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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545155/rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-enteric-fever
#1
REVIEW
Lalith Wijedoru, Sue Mallett, Christopher M Parry
BACKGROUND: Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever...
May 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542223/measuring-changes-in-transmission-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-malaria-and-enteric-pathogens-from-quantitative-antibody-levels
#2
Benjamin F Arnold, Mark J van der Laan, Alan E Hubbard, Cathy Steel, Joseph Kubofcik, Katy L Hamlin, Delynn M Moss, Thomas B Nutman, Jeffrey W Priest, Patrick J Lammie
BACKGROUND: Serological antibody levels are a sensitive marker of pathogen exposure, and advances in multiplex assays have created enormous potential for large-scale, integrated infectious disease surveillance. Most methods to analyze antibody measurements reduce quantitative antibody levels to seropositive and seronegative groups, but this can be difficult for many pathogens and may provide lower resolution information than quantitative levels. Analysis methods have predominantly maintained a single disease focus, yet integrated surveillance platforms would benefit from methodologies that work across diverse pathogens included in multiplex assays...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529116/italian-consensus-guidelines-for-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infections-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Marco Sebastiani, Fabiola Atzeni, Laura Milazzo, Luca Quartuccio, Carlo Scirè, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Giovanni Lapadula, Orlando Armignacco, Marcello Tavio, Ignazio Olivieri, Pierluigi Meroni, Laura Bazzichi, Walter Grassi, Alessandro Mathieu, Claudio Mastroianni, Evangelista Sagnelli, Teresa Santantonio, Caterina Uberti Foppa, Massimo Puoti, Loredana Sarmati, Paolo Airò, Oscar Massimiliano Epis, Rossana Scrivo, Miriam Gargiulo, Agostino Riva, Andreina Manfredi, Giovanni Ciancio, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Gloria Taliani, Luca Meroni, Salvatore Sollima, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Massimo Galli
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B (HBV) infection, which is prevalent worldwide, is also frequently seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) and the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) endorsed a national consensus process to review the available evidence on HBV management in RA patients and to produce practical, hospital-wide recommendations. METHODS: The consensus panel consisted of infectious disease consultants, rheumatologists and epidemiologists and used the criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine to assess the quality of the evidence and the strength of their recommendations...
May 18, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516869/recommendations-for-infectious-disease-screening-in-migrants-to-western-europe-with-inflammatory-arthropathies-before-starting-biologic-agents-results-from-a-multidisciplinary-task-force-of-four-european-societies-sir-ser-simet-semtsi-facing-the-lar
#4
Filippo Bartalesi, Carlo Scirè, Ana Requena-Méndez, Miguel Angel Abad, Dora Buonfrate, Roberto Caporali, Fabrizio Conti, Federico Diaz-Gonzalez, Cruz Fernández-Espartero, Carmen Martinez-Fernandez, Marta Mascarello, Elena Generali, Giovanni Minisola, Aldo Morrone, Jose Muñoz, Patricia Richi, Gariffalia Sakellariou, Joaquin Salas Coronas, Michele Spinicci, Francesco Castelli, Alessandro Bartoloni, Zeno Bisoffi, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez, Santiago Muñoz-Fernandez, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory arthritis needs infectious disease screening before starting a biologic agent, however, few data are known about migrant patients, who represent a peculiar population which requires a multidisciplinary approach among international health specialists and should also be considered by health authorities. For this reason, the Italian and Spanish Societies of Rheumatology (SIR and SER) and Tropical Medicine (SIMET and SEMTSI) promoted a multidisciplinary task force in order to produce specific recommendations about screening and advices to be considered in migrant patients with inflammatory arthritis candidate to receive biological therapy, according to their geographical origin...
May 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513816/italian-guidelines-for-the-use-of-antiretroviral-agents-and-the-diagnostic-clinical-management-of-hiv-1-infected-persons-update-2016
#5
Andrea Antinori, Antonio Di Biagio, Simone Marcotullio, Massimo Andreoni, Antonio Chirianni, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Massimo Galli, Francesco Mazzotta, Cristina Mussini, Massimo Puoti, Adriano Lazzarin
The Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) of the Technical Health Committee, Ministry of Health (Sections L and M) of Italy have supported recommendations for the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons. This publication summarizes the latest updates to the 2016 version of the Italian Guidelines for the management of HIV-1 infected patients and the use of antiretroviral drugs. In particular, new recommendations were released concerning the following topics: estimate of the HIV continuum of care in Italy, optimal timing and preferred drug combinations for starting antiretroviral therapy, treatment optimization, and pre-exposure prophilaxis (PrEP)...
