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Bone marrow transplant complications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159826/pharmacological-and-molecular-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-%C3%AE-hemoglobin-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Neelam Lohani, Nupur Bhargava, Anjana Munshi, Sivaprakash Ramalingam
β-hemoglobin disorders, such as β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are among the most prevalent inherited genetic disorders worldwide. These disorders are caused by mutations in the gene encoding hemoglobin-β (HBB), a vital protein found in red blood cells (RBCs) that carries oxygen from lungs to all parts of the human body. As a consequence, there has been an enduring interest in this field in formulating therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these diseases. Currently, there is no cure available for hemoglobin disorders, although, some patients have been treated with bone marrow transplantation, whose scope is limited because of the difficulty in finding a histocompatible donor and also due to transplant-associated clinical complications that can arise during the treatment...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152660/therapeutic-effects-of-stat3-inhibition-by-nifuroxazide-on-murine-acute-graft-graft-vs-host-disease-old-drug-new-use
#2
Huijie Jia, Jing Cui, Xiaolong Jia, Jingjing Zhao, Yuchen Feng, Peijuan Zhao, Dan Zang, Jian Yu, Tiesuo Zhao, Hui Wang, Kailin Xu
Graft‑vs.‑host disease (GvHD) is a major and lethal complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo‑BMT). Although great development has been made, the treatment progress of this disorder is slow. Research has illustrated that STAT3 was critical for T cell alloactivation in GvHD. In the present study, the authors hypothesized that nifuroxazide, as the STAT3 inhibitor, treatment may attenuate the development of acute GvHD (aGvHD). The results demonstrated that nifuroxazide suppressed the development of aGvHD and significantly delayed aGvHD‑induced lethality...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143887/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-aplastic-anemia
#3
REVIEW
Scott A Peslak, Timothy Olson, Daria V Babushok
Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare, life-threatening bone marrow failure (BMF) disorder that affects patients of all ages and is caused by lymphocyte destruction of early hematopoietic cells. Diagnosis of AA requires a comprehensive approach with prompt evaluation for inherited and secondary causes of bone marrow aplasia, while providing aggressive supportive care. The choice of frontline therapy is determined by a number of factors including AA severity, age of the patient, donor availability, and access to optimal therapies...
November 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131155/treatment-intensity-and-symptom-burden-in-hospitalized-adolescent-and-young-adult-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-at-the-end-of-life
#4
J M Snaman, A C Talleur, J Lu, D R Levine, E C Kaye, A Sykes, Z Lu, B M Triplett, J N Baker
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) oncology patients experience many physical and psychological symptoms at the end of life (EOL); however, data on these experiences for AYA patients who have undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains sparse. We sought to investigate the characteristics of AYA patients aged 15-25 years who received allogeneic HCT and subsequently died while inpatient at our institution between the years 2008 and 2014. A standardized data extraction tool was used to collect information about patient demographics, treatment and symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131150/neurologic-complications-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-risk-factors-and-impact
#5
M R Dowling, S Li, B R Dey, S L McAfee, H R Hock, T R Spitzer, Y-B Chen, K K Ballen
Neurologic complications (NCs) may be a significant source of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We performed a retrospective study of 263 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic HCT for hematological malignancies to determine the incidence, risk factors and clinical impact of NCs in the first 5 years after HCT. We determined the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection, intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, metabolic encephalopathy, posterior reversal encephalopathy syndrome, seizure and peripheral neuropathy...
November 13, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128556/pro-140-monoclonal-antibody-to-ccr5-prevents-acute-xenogeneic-graft-versus-host-disease-in-nod-scid-il-2ry-null-mice
#6
Denis R Burger, Yvonne Parker, Kathryn Guinta, Daniel Lindner
Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD) is a prevalent and potentially lethal complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Humanized mouse models of xenogeneic-GvHD are important tools used to study the human immune response in vivo. Here we used NOD-scid IL-2Ry(null) mice (NSG) transplanted with human bone marrow stem cells to evaluate the role of immune cell engraftment in the production of acute GvHD. PRO 140, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the chemokine receptor, CCR5, was used to evaluate its influence on bone marrow cell engraftment and modulation of acute GvHD...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101827/differential-t-cell-subsets-and-cytokine-profile-between-steady-state-and-g-csf-primed-bone-marrow-and-its-association-with-graft-versus-host-disease
#7
Eucario León-Rodríguez, Monica M Rivera-Franco, Diana Gómez-Martín, Jorge Romo-Tena, Guillermo Juárez-Vega, Javier Merayo-Chalico, Jorge Alcocer-Varela
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). At our Institution, patients transplanted using G-CSF-primed bone marrow (G-BM), have a lower incidence of GVHD when compared to other sources. The objective of this study was to analyze and compare T cell subsets and cytokines in donor G-BM and steady-state BM (SS-BM). A prospective study was performed in 48 donor samples. Mononuclear cells were isolated by gradient density. T cell subsets and cytokine production in supernatants were analyzed by multiparametric flow cytometry...
