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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822330/effect-of-the-microstructure-on-the-propagation-velocity-of-ultrasound-in-magnetic-powders
#1
Francisco Ruiz Botello, Miguel A S Quintanilla, Antonio Castellanos, Elena F Grekova, Vincent Tournat
We analyze experimentally and theoretically the sound propagation velocity of P-waves in granular media made of micrometer-size magnetite particles under an external magnetic field. The sound velocity is measured in a coherent (long-wavelength) regime of propagation after a controlled sample preparation consisting of a fluidization and the application of a magnetic field. Several different procedures are applied and result in different but reproducible particle arrangements and preferential contact orientations affecting the measured sound velocity...
August 1, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822291/highly-absorbing-multispectral-near-infrared-polymer-nanoparticles-from-one-conjugated-backbone-for-photoacoustic-imaging-and-photothermal-therapy
#2
Haobin Chen, Jian Zhang, Kaiwen Chang, Xiaoju Men, Xiaofeng Fang, Libo Zhou, Dongliang Li, Duyang Gao, Shengyan Yin, Xuanjun Zhang, Zhen Yuan, Changfeng Wu
Semiconducting polymers with specific absorption are useful in various applications, including organic optoelectronics, optical imaging, and nanomedicine. However, the optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer with a determined structure is hardly tunable when compared with that of inorganic semiconductors. In this work, we show that the optical absorption of polymer nanoparticles from one conjugated backbone can be effectively tuned through judicious design of the particle morphology and the persistence length of polymers...
August 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822256/addressing-harmful-algal-blooms-habs-impacts-with-ferrate-vi-simultaneous-removal-of-algal-cells-and-toxins-for-drinking-water-treatment
#3
Yang Deng, Meiyin Wu, Huiqin Zhang, Lei Zheng, Yaritza Acosta, Tsung-Ta D Hsu
Although ferrate(VI) has long been recognized as a multi-purpose treatment agent, previous investigations regarding ferrate(VI) for addressing harmful algal blooms (HABs) impacts in drinking water treatment only focused on a single HAB pollutant (e.g. algal cells or algal toxins). Moreover, the performance of ferrate(VI)-driven coagulation was poorly investigated in comparison with ferrate(VI) oxidation, though it has been widely acknowledged as a major ferrate(VI) treatment mechanism. We herein reported ferrate(VI) as an emerging agent for simultaneous and effective removal of algal cells and toxins in a simulated HAB-impacted water...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822142/-prospects-of-molecular-breeding-in-medical-plants
#4
REVIEW
Xiao-Jun Ma, Chang-Ming Mo
The molecular-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding and molecular designing breeding are three development directions of plant molecular breeding. Base on these three development directions, this paper summarizes developing status and new tendency of research field of genetic linkage mapping, QTL mapping, association mapping, molecular-assisted selections, pollen-mediated transformations, agrobacterium-mediated transformations, particle gun-mediated transformations, genome editing technologies, whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, proteome sequencing and varietal molecular designing...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821743/cherenkov-radiation-control-via-self-accelerating-wave-packets
#5
Yi Hu, Zhili Li, Benjamin Wetzel, Roberto Morandotti, Zhigang Chen, Jingjun Xu
Cherenkov radiation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature. It describes electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle moving in a medium with a uniform velocity larger than the phase velocity of light in the same medium. Such a picture is typically adopted in the investigation of traditional Cherenkov radiation as well as its counterparts in different branches of physics, including nonlinear optics, spintronics and plasmonics. In these cases, the radiation emitted spreads along a "cone", making it impractical for most applications...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821729/nonlinear-bayesian-filtering-and-learning-a-neuronal-dynamics-for-perception
#6
Anna Kutschireiter, Simone Carlo Surace, Henning Sprekeler, Jean-Pascal Pfister
The robust estimation of dynamical hidden features, such as the position of prey, based on sensory inputs is one of the hallmarks of perception. This dynamical estimation can be rigorously formulated by nonlinear Bayesian filtering theory. Recent experimental and behavioral studies have shown that animals' performance in many tasks is consistent with such a Bayesian statistical interpretation. However, it is presently unclear how a nonlinear Bayesian filter can be efficiently implemented in a network of neurons that satisfies some minimum constraints of biological plausibility...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821618/region-specific-protein-misfolding-cyclic-amplification-reproduces-brain-tropism-of-prion-strains
#7
Nicolas Privat, Etienne Levavasseur, Serfildan Yildirim, Samia Hannaoui, Jean-Philippe Brandel, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Vincent Béringue, Danielle Seilhean, Stéphane Haïk
Human prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are transmissible brain proteinopathies, characterized by the accumulation of a misfolded isoform of the host cellular prion protein (PrP) in the brain. According to the prion model, prions are defined as proteinaceous infectious particles composed solely of this abnormal isoform of PrP (PrPSc). Even in the absence of genetic material, various prion strains can be propagated in experimental models. They can be distinguished by the pattern of disease they produce and especially by the localization of PrPSc deposits within the brain and the spongiform lesions they induce...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821611/the-proteasome-interacting-ecm29-protein-disassembles-the-26s-proteasome-in-response-to-oxidative-stress
