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Sex evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522360/sex-with-no-regrets-how-sexual-reproduction-uses-a-no-regret-learning-algorithm-for-evolutionary-advantage
#1
Omer Edhan, Ziv Hellman, Dana Sherill-Rofe
The question of 'why sex' has long been a puzzle. The randomness of recombination, which potentially produces low fitness progeny, contradicts notions of fitness landscape hill climbing. We use the concept of evolution as an algorithm for learning unpredictable environments to provide a possible answer. While sex and asex both implement similar machine learning no-regret algorithms in the context of random samples that are small relative to a vast genotype space, the algorithm of sex constitutes a more efficient goal-directed walk through this space...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518074/eliciting-and-analyzing-male-mouse-ultrasonic-vocalization-usv-songs
#2
Jonathan Chabout, Joshua Jones-Macopson, Erich D Jarvis
Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in a variety of social contexts throughout development and adulthood. These USVs are used for mother-pup retrieval(1), juvenile interactions(2), opposite and same sex interactions(3)(,)(4)(,)(5), and territorial interactions(6). For decades, the USVs have been used by investigators as proxies to study neuropsychiatric and developmental or behavioral disorders(7)(,)(8)(,)(9), and more recently to understand mechanisms and evolution of vocal communication among vertebrates(10)...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515895/disruptive-natural-selection-predicts-divergence-between-the-sexes-during-adaptive-radiation
#3
Stephen P De Lisle, Locke Rowe
Evolution of sexual dimorphism in ecologically relevant traits, for example, via resource competition between the sexes, is traditionally envisioned to stall the progress of adaptive radiation. An alternative view is that evolution of ecological sexual dimorphism could in fact play an important positive role by facilitating sex-specific adaptation. How competition-driven disruptive selection, ecological sexual dimorphism, and speciation interact during real adaptive radiations is thus a critical and open empirical question...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514638/the-evolution-of-cooperation-interacting-phenotypes-among-social-partners
#4
Mat Edenbrow, Bronwyn H Bleakley, Safi K Darden, Charles R Tyler, Indar W Ramnarine, Darren P Croft
Models of cooperation among nonkin suggest that social assortment is important for the evolution of cooperation. Theory predicts that interacting phenotypes, whereby an individual's behavior depends on the behavior of its social partners, can drive such social assortment. We measured repeated indirect genetic effects (IGEs) during cooperative predator inspection in eight populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that vary in their evolutionary history of predation. Four broad patterns emerged that were dependent on river, predation history, and sex: (i) current partner behavior had the largest effect on focal behavior, with fish from low-predation habitats responding more to their social partners than fish from high-predation habitats; (ii) different focal/partner behavior combinations can generate cooperation; (iii) some high-predation fish exhibited carryover effects across social partners; and (iv) high-predation fish were more risk averse...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510293/a-test-for-y-linked-additive-and-epistatic-effects-on-surviving-bacterial-infections-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Ian C Kutch, Kenneth M Fedorka
Y and W chromosomes offer a theoretically powerful way for sexual dimorphism to evolve. Consistent with this possibility, Drosophila melanogaster Y-chromosomes can influence gene regulation throughout the genome; particularly immune-related genes. In order for Y-linked regulatory variation (YRV) to contribute to adaptive evolution it must be comprised of additive genetic variance, such that variable Ys induce consistent phenotypic effects within the local gene pool. We assessed the potential for Y-chromosomes to adaptively shape gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial defense by introgressing Ys across multiple genetic haplotypes from the same population...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509569/hiv-1-crf07_bc-with-a-seven-amino-acid-deletion-in-the-gag-p6-region-dominates-in-hiv-1-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#6
Yue Wu, Haiying Wang, Xuqi Ren, Zhengwei Wan, Guifang Hu, Shixing Tang
We examined sequence variation in the HIV-1 gag p6 region from 27 individuals infected with HIV-1 CRF07_BC. An additional 269 gag p6 sequences of CRF07_BC from the Los Alamos National Laboratory database were also analyzed. A unique deletion of seven amino acid (aa) (p6Δ7) (aa 30-36, PIDKELY, in the HXB2 genome) was observed to exist exclusively in CRF07_BC. Indeed, 54.1% (160/296) of the CRF07_BC sequences contained the p6Δ7 mutation. The prevalence of the p6Δ7 mutation was 37.2% (29/78) and 92.3% (48/52) in CRF07_BC-infected intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men (MSM), respectively...
