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Zhenkan Wang, Panagiota Stamatoglou, Zheming Li, Marcus Aldén, Mattias Richter
In order to obtain more detailed characteristics and information in highly turbulent flames, for a better understanding of the transient behavior of eddies in such flames, a measurement technique with sufficient temporal resolution is requested. However, the probing of species distributions relevant in combustion (e.g. OH, CH2O) with ultra-high-speed laser diagnostics still remains a challenge. Nd:YAG clusters commercially available can generate only 4-8 pulses, although with high laser energy. Systems based on a diode-pumped solid-state Nd:YAG laser combined with a dye laser produce only about 100 μJ pulse energy at ultra-high repetition rates (≥50 kHz)...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Joon Hyun Kim, Sang Won Seo, Y Shin
We investigate the critical dynamics of spin superflow in an easy-plane antiferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Spin-dipole oscillations are induced in a trapped condensate by applying a linear magnetic field gradient and we observe that the damping rate increases rapidly as the field gradient increases above a certain critical value. The onset of dissipation is found to be associated with the generation of dark-bright solitons due to the modulation instability of the counterflow of two spin components...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Matthew T Reeves, Thomas P Billam, Xiaoquan Yu, Ashton S Bradley
We report evidence for an enstrophy cascade in large-scale point-vortex simulations of decaying two-dimensional quantum turbulence. Devising a method to generate quantum vortex configurations with kinetic energy narrowly localized near a single length scale, the dynamics are found to be well characterized by a superfluid Reynolds number Re_{s} that depends only on the number of vortices and the initial kinetic energy scale. Under free evolution the vortices exhibit features of a classical enstrophy cascade, including a k^{-3} power-law kinetic energy spectrum, and constant enstrophy flux associated with inertial transport to small scales...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
S Maeyama, T-H Watanabe, A Ishizawa
Gyrokinetic turbulence simulations are applied for the first time to the cross-scale interactions of microtearing modes (MTMs) and electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) modes. The investigation of the fluctuation response in a multiscale simulation including both types of instabilities indicates that MTMs are suppressed by ETG turbulence. A detailed analysis of nonlinear mode coupling reveals that radially localized current-sheet structures of MTMs are strongly distorted by fine-scale E×B flows of ETG turbulence...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
S Servidio, A Chasapis, W H Matthaeus, D Perrone, F Valentini, T N Parashar, P Veltri, D Gershman, C T Russell, B Giles, S A Fuselier, T D Phan, J Burch
Plasma turbulence is investigated using unprecedented high-resolution ion velocity distribution measurements by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) in the Earth's magnetosheath. This novel observation of a highly structured particle distribution suggests a cascadelike process in velocity space. Complex velocity space structure is investigated using a three-dimensional Hermite transform, revealing, for the first time in observational data, a power-law distribution of moments. In analogy to hydrodynamics, a Kolmogorov approach leads directly to a range of predictions for this phase-space transport...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Kannabiran Seshasayanan, Basile Gallet, Alexandros Alexakis
While the saturated magnetic energy is independent of viscosity in dynamo experiments, it remains viscosity dependent in state-of-the-art 3D direct numerical simulations (DNS). Extrapolating such viscous scaling laws to realistic parameter values leads to an underestimation of the magnetic energy by several orders of magnitude. The origin of this discrepancy is that fully 3D DNS cannot reach low enough values of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. To bypass this limitation and investigate dynamo saturation at very low Pm, we focus on the vicinity of the dynamo threshold in a rapidly rotating flow: the velocity field then depends on two spatial coordinates only, while the magnetic field consists of a single Fourier mode in the third direction...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Thomas Kühnel, Kornelia Wirsching, Walter Wohlgemuth, Ajay Chavan, Katja Evert, Veronika Vielsmeier
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) describes the presenting manifestations of a disorder that is characterized by pathologic blood vessels. HHT is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with variable penetrance. The abnormal vascular structures (dysplasias) can affect all the organs in the human body. The link between a physical stimulus and new lesion development has been established for mucosal trauma owing to nasal airflow turbulence, for ultraviolet exposure to the fingers, and for mechanical trauma to the dominant hand...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Chunyi Chen, Huamin Yang
This publisher's note corrects a typo in the title in Opt. Lett.38, 1887 (2013)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.38.001887.