April 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513629/post-infectious-ibs-tropical-sprue-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-the-missing-link
#6
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal, Kok-Ann Gwee
Evidence is emerging that IBS, a hitherto enigmatic disorder thought to be predominantly related to psychological factors, has a microorganic basis in a subset of patients with the disease. Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS), commonly of the diarrhoea-predominant subtype (defined as new development of IBS following acute infectious diarrhoea), is one such condition known to occur in up to 10-30% individuals after acute gastroenteritis. However, following acute infectious gastroenteritis, patients can also develop post-infectious malabsorption syndrome (PI-MAS), popularly known as tropical sprue...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511559/migrating-microbes-what-pathogens-can-tell-us-about-population-movements-and-human-evolution
#7
Charlotte J Houldcroft, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Riaan F Rifkin, Simon J Underdown
BACKGROUND: The biology of human migration can be observed from the co-evolutionary relationship with infectious diseases. While many pathogens are brief, unpleasant visitors to human bodies, others have the ability to become life-long human passengers. The story of a pathogen's genetic code may, therefore, provide insight into the history of its human host. The evolution and distribution of disease in Africa is of particular interest, because of the deep history of human evolution in Africa, the presence of a variety of non-human primates, and tropical reservoirs of emerging infectious diseases...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502250/antiplasmodial-dihetarylthioethers-target-the-coenzyme-a-synthesis-pathway-in-plasmodium-falciparum-erythrocytic-stages
#8
Thomas Weidner, Leonardo Lucantoni, Abed Nasereddin, Lutz Preu, Peter G Jones, Ron Dzikowski, Vicky M Avery, Conrad Kunick
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a widespread infectious disease that threatens a large proportion of the population in tropical and subtropical areas. Given the emerging resistance against the current standard anti-malaria chemotherapeutics, the development of alternative drugs is urgently needed. New anti-malarials representing chemotypes unrelated to currently used drugs have an increased potential for displaying novel mechanisms of action and thus exhibit low risk of cross-resistance against established drugs...
May 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500804/a-large-outbreak-of-thiamine-deficiency-among-illegal-gold-miners-in-french-guiana
#9
Emilie Mosnier, Florence Niemetzky, Juliette Stroot, Vincent Pommier de Santi, Paul Brousse, Basma Guarmit, Denis Blanchet, Muriel Ville, Philippe Abboud, Felix Djossou, Mathieu Nacher
AbstractFrom September 2013 to July 2014, several gold miners working in the tropical forest consulted the Maripasoula Health Center in French Guiana for edema and findings consistent with right-sided cardiac failure. Of the 42 cases of beriberi that were diagnosed, one patient died. The laboratory and clinical investigation demonstrated vitamin B1 deficiency in most of the patients tested. Furthermore, 30 of 42 patients responded favorably to 500 mg of intravenous or intramuscular thiamine supplementation...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500421/seasonal-fluctuations-of-astrovirus-but-not-coronavirus-shedding-in-bats-inhabiting-human-modified-tropical-forests
#10
Anne Seltmann, Victor M Corman, Andrea Rasche, Christian Drosten, Gábor Á Czirják, Henry Bernard, Matthew J Struebig, Christian C Voigt
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are considered a major threat to global health. Most EIDs appear to result from increased contact between wildlife and humans, especially when humans encroach into formerly pristine habitats. Habitat deterioration may also negatively affect the physiology and health of wildlife species, which may eventually lead to a higher susceptibility to infectious agents and/or increased shedding of the pathogens causing EIDs. Bats are known to host viruses closely related to important EIDs...
May 12, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494818/is-there-echinococcosis-in-west-africa-a-refugee-from-niger-with-a-liver-cyst
#11
Andrea Angheben, Mara Mariconti, Monica Degani, Maria Gobbo, Loredana Palvarini, Federico Gobbi, Enrico Brunetti, Francesca Tamarozzi
BACKGROUND: Italy is presently facing an increase in immigration from sub-Saharan Africa through the Mediterranean Sea. Case reports of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) have been reported from most sub-Saharan countries. Therefore, an increase in the number of patients with CE coming from these areas in the Italian and European centers for infectious diseases is expected. Unfortunately, the epidemiology of CE in sub-Saharan countries is poorly known, which makes clinical suspicion and diagnosis of such infection difficult in patients coming from these areas...