#8
Xiaorong Wang, Ilan E Chemmama, Clinton Yu, Alexander Huszagh, Yue Xu, Rosa Viner, Sarah Ashley Block, Peter Cimermancic, Scott D Rychnovsky, Yihong Ye, Andrej Sali, Lan Huang
Oxidative stress has been implicated in multiple human neurological and other disorders. Proteasomes are multi-subunit proteases critical for the removal of oxidatively damaged proteins. To understand stress-associated human pathologies, it is important to uncover the molecular events underlying the regulation of proteasomes upon oxidative stress. To this end, we investigated H2O2 stress-induced molecular changes of the human 26S proteasome and determined that stress-induced 26S proteasome disassembly is conserved from yeast to human...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821464/multi-elemental-nanoparticle-exposure-after-tantalum-component-failure-in-hip-arthroplasty-in-depth-analysis-of-a-single-case
#9
Janosch Schoon, Sven Geißler, Juliane Traeger, Andreas Luch, Jutta Tentschert, Giorgio Perino, Frank Schulze, Georg N Duda, Carsten Perka, Anastasia Rakow
Porous tantalum components are widely used for complex acetabular reconstructions in revision hip arthroplasty. Multiple other metal alloys such as titanium-aluminum-vanadium or cobalt-chromium-molybdenum are principally used in artificial joint setups. We report a case of tantalum component failure being both cause and effect of a multiple metal exposure. Our aims were to assess and to characterize associated particle exposure and biological consequences. Metal level quantification revealed substantial in vivo exposure to particulate and dissociated tantalum, zirconium, chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, titanium, aluminum and vanadium in periprosthetic compartments...
August 16, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821437/particle-sizing-of-pharmaceutical-aerosols-via-direct-imaging-of-particle-settling-velocities
#10
Rami Fishler, Frank Verhoeven, Wilbur de Kruijf, Josué Sznitman
We present a novel method for characterizing in near real-time the aerodynamic particle size distributions from pharmaceutical inhalers. The proposed method is based on direct imaging of airborne particles followed by a particle-by-particle measurement of settling velocities using image analysis and particle tracking algorithms. Due to the simplicity of the principle of operation, this method has the potential of circumventing potential biases of current real-time particle analyzers (e.g. Time of Flight analysis), while offering a cost effective solution...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821157/in-situ-formation-of-injectable-and-porous-heparin-based-hydrogel
#11
Meeichyn Goh, Younghee Kim, Kihak Gwon, Kiyoon Min, YoungMin Hwang, Giyoong Tae
In this study, by combining photopolymerization and particle leaching technique, in situ formation of porous hydrogel with pore interconnectivity was demonstrated in vivo upon subcutaneous injection into the back of mice as well as in vitro. A precursor solution containing thiolated heparin, PEG-diacrylate (PEG-DA), and gelatin microparticles (GMPs) as a fast dissolving porogen were photopolymerized by visible-light-initiated thiol-ene reaction with eosin Y (EY) as a photo initiator and triethanolamine (TEOA) as a co-initiator...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821153/combination-of-microsized-mineral-particles-and-rosin-as-a-basis-for-converting-cellulosic-fibers-into-sticky-superhydrophobic-paper
#12
Xiaoyan Yu, Peiwen Bian, Yang Xue, Xueren Qian, Haipeng Yu, Wenshuai Chen, Xiaohai Hu, Peng Wang, Dong Wu, Qinghui Duan, Limei Li, Jing Shen, Yonghao Ni
The unique features of cellulosic paper including flexibility, biodegradability, and low cost enables it as a versatile, sustainable biomaterial for promising applications. In the paper industry, microsized mineral particles are widely used in the production of printing/writing paper grades, while rosin derived from trees is the earliest internal sizing agent for paper hydrophobication. On the basis of existing commercial practices associated with the use of mineral particles and rosin in paper production, we present a process concept of converting cellulosic fibers (paper-grade pulp) into "sticky" superhydrophobic paper involving the use of microsized mineral particles and rosin (a tree-derived natural product, mainly a mixture of resin acids, especially abietic acid with chemical formula of C19H29COOH)...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821146/evaluation-of-carboxymethyl-moringa-gum-as-nanometric-carrier
#13
Rimpy, Abhishek, Munish Ahuja
In the present study, carboxymethylation of Moringa oleifera gum was carried out by reacting with monochloroacetic acid. Modified gum was characterised employing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Rheology study. The carboxymethyl modification of moringa gum was found to increase its degree of crystallinity, reduce viscosity and swelling, increase the surface roughness and render its more anionic. The interaction between carboxymethyl moringa gum and chitosan was optimised by 2-factor, 3-level central composite experimental design to prepare polyelectrolyte nanoparticle using ofloxacin, as a model drug...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821137/preparation-of-highly-oxidized-starch-using-hydrogen-peroxide-and-its-application-as-a-novel-ligand-for-zirconium-tanning-of-leather
#14
Yue Yu, Ya-Nan Wang, Wei Ding, Jianfei Zhou, Bi Shi