November 1, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099746/biology-of-the-bkpyv-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Francois Helle, Etienne Brochot, Lynda Handala, Elodie Martin, Sandrine Castelain, Catherine Francois, Gilles Duverlie
The BK virus (BKPyV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family first isolated in 1971. BKPyV causes frequent infections during childhood and establishes persistent infections with minimal clinical implications within renal tubular cells and the urothelium. However, reactivation of BKPyV in immunocompromised individuals may cause serious complications. In particular, with the implementation of more potent immunosuppressive drugs in the last decade, BKPyV has become an emerging pathogen in kidney and bone marrow transplant recipients where it often causes associated nephropathy and haemorrhagic cystitis, respectively...
November 3, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099650/new-insights-into-graft-versus-host-disease-and-graft-rejection
#9
Eric Perkey, Ivan Maillard
Allogeneic transplantation of foreign organs or tissues has lifesaving potential, but can lead to serious complications. After solid organ transplantation, immune-mediated rejection mandates the use of prolonged global immunosuppression and limits the life span of transplanted allografts. After bone marrow transplantation, donor-derived immune cells can trigger life-threatening graft-versus-host disease. T cells are central mediators of alloimmune complications and the target of most existing therapeutic interventions...
November 3, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099537/use-of-peripherally-inserted-central-venous-catheters-piccs-in-children-receiving-autologous-or-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
Stefano Benvenuti, Rosanna Ceresoli, Giovanni Boroni, Filippo Parolini, Fulvio Porta, Daniele Alberti
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to present our experience with the use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in pediatric patients receiving autologous or allogenic blood stem-cell transplantation. The insertion of the device in older children does not require general anesthesia and does not require a surgical procedure. METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2017, 13 PICCs were inserted as a central venous device in 11 pediatric patients submitted to 14 autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, at the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit of the Children's Hospital of Brescia...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098319/-multiple-myeloma-what-has-been-confirmed-in-therapy
#11
REVIEW
M-A Baertsch, H Goldschmidt
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated B cells/plasma cells and is primarily located in the bone marrow. Symptomatic multiple myeloma typically presents with osteolyses, anemia, reduced renal function, and/or hypercalcemia. In the case of such MM-related end organ damage, urgent systemic treatment is indicated. In order to prevent end organ damage, current guidelines now recommend treatment initiation already when certain biomarkers are met. Current first-line treatment is based on proteasome inhibition and immunomodulation...
November 2, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058699/transbronchial-biopsy-in-the-management-of-pulmonary-complications-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#12
D N O'Dwyer, A S Duvall, M Xia, T C Hoffman, K S Bloye, C A Bulte, X Zhou, S Murray, B B Moore, G A Yanik
The utility of transbronchial biopsy in the management of pulmonary complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has shown variable results. Herein, we examine the largest case series of patients undergoing transbronchial biopsy following HSCT. We performed a retrospective analysis of 130 transbronchial biopsy cases performed in patients with pulmonary complications post HSCT. Logistic regression models were applied to examine diagnostic yield, odds of therapy change and complications...
October 23, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044226/bone-marrow-transplant-induced-alterations-in-notch-signaling-promote-pathologic-th17-responses-to-%C3%AE-herpesvirus-infection
#13
S J Gurczynski, X Zhou, M Flaherty, C A Wilke, B B Moore
Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a common, often fatal, complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) characterized by severe pneumonitis and interstitial fibrosis. Fully reconstituted syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) mice infected with murine γ-herpesvirus-68 develop interleukin-17 (IL-17)-driven pneumonitis and fibrosis, which mimics clinical manifestations of IPS. We found CD103+ and CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs) are selectively deficient for the Notch ligand, DLL4, following BMT and CD4+ T cells isolated from lungs and spleens of infected BMT mice display Notch signaling defects...
