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Sex evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339483/temporal-evolution-of-vasospasm-and-clinical-outcome-after-intra-arterial-vasodilator-therapy-in-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#1
Laleh Daftari Besheli, Can Ozan Tan, Donnie L Bell, Joshua A Hirsch, Rajiv Gupta
Intra-arterial (IA) vasodilator therapy is one of the recommended treatments to minimize the impact of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm refractory to standard management. However, its usefulness and efficacy is not well established. We evaluated the effect IA vasodilator therapy on middle cerebral artery blood flow and on discharge outcome. We reviewed records for 115 adults admitted to Neurointensive Care Unit to test whether there was a difference in clinical outcome (discharge mRS) in those who received IA infusions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338816/conserved-patterns-of-sex-chromosome-dosage-compensation-in-the-lepidoptera-wz-zz-insights-from-a-moth-neo-z-chromosome
#2
Liuqi Gu, James R Walters, Douglas C Knipple
Where previously described, patterns of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) have several unusual characteristics. Other female-heterogametic (ZW/ZZ) species exhibit female Z-linked expression that is reduced compared to autosomal expression and male Z expression. In the Lepidoptera, however, Z expression typically appears balanced between sexes but overall reduced relative to autosomal expression, i.e. Z ≈ ZZ < AA. This pattern is not easily reconciled with theoretical expectations for the evolution of sex chromosome dosage compensation...
March 2, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338804/duplications-and-positive-selection-drive-the-evolution-of-parasitism-associated-gene-families-in-the-nematode-strongyloides-papillosus
#3
Praveen Baskaran, Tegegn G Jaleta, Adrian Streit, Christian Rödelsperger
Gene duplication is one major mechanism playing a role in the evolution of phenotypic complexity and in the generation of novel traits. By comparing parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes, a recent study found that the evolution of parasitism in Strongyloididae is associated with a large expansion in the Astacin and CAP gene families.To gain novel insights into the developmental processes in the sheep parasite Strongyloides papillosus, we sequenced transcriptomes of different developmental stages and sexes. Overall, we found that the majority of genes are developmentally regulated and have one-to-one orthologs in the diverged S...
March 2, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338722/dissecting-the-transcriptional-patterns-of-social-dominance-across-teleosts
#4
Suzy C P Renn, Cynthia F O'Rourke, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Eleanor J Fraser, Hans A Hofmann
In many species, under varying ecological conditions, social interactions among individuals result in the formation of dominance hierarchies. Despite general similarities, there are robust differences among dominance hierarchies across species, populations, environments, life stages, sexes, and individuals. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying the variation is an important step toward understanding the evolution of social behavior. However, physiological changes associated with dominance, such as gonadal maturation and somatic growth, often complicate efforts to identify the specific underlying mechanisms...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332467/fungal-sex-the-mucoromycota
#5
Soo Chan Lee, Alexander Idnurm
Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332253/sex-and-ancestry-determine-the-free-running-circadian-period
#6
Charmane I Eastman, Victoria A Tomaka, Stephanie J Crowley
The endogenous, free-running circadian period (τ) determines the phase relationship that an organism assumes when entrained to the 24-h day. We found a shorter circadian period in African Americans compared to non-Hispanic European Americans (24.07 versus 24.33 h). We speculate that a short circadian period, closer to 24 h, was advantageous to humans living around the equator, but when humans migrated North out of Africa, where the photoperiod changes with seasons, natural selection favoured people with longer circadian periods...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332090/disparities-in-the-clinical-evolution-of-anal-neoplasia-in-an-hiv-infected-cohort
#7
Edward R Cachay, Wollelaw Agmas, Wm Christopher Mathews
BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis suggested that anal intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive anal cancer are more prevalent among black men having sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected adult patients under care between 2001 and 2012. Disparities in clinical evolution of anal intraepithelial neoplasia to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and invasive anal cancer were evaluated in a three-state Markov model adjusted for cytology misclassification...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330914/evolution-of-male-and-female-choice-in-polyandrous-systems
#8
Mikael Puurtinen, Lutz Fromhage