May 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506988/dmrt1-induces-the-male-pathway-in-a-turtle-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#7
Chutian Ge, Jian Ye, Haiyan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Wei Sun, Yapeng Sang, Blanche Capel, Guoying Qian
The molecular mechanism underlying temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has been a long-standing mystery; in particular, the thermo-sensitive genetic triggers for gonadal sex differentiation are largely unknown. Here, we characterized a conserved DM domain gene, Dmrt1, in the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta (T. scripta), which exhibits TSD. We found that Dmrt1 has a temperature-dependent, sexually dimorphic expression pattern, preceding gonadal sex differentiation, and is capable of responding rapidly to temperature shifts and aromatase inhibitor treatment...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506208/a-strategy-to-apply-quantitative-epistasis-analysis-on-developmental-traits
#8
Marta K Labocha, Wang Yuan, Boanerges Aleman-Meza, Weiwei Zhong
BACKGROUND: Genetic interactions are keys to understand complex traits and evolution. Epistasis analysis is an effective method to map genetic interactions. Large-scale quantitative epistasis analysis has been well established for single cells. However, there is a substantial lack of such studies in multicellular organisms and their complex phenotypes such as development. Here we present a method to extend quantitative epistasis analysis to developmental traits. METHODS: In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we applied RNA interference on mutants to inactivate two genes, used an imaging system to quantitatively measure phenotypes, and developed a set of statistical methods to extract genetic interactions from phenotypic measurement...
May 15, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505375/between-a-pod-and-a-hard-test-the-deep-evolution-of-amoebae
#9
Seungho Kang, Alexander K Tice, Frederick W Spiegel, Jeffrey D Silberman, Tomáš Pánek, Ivan Cepicka, Martin Kostka, Anush Kosakyan, Daniel M Alcântara, Andrew J Roger, Lora L Shadwick, Alexey Smirnov, Alexander Kudryavstev, Daniel J G Lahr, Matthew W Brown
Amoebozoa is the eukaryotic supergroup sister to Obazoa, the lineage that contains the animals and Fungi, as well as their protistan relatives, and the breviate and apusomonad flagellates. Amoebozoa is extraordinarily diverse, encompassing important model organisms and significant pathogens. Although amoebozoans are integral to global nutrient cycles and present in nearly all environments, they remain vastly understudied. We present a robust phylogeny of Amoebozoa based on broad representative set of taxa in a phylogenomic framework (325 genes)...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505307/sexual-dimorphism-and-retinal-mosaic-diversification-following-the-evolution-of-a-violet-receptor-in-butterflies
#10
Kyle J McCulloch, Furong Yuan, Ying Zhen, Matthew L Aardema, Gilbert Smith, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Peter Andolfatto, Adriana D Briscoe
Numerous animal lineages have expanded and diversified the opsin-based photoreceptors in their eyes underlying color vision behavior. However, the selective pressures giving rise to new photoreceptors and their spectral tuning remain mostly obscure. Previously, we identified a violet receptor (UV2) that is the result of a UV opsin gene duplication specific to Heliconius butterflies. At the same time the violet receptor evolved, Heliconius evolved UV-yellow coloration on their wings, due to the pigment 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK) and the nanostructure architecture of the scale cells...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504506/-a-very-rare-cause-of-peripheral-precocious-puberty-in-a-girl-ovarian-sex-cord-tumor-with-annular-tubules
#11
Julia Sánchez Zahonero, José A Ruiz Domínguez, Sandra Sánchez Zahonero, M José López García
Sex cord tumor with annular tubules is an extremely uncommon gonadal stromal neoplasm. It represents 0.05-0.6% of all ovarian tumors, according to series. An unusual case is presented in a 6-year-old girl, detected as a result of an isosexual peripheral precocious puberty. The highlight of this case is that no mass attached to the ovary was found, but only a gonadal asymmetry without radiological signs of malignancy. After confirming the presence of tumoral cells by intraoperative biopsy, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with ipsilateral para-aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502657/rpl10l-is-required-for-male-meiotic-division-by-compensating-for-rpl10-during-meiotic-sex-chromosome-inactivation-in-mice
#12
Long Jiang, Tao Li, Xingxia Zhang, Beibei Zhang, Changping Yu, Yang Li, Suixing Fan, Xiaohua Jiang, Teka Khan, Qiaomei Hao, Peng Xu, Daita Nadano, Mahmoud Huleihel, Eitan Lunenfeld, P Jeremy Wang, Yuanwei Zhang, Qinghua Shi
The mammalian sex chromosomes have undergone profound changes during their evolution from an ancestral pair of autosomes [1-4]. Specifically, the X chromosome has acquired a paradoxical sex-biased function by redistributing gene contents [5, 6] and has generated a disproportionately high number of retrogenes that are located on autosomes and exhibit male-biased expression patterns [6]. Several selection-based models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including a model of sexual antagonism driving X inactivation (SAXI) [6-8] and a compensatory mechanism based on meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) [6, 8-11]...