October 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021921/post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-ptld-single-institutional-experience-of-141-patients
#14
Rohit Bishnoi, Ravneet Bajwa, Aaron J Franke, William Paul Skelton, Yu Wang, Niraj M Patel, William Birdsall Slayton, Fei Zou, Nam H Dang
BACKGROUND: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a well-recognized but rare complication of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant. Due to rarity of this disease, retrospective studies from major transplant centers has been the main source to provide treatment guidelines, which are still in evolution. The sample size of this study is among one of the largest study on PTLD till date reported throughout the world. METHODS: This study was performed at University of Florida which is one of the largest transplant center in South East United States...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018441/very-early-onset-inflammatory-manifestations-of-x-linked-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#15
Roxane Labrosse, Jane Abou-Diab, Annaliesse Blincoe, Guilhem Cros, Thuy Mai Luu, Colette Deslandres, Martha Dirks, Laura Fazilleau, Philippe Ovetchkine, Pierre Teira, Françoise LeDeist, Isabel Fernandez, Fabien Touzot, Helene Decaluwe, Ugur Halac, Elie Haddad
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immune deficiency caused by mutations in genes coding for components of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, characterized by severe and recurrent bacterial and fungal infections, together with inflammatory complications. Dysregulation of inflammatory responses are often present in this disease and may lead to granulomatous lesions, most often affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) and urinary tracts. Treatment of inflammatory complications usually includes corticosteroids, whereas antimicrobial prophylaxis is used for infection prevention...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993886/thrombotic-microangiopathy-following-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#16
Eleanor G Seaby, Rodney D Gilbert
Thrombotic microangiopathy is a potentially lethal complication of haematopoietic stem cell (bone marrow) transplantation. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood, although endothelial damage appears to be central. Platelet activation, neutrophil extracellular traps and complement activation appear to play key roles. Diagnosis may be difficult and universally accepted diagnostic criteria are not available. Treatment remains controversial. In some cases, withdrawal of calcineurin inhibitors is adequate...
October 9, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988828/epigenetics-and-cardiovascular-regenerative-medicine-in-the-elderly
#17
REVIEW
Sarah Costantino, Giovanni G Camici, Shafeeq Ahmed Mohammed, Massimo Volpe, Thomas F Lüscher, Francesco Paneni
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a recognized age-dependent condition whose incidence is set to increase due to the gradual aging of the population. Moreover, ischemic cardiovascular diseases (i.e. stroke, myocardial infarction, critical limb ischemia) requiring blood vessel growth are associated with a worse outcome in elderly patients. Therefore, understanding the molecular cues regulating the vascular repair process is of paramount importance to prevent undesirable cardiovascular complications in this setting...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969530/successful-second-unrelated-donor-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-a-patient-with-dyskeratosis-congenital-after-first-graft-rejection
#18
Stefano Giardino, Maura Faraci, Edoardo Lanino, Giuseppe Morreale, Paola Terranova, Elena Palmisani, Carlo Dufour, Maurizio Miano
Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare congenital telomeropathy characterized by cutaneous and nail dystrophy, oral leukoplakia, and bone marrow failure. Pulmonary fibrosis and cancers are late manifestations. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant represents the only cure for those with bone marrow failure with this disease, but outcomes reported are overall poor, with organ toxicities, graft failure, and graft-versus-host disease as main issues. Although reduced intensity conditioning regimens seem to be related to better outcomes, a standard regimen for dyskeratosis congenita has never been defined...
September 30, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967899/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-associated-thrombotic-microangiopathy-current-paradigm-and-novel-therapies
#19
REVIEW
J Khosla, A C Yeh, T R Spitzer, B R Dey
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) remains a difficult complication to address due to its high mortality rate, lack of standard diagnostic criteria and limited therapeutic options. Underscoring this challenge is the complex pathophysiology involved and multiple contributing factors that converge on a final pathway involving widespread endothelial injury and complement activation. In addressing our current understanding of TA-TMA, we highlight the risk factors leading to endothelial damage and a pathophysiological cascade that ensues...
October 2, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956132/vegf-angpt1-angpt2-and-mmp-9-expression-in-the-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-and-its-impact-on-the-time-to-engraftment
#20
Mateusz Nowicki, Agnieszka Wierzbowska, Roman Małachowski, Tadeusz Robak, Olga Grzybowska-Izydorczyk, Agnieszka Pluta, Anna Szmigielska-Kapłon
As a site of complicated interactions among cytokines, bone marrow niche has been the subject of many scientific studies, mainly in the context of the proteins influencing damage or recovery of endothelium after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this study, we aimed at exploring mutual correlations of bone marrow niche cytokines involved in the homing and mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells, as well as in angiogenesis. The aim of our study was to evaluate levels of cytokines: VEGF, angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1), angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) during autologous HSCT and to examine their influence on hematological recovery...
September 27, 2017: Annals of Hematology
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