory results were validated in a field experiment...
December 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244515/millisecond-self-assembly-of-stable-nano-dispersed-drug-formulations
#16
Vikram J Pansare, Aditya Rawal, Aaron Goodwin, Ron Beyerinck, Robert K Prud'homme, Dwayne T Friesen, Michael Grass, Annie Muske-Dukes, David T Vodak
We report the development of a new Spray-drying and Nanoparticle Assembly Process (SNAP), that enables the formation of stable, yet rapidly dissolving, sub-200 nm nano-crystalline particles within a high Tg glassy matrix. SNAP expands the class of drugs that Spray Dried Dispersion (SDD) processing can address to encompass highly crystalline, but modestly hydrophobic drugs that are difficult to process by conventional SDD. The process integrates rapid precipitation and spray drying within a custom designed nozzle to produce high supersaturations and precipitation of the drug and high Tg glassy polymer...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244513/scission-free-energies-for-wormlike-surfactant-micelles-development-of-a-simulation-protocol-application-and-validation-for-personal-care-formulations
#17
Huan Wang, Xueming Tang, David Michael Eike, Ronald G Larson, Peter H Koenig
We present a scheme to calculate wormlike micelle scission free energies from a potential of mean force (PMF) derived from a Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM) applied to coarse grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. In contrast to previous related work, we use a specially chosen external potential based on a reaction coordinate that reversibly drives surfactants out of the nascent scission location. For the application to a model body wash formulation, we predict how addition of NaCl and small molecules such as perfume raw materials (PRMs) affect scission energies...
December 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244511/molecular-rotors-for-universal-quantitation-of-nanoscale-hydrophobic-interfaces-in-microplate-format
#18
Paul William Bisso, Michelle Tai, Hari Katepalli, Nicolas Bertrand, Daniel Blankschtein, Robert Langer
Hydrophobic self-assembly pairs diverse chemical precursors and simple formulation processes to access a vast array of functional colloids. Exploration of this design space, however, is stymied by lack of broadly general, high-throughput colloid characterization tools. Here, we show that a narrow structural subset of fluorescent, zwitterionic molecular rotors - dialkylaminostilbazolium sulfonates [DASS] with intermediate-length alkyl tails - fills this major analytical void by quantitatively sensing hydrophobic interfaces in microplate format...
December 15, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244183/dna-damage-and-epigenetic-alteration-in-soybean-farmers-exposed-to-complex-mixture-of-pesticides
#19
Danieli Benedetti, Barbara Lopes Alderete, Claudia Telles de Souza, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Liana Niekraszewicz, Mónica Cappetta, Wilner Martínez-López, Juliana Da Silva
Exposure to pesticides can trigger genotoxic and mutagenic processes through different pathways. However, epidemiological studies are scarce, and further work is needed to find biomarkers sensitive to the health of exposed populations. Considering that there are few evaluations of soybean farmers, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of human exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides. The alkaline comet assay modified with restriction enzyme (hOGG1: human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase) was used to detect oxidised guanine, and compared with the buccal micronucleus cytome assay, global methylation, haematological parameters, biochemical analyses (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and butyrylcholinesterase), and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the analysis of inorganic elements...
December 13, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244177/online-bayesian-phylogenetic-inference-theoretical-foundations-via-sequential-monte-carlo
#20
Vu Dinh, Aaron E Darling, Frederick A Matsen Iv
Phylogenetics, the inference of evolutionary trees from molecular sequence data such as DNA, is an enterprise that yields valuable evolutionary understanding of many biological systems. Bayesian phylogenetic algorithms, which approximate a posterior distribution on trees, have become a popular if computationally expensive means of doing phylogenetics. Modern data collection technologies are quickly adding new sequences to already substantial databases. With all current techniques for Bayesian phylogenetics, computation must start anew each time a sequence becomes available, making it costly to maintain an up-to-date estimate of a phylogenetic posterior...
December 13, 2017: Systematic Biology
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