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Sex evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440969/evolution-of-cancer-registration-combining-online-reporting-with-follow-up-in-the-community-practices-in-guangzhou-china
#1
Huazhang Liu, Guozhen Lin, Ke Li, Haiyuan Ding, Huan Xu, Yan Li, Hang Dong, Shaofang Song
Background: An efficient registration system with accurate and timely information on cancer incidence and mortality is key to development of policies to prevent and control cancer. A traditional registration system usually needs 3-4 years to collect data and publish a cancer report. However, researchers, policymakers and healthcare professionals need to know the latest cancer registration data quickly. Methods: A computer system has been operating with cases reported online by hospitals and followed up in communities at the Cancer Registry of Guangzhou (CRG) since 2008...
May 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439127/diversity-and-evolution-of-sex-determination-systems-in-terrestrial-isopods
#2
Thomas Becking, Isabelle Giraud, Maryline Raimond, Bouziane Moumen, Christopher Chandler, Richard Cordaux, Clément Gilbert
Sex determination systems are highly variable in many taxa, sometimes even between closely related species. Yet the number and direction of transitions between these systems have seldom been characterized, and the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we generated transcriptomes for 19 species of terrestrial isopod crustaceans, many of which are infected by Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. Using 88 single-copy orthologous genes, we reconstructed a fully resolved and dated phylogeny of terrestrial isopods...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437173/the-karyotype-of-microsternarchus-aff-bilineatus-a-first-case-of-y-chromosome-degeneration-in-gymnotiformes
#3
Jéssica Almeida Batista, Adauto Lima Cardoso, Susana Suely Rodrigues Milhomem Paixão, Jonathan Stuart Ready, Julio Cesar Pieczarka, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi
Various species and lineages that until recently were identified as Microsternarchus bilineatus (Hypopomidae, Gymnotiformes) have a widespread distribution in the Amazon and Orinoco river basins and across the Guiana shield. Recent molecular studies show five distinct lineages for Microsternarchus from different localities. These results suggest that this previously monotypic genus actually consists of more than one species. Here, we describe the karyotype of M. aff. bilineatus from the Cururutuia River (Bragança, Pará, Brazil)...
March 6, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429538/finding-a-partner-in-the-ocean-molecular-and-evolutionary-bases-of-the-response-to-sexual-cues-in-a-planktonic-diatom
#4
Swaraj Basu, Shrikant Patil, Daniel Mapleson, Monia Teresa Russo, Laura Vitale, Cristina Fevola, Florian Maumus, Raffaella Casotti, Thomas Mock, Mario Caccamo, Marina Montresor, Remo Sanges, Maria Immacolata Ferrante
Microalgae play a major role as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Cell signalling regulates their interactions with the environment and other organisms, yet this process in phytoplankton is poorly defined. Using the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, we investigated the cell response to cues released during sexual reproduction, an event that demands strong regulatory mechanisms and impacts on population dynamics. We sequenced the genome of P. multistriata and performed phylogenomic and transcriptomic analyses, which allowed the definition of gene gains and losses, horizontal gene transfers, conservation and evolutionary rate of sex-related genes...