We study the evolution of male and female mating strategies and mate choice for female fecundity and male fertilization ability in a system where both sexes can mate with multiple partners, and where there is variation in individual quality (i.e. in the availability of resources individuals can allocate to matings, mate choice and production of gametes). We find that when the cost of mating differs between sexes, the sex with higher cost of mating is reluctant to accept matings and is often also choosy, while the other sex accepts all matings...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329013/the-origin-of-b-chromosomes-in-yellow-necked-mice-apodemus-flavicollis-break-rules-but-keep-playing-the-game
#9
M Rajičić, S A Romanenko, T V Karamysheva, J Blagojević, T Adnađević, I Budinski, A S Bogdanov, V A Trifonov, N B Rubtsov, M Vujošević
B chromosomes (Bs) are known for more than hundred years but their origin, structure and pattern of evolution are not well understood. In the past few years new methodological approaches, involving isolation of Bs followed by whole DNA amplification, DNA probe generation, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) or the B chromosome DNA sequencing, has allowed detailed analysis of their origin and molecular structure in different species. In this study we explored the origin of Bs in the yellow-necked wood mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, using generation of microdissected DNA probes followed by FISH on metaphase chromosomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322435/genomic-changes-following-the-reversal-of-a-y-chromosome-to-an-autosome-in-drosophila-pseudoobscura
#10
Ching-Ho Chang, Amanda M Larracuente
Robertsonian translocations resulting in fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes shape karyotype evolution by creating new sex chromosomes from autosomes. These translocations can also reverse sex chromosomes back into autosomes, which is especially intriguing given the dramatic differences between autosomes and sex chromosomes. To study the genomic events following a Y chromosome reversal, we investigated an autosome-Y translocation in Drosophila pseudoobscura. The ancestral Y chromosome fused to a small autosome (the dot chromosome) approximately 10-15 Mya...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319193/stability-and-predictive-value-of-anti-jcv-antibody-index-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-6-year-longitudinal-study
#11
Harald Hegen, Michael Auer, Gabriel Bsteh, Franziska Di Pauli, Tatiana Plavina, Janette Walde, Florian Deisenhammer, Thomas Berger
BACKGROUND: Risk of natalizumab-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is associated with the presence of anti-JC-virus (JCV) antibodies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longitudinal evolution of anti-JCV antibody index and to determine the predictive value of baseline anti-JCV antibody index for long-term stability of anti-JCV antibody status. METHODS: MS patients from the MS centre of Medical University of Innsbruck, who had serum sampling for a time period of 4-6 years at intervals of 6±3 months, were included in this retrospective, longitudinal study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315859/heteromorphism-of-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-two-anole-species-squamata-dactyloidae-revealed-by-synaptonemal-complex-analysis
#12
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Iguanians (Pleurodonta) are one of the reptile lineages that, like birds and mammals, have sex chromosomes of ancient origin. In most iguanians these are microchromosomes, making a distinction between the X and Y as well as between homeologous sex chromosomes in other species difficult. Meiotic chromosome analysis may be used to elucidate their differentiation, because meiotic prophase chromosomes are longer and less condensed than metaphase chromosomes, and the homologues are paired with each other, revealing minor heteromorphisms...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304363/knee-viscosupplementation-cost-effectiveness-analysis-between-stabilized-hyaluronic-acid-in-a-single-injection-versus-five-injections-of-standard-hyaluronic-acid
#13
Francisco J Estades-Rubio, Alvaro Reyes-Martín, Victor Morales-Marcos, Mercedes García-Piriz, Juan J García-Vera, Macarena Perán, Juan A Marchal, Elvira Montañez-Heredia
Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade II and III) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303348/y-chromosome-palindromes-and-gene-conversion
#14
REVIEW
Beniamino Trombetta, Fulvio Cruciani
The presence of large and near-identical inverted repeat sequences (called palindromes) is a common feature of the constitutively haploid sex chromosomes of different species. Despite the fact palindromes originated in a non-recombining context, they have evolved a strong recombinational activity in the form of abundant arm-to-arm gene conversion. Their independent appearance in different species suggests they can have a profound biological significance that has yet to be fully clarified. It has been theorized that natural selection may have favored palindromic organization of male-specific genes and that the establishment of intra-palindrome gene conversion has strong adaptive significance...