May 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502109/reproductive-performance-of-resident-and-migrant-males-females-and-pairs-in-a-partially-migratory-bird
#13
Hannah Grist, Francis Daunt, Sarah Wanless, Sarah J Burthe, Mark A Newell, Mike P Harris, Jane M Reid
1.Quantifying among-individual variation in life-history strategies, and associated variation in reproductive performance and resulting demographic structure, is key to understanding and predicting population dynamics and life-history evolution. Partial migration, where populations comprise a mixture of resident and seasonally-migrant individuals, constitutes a dimension of life-history variation that could be associated with substantial variation in reproductive performance. However, such variation has rarely been quantified due to the challenge of measuring reproduction and migration across a sufficient number of seasonally-mobile males and females...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501637/serial-endosymbiosis-or-singular-event-at-the-origin-of-eukaryotes
#14
Nick Lane
'On the Origin of Mitosing Cells' heralded a new way of seeing cellular evolution, with symbiosis at its heart. Lynn Margulis (then Sagan) marshalled an impressive array of evidence for endosymbiosis, from cell biology to atmospheric chemistry and Earth history. Despite her emphasis on symbiosis, she saw plenty of evidence for gradualism in eukaryotic evolution, with multiple origins of mitosis and sex, repeated acquisitions of plastids, and putative evolutionary intermediates throughout the microbial world...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500332/sexual-homomorphism-in-dioecious-trees-extensive-tests-fail-to-detect-sexual-dimorphism-in-populus-%C3%A2
#15
Athena D McKown, Jaroslav Klápště, Robert D Guy, Raju Y Soolanayakanahally, Jonathan La Mantia, Ilga Porth, Oleksandr Skyba, Faride Unda, Carl J Douglas, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Richard C Hamelin, Shawn D Mansfield, Quentin C B Cronk
The evolution of sexual dimorphism and expansion of sex chromosomes are both driven through sexual conflict, arising from differing fitness optima between males and females. Here, we pair work in poplar (Populus) describing one of the smallest sex-determining regions known thus far in complex eukaryotes (~100 kbp) with comprehensive tests for sexual dimorphism using >1300 individuals from two Populus species and assessing 96 non-reproductive functional traits. Against expectation, we found sexual homomorphism (no non-reproductive trait differences between the sexes), suggesting that gender is functionally neutral with respect to non-reproductive features that affect plant survival and fitness...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492770/descriptive-study-on-the-evolution-of-hospitalization-costs-for-ambulatory-care-sensitive-conditions-in-brazil-2000-2013
#16
Dayane Kelle de Souza, Sérgio Viana Peixoto
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the proportions of costs of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) in relation to total hospitalization costs funded by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) in Brazil, in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2013, according to sex, age and group of causes. METHODS: this is a descriptive study, with data from SUS Hospital Information System (SIH/SUS); the proportion of hospitalization costs for ACSC was estimated in relation to total hospitalization costs...
April 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486669/federal-and-state-responses-to-domestic-minor-sex-trafficking-the-evolution-of-policy
#17
Jini L Roby, Melanie Vincent
Domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) is a rapidly growing problem in the United States, yet legislative efforts to address victim needs have begun only recently. DMST is an issue that spans several areas of social work practice, as emerging research shows that most children and youths exploited in commercial sex have typically experienced prior abuse, neglect, or other forms of trauma. Many have been involved with the child welfare and juvenile justice systems and are often lured by promises of love, security, protection, and belonging...
May 9, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484275/evolution-of-sex-dependent-mtdna-transmission-in-freshwater-mussels-bivalvia-unionida
#18
Davide Guerra, Federico Plazzi, Donald T Stewart, Arthur E Bogan, Walter R Hoeh, Sophie Breton
Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) describes a mode of mtDNA transmission widespread in gonochoric freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Palaeoheterodonta: Unionida). In this system, both female- and male-transmitted mtDNAs, named F and M respectively, coexist in the same species. In unionids, DUI is strictly correlated to gonochorism and to the presence of the atypical open reading frames (ORFans) F-orf and M-orf, respectively inside F and M mtDNAs, which are hypothesized to participate in sex determination. However, DUI is not found in all three Unionida superfamilies (confirmed in Hyrioidea and Unionoidea but not in Etherioidea), raising the question of its origin in these bivalves...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480017/the-evolution-of-different-maternal-investment-strategies-in-two-closely-related-desert-vertebrates
#19
Joshua R Ennen, Jeffrey E Lovich, Roy C Averill-Murray, Charles B Yackulic, Mickey Agha, Caleb Loughran, Laura Tennant, Barry Sinervo
We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475760/evaluating-patients-walking-capacity-during-hospitalization-for-lung-cancer-resection%C3%A2
#20
Pedro A Esteban, Nieves Hernández, Nuria M Novoa, Gonzalo Varela
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to describe non-supervised daily physical activity in patients during the period immediately following anatomical lung resection. METHODS: The study was an observational study on 50 consecutive patients (33 men) admitted for anatomical lung resection over a 4-month period. All cases were approached using a minimally invasive technique. Patients were instructed by nursing and physiotherapy staff and asked to wear a portable pedometer (Omron HJ-720 T-E2) from admission until hospital discharge, excluding the day of the operation and the first hours in the recovery room...
May 4, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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