A series of highly-oxidized starch (HOS) were prepared using H2O2 and a copper-iron catalyst as a desired ligand for zirconium tanning of leather. The effects of catalyst and H2O2 dosages, and reaction temperature on the oxidation degree (OD, represented as the amount of carbonyl and carboxyl groups derived) of starch were investigated. The OD reached 76.2% when oxidation was conducted using 60% H2O2 and 0.015% catalyst at 98°C for 2h. (13)C NMR and FT-IR illustrated carbonyl and carboxyl groups were formed in HOS after oxidation...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821127/a-comparative-study-on-cellulose-nanocrystals-extracted-from-bleached-cotton-and-flax-and-used-for-casting-films-with-glycerol-and-sorbitol-plasticisers
#15
Emilia Csiszár, Sebestyén Nagy
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were released from bleached cotton and flax by a sulphuric acid hydrolysis with about 40 and 34% yield, respectively. The rod-like cotton-CNC particles were slightly longer and wider and had a less pronounced aggregation ability in aqueous suspension than the flax-CNC ones. Films were cast from the CNC suspensions with sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers. The concept behind this research was to explore how the plasticisers - with similar structure but different molecular weight - and their concentrations affect the perceptible and measured properties of CNC films...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821119/tailoring-of-temperature-and-ph-responsive-cotton-fabric-with-antimicrobial-activity-effect-of-the-concentration-of-a-bio-barrier-forming-agent
#16
Danaja Štular, Ivan Jerman, Barbara Simončič, Brigita Tomšič
A stimuli-responsive cotton fabric was designed using temperature and pH-responsive poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (poly-NiPAAm) and chitosan (PNCS) microgel as a carrier of antimicrobially active 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (Si-QAC), which forms a bio-barrier on the fibre surface. The influence of Si-QAC on the moisture management and thermoregulation abilities of the PNCS microgel was investigated. Using a pad-dry cure method, Si-QAC was applied to a 100% cotton fabric model in concentrations ranging from 0...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821114/preparation-and-characterization-of-a-composite-biomaterial-including-starch-micro-nano-particles-loaded-chitosan-gel
#17
Dorsa Dehghan Baniani, Reza Bagheri, Atefeh Solouk
Thermosensitive Chitosan hydrogels which can be injected into defects with minimally invasive approach were prepared. Also starch micro/nano particles were synthesized via water-in-oil (W/O) miniemulsion technique. The starch particles were incorporated into the chitosan hydrogel to prepare injectable thermosensitive hydrogel composites. Tube inverting method, compression tests, swelling studies, XRD, SEM, OM, DLS, UV-vis spectroscopy were used for investigations. Results revealed that increasing crosslinker and surfactant contents and stirring rate leads to particle size reduction...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821109/pectinate-nanofiber-mat-with-high-absorbency-and-antibacterial-activity-a-potential-superior-wound-dressing-to-alginate-and-chitosan-nanofiber-mats
#18
Sainan Chen, Sisi Cui, Junli Hu, Yifa Zhou, Yichun Liu
Polysaccharides including pectin, alginate and chitosan are fabricated into dressings of micrometer-scaled architecture (micro- fiber or particle) and widely applied in wound treatments clinically. This work characterized and compared the properties of electrospun nanofibrous dressings of these polysaccharides. We found that although the three polysaccharide nanofiber mats had comparable mechanical strength and vapour permeability, the pectinate nanofiber mat could absorb 1.2 times and 3.6 times more exudates than the alginate and chitosan nanofiber mats, respectively, within less time...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821107/relationship-between-multi-scale-structures-and-properties-of-photophobic-films-based-on-hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-and-monosodium-phosphate
#19
Liang Zhang, Yan Zhao, Jian-Ya Qian, Shan Jiang, Jun Liu, Xiao-Long He
Photophobic (white) films were prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) to overcome the redox reaction induced by titanium dioxide photocatalysis of HPMC/TiO2 white film. What's more, HPMC/NaH2PO4 white film could overcome the drying temperature dependent property of white films based on HPMC and calcium salts. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angel X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscope and texture analyzer were used to investigate the effect of NaH2PO4 on the short-range, supra-molecular structures and properties of HPMC film...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821102/microencapsulation-of-sardine-oil-application-of-vanillic-acid-grafted-chitosan-as-a-bio-functional-wall-material
#20
K V Vishnu, Niladri S Chatterjee, K K Ajeeshkumar, R G K Lekshmi, C S Tejpal, Suseela Mathew, C N Ravishankar
Vanillic acid grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch) was evaluated as a new antioxidant wall material for microencapsulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid rich sardine oil. A high grafting ratio of 305mg vanillic acid equivalent/g of polymer was achieved using a free radical mediated grafting reaction. Oil in water emulsion was prepared with an optimised combination of Va-g-Ch and Tween 20 (3.2:1). Sardine oil loaded microparticles (SO-M) were produced (∼75% yield) by spray drying. The average diameter and polydispersity Index (PDI) of the particles were found to be 2...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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