March 16, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303175/responses-of-holocyclic-and-anholocyclic-rhopalosiphum-padi-populations-to-low-temperature-and-short-photoperiod-induction
#15
Xiong Peng, Xianfeng Qiao, Maohua Chen
The different life cycles of aphid species make these organisms good models for studying the short-term consequences of sex. The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi has a wide geographic distribution and correspondingly different life cycles. In this study, the life cycles of R. padi collected from six different regions in China were characterized experimentally by comparing the responses of holocyclic and anholocyclic populations to low-temperature and short-photoperiod induction. Clones collected from Chuzhou, Taian, and Taigu consistently reproduced via obligate parthenogenesis, whereas clones from Hami and Baicheng were holocyclic in their response, and those from Lanzhou were both holocyclic and anholocyclic...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302529/gene-expression-modulation-of-abc-transporter-genes-in-response-to-permethrin-in-adults-of-the-mosquito-malaria-vector-anopheles-stephensi
#16
Valentina Mastrantonio, Marco Ferrari, Sara Epis, Agata Negri, Giulia Scuccimarra, Matteo Montagna, Guido Favia, Daniele Porretta, Sandra Urbanelli, Claudio Bandi
Living organisms have evolved an array of genes coding for detoxifying enzymes and efflux protein pumps, to cope with endogenous and xenobiotic toxic compounds. The study of the genes activated during toxic exposure is relevant to the area of arthropod vector control, since these genes are one of the targets upon which natural selection acts for the evolution of insecticide resistance. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate to insecticide detoxification acting as efflux pumps, that reduce the intracellular concentration of toxic compounds, or of their metabolic derivatives...
March 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300613/identification-and-characterization-of-a-masculinizer-masc-gene-involved-in-sex-differentiation-in-artemia
#17
Dong-Rui Li, Hui-Li Ye, Jin-Shu Yang, Fan Yang, Mo-Ran Wang, Stephanie De Vos, Marnik Vuylsteke, Patrick Sorgeloos, Gilbert Van Stappen, Peter Bossier, Wei-Jun Yang
The sex of relatively primitive animals such as invertebrates is mostly determined by environmental factors and chromosome ploidy. Heteromorphic chromosomes may also play an important role, as in the ZW system in lepidopterans. However, the mechanisms of these various sex determination systems are still largely undefined. In the present study, a Masculinizer gene (Ar-Masc) was identified in the crustacean Artemia franciscana Kellogg 1906. Sequence analysis revealed that the 1140-bp full-length open reading frame of Ar-Masc encodes a 380-aa protein containing two CCCH-type zinc finger domains having a high degree of shared identities with the MASC protein characterized in the silkworm Bombyx mori, which has been determined to participate in the production of male-specific splice variants...
March 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298345/the-influence-of-slavemaking-lifestyle-caste-and-sex-on-chemical-profiles-in-temnothorax-ants-insights-into-the-evolution-of-cuticular-hydrocarbons
#18
Isabelle Kleeberg, Florian Menzel, Susanne Foitzik
Chemical communication is central for the formation and maintenance of insect societies. Generally, social insects only allow nest-mates into their colony, which are recognized by their cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Social parasites, which exploit insect societies, are selected to circumvent host recognition. Here, we studied whether chemical strategies to reduce recognition evolved convergently in slavemaking ants, and whether they extend to workers, queens and males alike. We studied CHCs of three social parasites and their related hosts to investigate whether the parasitic lifestyle selects for specific chemical traits that reduce host recognition...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296969/the-traits-of-the-great-calls-in-the-juvenile-and-adolescent-gibbon-males-nomascus-gabriellae
#19
Michal Hradec, Pavel Linhart, Luděk Bartoš, Petra Bolechová
Knowledge about vocal ontogeny and vocal plasticity during ontogeny in primate species is central to understanding the evolution of human speech. Vocalizations in gibbons (Hominoidea) are very interesting and contain complex species- and sex-specific patterns. However, ontogeny of gibbon songs is little studied. Here, we document regular production and ontogenetic changes of female-specific "great call" in 4 immature (2 juvenile-c.a. 3 years old; and 2 adolescent-c.a. 5 years old) males of southern yellow-cheeked gibbon (N...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296881/transcriptomic-responses-to-environmental-temperature-by-turtles-with-temperature-dependent-and-genotypic-sex-determination-assessed-by-rnaseq-inform-the-genetic-architecture-of-embryonic-gonadal-development
#20
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Jennifer Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela
Vertebrate sexual fate is decided primarily by the individual's genotype (GSD), by the environmental temperature during development (TSD), or both. Turtles exhibit TSD and GSD, making them ideal to study the evolution of sex determination. Here we analyze temperature-specific gonadal transcriptomes (RNA-sequencing validated by qPCR) of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta TSD) before and during the thermosensitive period, and at equivalent stages in soft-shell turtles (Apalone spinifera-GSD), to test whether TSD's and GSD's transcriptional circuitry is identical but deployed differently between mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
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