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
W C Swann, L C Sinclair, I Khader, H Bergeron, J-D Deschênes, N R Newbury
We present the design and performance of a low-cost, reciprocal, compact free-space terminal employing tip/tilt pointing compensation that enables optical two-way time-frequency transfer over free-space links across the turbulent atmosphere. The insertion loss of the terminals is ∼1.5  dB with total link losses of 15 dB, 24 dB, and 50 dB across horizontal, turbulent 2-km, 4-km, and 12-km links, respectively. The effects of turbulence on pointing control and aperture size, and their influence on the terminal design, are discussed...
December 1, 2017: Applied Optics
C M Raiteri, M Villata, J A Acosta-Pulido, I Agudo, A A Arkharov, R Bachev, G V Baida, E Benítez, G A Borman, W Boschin, V Bozhilov, M S Butuzova, P Calcidese, M I Carnerero, D Carosati, C Casadio, N Castro-Segura, W-P Chen, G Damljanovic, F D'Ammando, A Di Paola, J Echevarría, N V Efimova, Sh A Ehgamberdiev, C Espinosa, A Fuentes, A Giunta, J L Gómez, T S Grishina, M A Gurwell, D Hiriart, H Jermak, B Jordan, S G Jorstad, M Joshi, E N Kopatskaya, K Kuratov, O M Kurtanidze, S O Kurtanidze, A Lähteenmäki, V M Larionov, E G Larionova, L V Larionova, C Lázaro, C S Lin, M P Malmrose, A P Marscher, K Matsumoto, B McBreen, R Michel, B Mihov, M Minev, D O Mirzaqulov, A A Mokrushina, S N Molina, J W Moody, D A Morozova, S V Nazarov, M G Nikolashvili, J M Ohlert, D N Okhmat, E Ovcharov, F Pinna, T A Polakis, C Protasio, T Pursimo, F J Redondo-Lorenzo, N Rizzi, G Rodriguez-Coira, K Sadakane, A C Sadun, M R Samal, S S Savchenko, E Semkov, B A Skiff, L Slavcheva-Mihova, P S Smith, I A Steele, A Strigachev, J Tammi, C Thum, M Tornikoski, Yu V Troitskaya, I S Troitsky, A A Vasilyev, O Vince
Blazars are active galactic nuclei, which are powerful sources of radiation whose central engine is located in the core of the host galaxy. Blazar emission is dominated by non-thermal radiation from a jet that moves relativistically towards us, and therefore undergoes Doppler beaming. This beaming causes flux enhancement and contraction of the variability timescales, so that most blazars appear as luminous sources characterized by noticeable and fast changes in brightness at all frequencies. The mechanism that produces this unpredictable variability is under debate, but proposed mechanisms include injection, acceleration and cooling of particles, with possible intervention of shock waves or turbulence...
December 4, 2017: Nature
Dmitry Aleynik, Mark E Inall, Andrew Dale, Annemiek Vink
Proposed harvesting of polymetallic nodules in the Central Tropical Pacific will generate plumes of suspended sediment which are anticipated to be ecologically harmful. While the deep sea is low in energy, it also can be highly turbulent, since the vertical density gradient which suppresses turbulence is weak. The ability to predict the impact of deep plumes is limited by scarcity of in-situ observations. Our observations show that the low-energy environment more than four kilometres below the surface ultimately becomes an order of magnitude more energetic for periods of weeks in response to the passage of mesoscale eddies...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vladimir A Andryushchenko, Sergei F Chekmarev
Recently, when studying folding of a SH3 domain, we discovered that the flows of transitions between protein states can be surprisingly similar to turbulent fluid flows. This similarity was not restricted by a vortex pattern of the flow fields but extended to a spatial correlation of flow fluctuations, resulting, in particular, in the structure functions such as in the Kolmogorov theory of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Here, we undertake a detailed analysis of spatial distribution of folding flows and their similarity to turbulent fluid flows...