May 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493920/haemolytic-activity-of-soil-from-areas-of-varying-podoconiosis-endemicity-in-ethiopia
#12
Jennifer S Le Blond, Peter J Baxter, Dhimiter Bello, Jennifer Raftis, Yordanos B Molla, Javier Cuadros, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis, non-filarial elephantiasis, is a non-infectious disease found in tropical regions such as Ethiopia, localized in highland areas with volcanic soils cultivated by barefoot subsistence farmers. It is thought that soil particles can pass through the soles of the feet and taken up by the lymphatic system, leading to the characteristic chronic oedema of the lower legs that becomes disfiguring and disabling over time. METHODS: The close association of the disease with volcanic soils led us to investigate the characteristics of soil samples in an endemic area in Ethiopia to identify the potential causal constituents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490252/visceral-leishamiosis-in-immunocompromised-host-an-update-and-literature-review
#13
Pasquale Pagliano, Silvano Esposito
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic infectious disease endemic in tropical and sub-tropical areas including the Mediterranean basin, caused by a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Immunocompromised patients, in particular HIV positive, are considered at risk of VL. They report atypical signs and poor response to treatment due to impairment of T-helper and regulatory cells activity. Laboratory diagnosis is based on microscopy on bone marrow or spleen aspirates...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481900/yaws-resurgence-in-bankim-cameroon-the-relative-effectiveness-of-different-means-of-detection-in-rural-communities
#14
Alphonse Um Boock, Paschal Kum Awah, Ferdinand Mou, Mark Nichter
BACKGROUND: Yaws is an infectious, debilitating and disfiguring disease of poverty that mainly affects children in rural communities in tropical areas. In Cameroon, mass-treatment campaigns carried out in the 1950s reduced yaws to such low levels that it was presumed the disease was eradicated. In 2010, an epidemiological study in Bankim Health District detected 29 cases of yaws. Five different means of detecting yaws in clinical and community settings were initiated in Bankim over the following five years...
May 8, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481286/infectious-diseases-and-tropical-cyclones-in-southeast-china
#15
Jietao Zheng, Weixiao Han, Baofa Jiang, Wei Ma, Ying Zhang
Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone...
May 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473933/melioidosis-with-portal-vein-thrombosis
#16
Thanyaporn Direksunthorn
Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a common infectious disease in tropical regions. The author reports a case of melioidosis with a rare manifestation of portal vein thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein. Melioidosis should be considered a differential diagnosis in patients with underlying risk factors who present with multiple liver abscesses; moreover, portal vein thrombosis can be a potential complication. Computed tomography is the modality of choice to demonstrate venous thrombosis in various organs...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472981/infectious-diseases-of-poverty-the-first-five-years
#17
EDITORIAL
Wei Wang, Jin Chen, Hui-Feng Sheng, Na-Na Wang, Pin Yang, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Robert Bergquist
Although the focus in the area of health research may be shifting from infectious to non-communicable diseases, the infectious diseases of poverty remain a major burden of disease of global health concern. A global platform to communicate and share the research on these diseases is needed to facilitate the translation of knowledge into effective approaches and tools for their elimination. Based on the "One health, One world" mission, a new, open-access journal, Infectious Diseases of Poverty (IDP), was launched by BioMed Central in partnership with the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) on October 25, 2012...
May 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472570/scabies-a-clinical-update
#18
Myra Hardy, Daniel Engelman, Andrew Steer
BACKGROUND: Scabies is a common, yet neglected, skin disease. Scabies occurs across Australia, but most frequently in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in tropical regions, including in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In temperate settings, the disease clusters in institutional care facilities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to provide updates on the clinical diagnosis and treatment approaches for scabies in Australia...
2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446339/progress-in-the-optimization-of-4-1h-quinolone-derivatives-as-antimalarials-targeting-the-erythrocytic-the-exoerythrocytic-and-the-transmitting-stages-of-the-malaria-parasite
#19
Fabian Brockmeyer, Roman Manetsch
Malaria is one of the leading infectious diseases occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. Although available antimalarial tools have reduced the number of fatalities, there is still an urgent need for the development of new and more efficacious treatments to cure and eradicate malaria especially due to emerging resistance to all antimalarial drugs. Research was initiated to revisit antimalarial compounds which were deemed unsuitable as a result of poor understanding of physicochemical properties and the optimization thereof...
April 26, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438919/ecosystem-change-and-human-health-implementation-economics-and-policy
#20
REVIEW
S K Pattanayak, R A Kramer, J R Vincent
Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health, EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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