2017: PloS One
Jian Zhou, Boqiang Qin, Xiaoxia Han, Decai Jin, Zhiping Wang
Lakes are strongly influenced by wind-driven wave turbulence. The direct physical effects of turbulence on bacterioplankton community structure however, have not yet been addressed and remains poorly understood. To examine the stability of bacterioplankton communities under turbulent conditions, we simulated conditions in the field to evaluate the responses of the bacterioplankton community to physical forcing in Lake Taihu, using high-throughput sequencing and flow cytometry. A total of 4,520,231 high quality sequence reads and 74,842 OTUs were obtained in all samples with α-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being the most dominant taxa...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Brooke L Bessesen, Gary J Galbreath
We describe a distinctive new subspecies of sea snake from the occasionally anoxic inner-basin waters of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, based on combined data garnered between 2010 and 2017 for 154 specimens, 123 free-ranging and 31 museum-held. The yellow sea snake, Hydrophis platurus xanthos Bessesen & Galbreath, subsp. n., is diagnosed by a notably smaller body size and nearly uniform yellow coloration, which contrasts with the black and yellow striae and tail spots or bands typical of the species. Within the modest geographic range (circa 320 km2), nearly all specimens possess both diagnostic character states...
2017: ZooKeys
Ashley Marchese, Melissa L Langhan, Kathryn H Pade
Stridor is a result of turbulent air-flow through the trachea from upper airway obstruction, and although in children it is often due to croup, it can also be caused by noninfectious and/or congenital conditions as well as life-threatening etiologies. The history and physical examination guide initial management, which includes reduction of airway inflammation, treatment of bacterial infection, and, less often, imaging, emergent airway stabilization, or surgical management. This issue discusses the most common as well as the life-threatening etiologies of acute and chronic stridor and its management in the emergency department...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
R Jayendiran, B M Nour, A Ruimi
Aortic dissection (AD) is a serious medical condition characterized by a tear in the intima, the inner layer of the aortic walls. In such occurrence, blood is being diverted to the media (middle) layer and may result in patient death if not quickly attended. In the case where the diseased portion of the aorta needs to be replaced, one common surgical technique is to use a graft made of Dacron, a synthetic fabric. We investigate the response of a composite human aortic segment-Dacron graft structure subjected to blood flow using the three-dimensional fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) capability in Abaqus...
November 26, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Azra Nawar, Asif Hussain Khoja, Naveed Akbar, Abeera Ayaz Ansari, Muneeb Qayyum, Ehsan Ali
OBJECTIVE: A major factor in practical application of photobioreactors (PBR) is the adhesion of algal cells onto their inner walls. Optimized algal growth requires an adequate sunlight for the photosynthesis and cell growth. Limitation in light exposure adversely affects the algal biomass yield. The removal of the biofilm from PBR is a challenging and expansive task. This study was designed to develop an inexpensive technique to prevent adhesion of algal biofilm on tubular PBR to ensure high efficiency of light utilization...
December 2, 2017: BMC Research Notes
M Sasaki, K Itoh, K Hallatschek, N Kasuya, M Lesur, Y Kosuga, S-I Itoh
We propose a novel mechanism of enhancement of turbulence by energetic-particle-driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAMs). The dynamics of drift-wave-type turbulence in the phase space is investigated by wave-kinetic equation. Spatially inhomogeneous turbulence in the presence of a transport barrier is considered. We discovered that trapping of turbulence clumps by the EGAMs is the key parameter that determines either suppress or enhance turbulence. In regions where turbulence is unstable, EGAM suppresses the turbulence...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Abhijit Tarafder
Following a recent publication [1], the topic of turbulent flow in SFC has generated both interest and questions. Liquid-like density, coupled with significantly low viscosity of CO2-based mobile-phases may result in high Reynolds number (Re) - higher than what represents laminar flow conditions, reaching the so-called turbulent regions. Although such turbulent flows can form only in the connecting tubings, thus not directly affecting the chromatographic process, it is important to know under many situations, whether the flow inside the tubing is laminar or turbulent...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Giulio Dolcetti, Anton Krynkin
Experimental data are presented on the Doppler spectra of airborne ultrasound forward scattered by the rough dynamic surface of an open channel turbulent flow. The data are numerically interpreted based on a Kirchhoff approximation for a stationary random water surface roughness. The results show a clear link between the Doppler spectra and the characteristic spatial and temporal scales of the water surface. The decay of the Doppler spectra is proportional to the velocity of the flow near the surface. At higher Doppler frequencies the measurements show a less steep decrease of the Doppler spectra with the frequency compared to the numerical simulations...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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