April 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425174/costs-and-benefits-of-sub-lethal-drosophila-c-virus-infection
#5
Vanika Gupta, Charlotte Stewart, Samuel S C Rund, Katy Monteith, Pedro F Vale
Viruses are major evolutionary drivers of insect immune systems. Much of our knowledge of insect immune responses derives from experimental infections using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Most experiments, however, employ lethal pathogen doses through septic injury, frequently overwhelming host physiology. While this approach has revealed several immune mechanisms, it is less informative about the fitness costs hosts may experience during infection in the wild. Using both systemic and oral infection routes we find that even apparently benign, sub-lethal infections with the horizontally transmitted Drosophila C Virus (DCV) can cause significant physiological and behavioral morbidity that is relevant for host fitness...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424526/the-impact-of-host-sex-on-the-outcome-of-co-infection
#6
Olivia Thompson, Stephen A Y Gipson, Matthew D Hall
Males and females vary in many characteristics that typically underlie how well a host is able to fight infection, such as body-size, immune capacity, or energy availability. Although well studied in the context of sexual signalling, there is now growing recognition that these differences can influence aspects of pathogen evolution as well. Here we consider how co-infection between multiple pathogen strains is shaped by male-female differences. In natural populations, infections by more than one pathogen strain or species are believed to be a widespread occurrence...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424518/the-genetic-basis-of-parental-care-evolution-in-monogamous-mice
#7
Andres Bendesky, Young-Mi Kwon, Jean-Marc Lassance, Caitlin L Lewarch, Shenqin Yao, Brant K Peterson, Meng Xiao He, Catherine Dulac, Hopi E Hoekstra
Parental care is essential for the survival of mammals, yet the mechanisms underlying its evolution remain largely unknown. Here we show that two sister species of mice, Peromyscus polionotus and Peromyscus maniculatus, have large and heritable differences in parental behaviour. Using quantitative genetics, we identify 12 genomic regions that affect parental care, 8 of which have sex-specific effects, suggesting that parental care can evolve independently in males and females. Furthermore, some regions affect parental care broadly, whereas others affect specific behaviours, such as nest building...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424460/generation-of-heritable-germline-mutations-in-the-jewel-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis-using-crispr-cas9
#8
Ming Li, Lauren Yun Cook Au, Deema Douglah, Abigail Chong, Bradley J White, Patrick M Ferree, Omar S Akbari
The revolutionary RNA-guided endonuclease CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be a powerful tool for gene editing in a plethora of organisms. Here, utilizing this system we developed an efficient protocol for the generation of heritable germline mutations in the parasitoid jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, a rising insect model organism for the study of evolution, development of axis pattern formation, venom production, haplo-diploid sex determination, and host-symbiont interactions. To establish CRISPR-directed gene editing in N...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424346/the-male-escape-hypothesis-sex-biased-metamorphosis-in-response-to-climatic-drivers-in-a-facultatively-paedomorphic-amphibian
#9
Anthony G E Mathiron, Jean-Paul Lena, Sarah Baouch, Mathieu Denoël
Paedomorphosis is a major evolutionary process that bypasses metamorphosis and allows reproduction in larvae. In newts and salamanders, it can be facultative with paedomorphs retaining gills and metamorphs dispersing. The evolution of these developmental processes is thought to have been driven by the costs and benefits of inhabiting aquatic versus terrestrial habitats. In this context, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that climatic drivers affect phenotypic transition and the difference across sexes because sex-ratio is biased in natural populations...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410430/caste-sex-and-age-dependent-expression-of-immune-related-genes-in-a-japanese-subterranean-termite-reticulitermes-speratus
#10
Yuki Mitaka, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura
Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410019/mating-system-evolution-under-strong-pollen-limitation-evidence-of-disruptive-selection-through-male-and-female-fitness-in-clarkia-xantiana
#11
Ryan D Briscoe Runquist, Monica A Geber, Michael Pickett-Leonard, David A Moeller
Selection on floral traits in hermaphroditic plants is determined by both male and female reproductive success. However, predictions regarding floral trait and mating system evolution are often based solely on female fitness. Selection via male fitness has the potential to affect the outcomes of floral evolution. In this study, we used paternity analysis to assess individual selfing rates and selection on floral traits via male and female fitness in an experimental population of Clarkia xantiana where pollen limitation of seed set was strong...
May 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409503/food-restriction-affects-maternal-investment-but-not-neonate-phenotypes-in-a-viviparous-lizard
#12
Yang Wang, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Liang Ma, Shu-Ran Li, Wei-Guo Du
Food availability significantly affects an animal's energy metabolism, and thus its phenotype, survival, and reproduction. Maternal and offspring responses to food conditions are critical for understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution of a species. In this study, we conducted food manipulation experiments in field enclosures to identify the effect of food restriction on female reproductive traits and postpartum body condition, as well as on hatchling phenotypes, in a lacertid viviparous lizard from the Inner Mongolian desert steppe of China...
March 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405374/evidence-for-a-genetic-sex-determination-in-cnidaria-the-mediterranean-red-coral-corallium-rubrum
#13
M Pratlong, A Haguenauer, S Chenesseau, K Brener, G Mitta, E Toulza, M Bonabaud, S Rialle, D Aurelle, P Pontarotti
Sexual reproduction is widespread among eukaryotes, and the sex-determining processes vary greatly among species. While genetic sex determination (GSD) has been intensively described in bilaterian species, no example has yet been recorded among non-bilaterians. However, the quasi-ubiquitous repartition of GSD among multicellular species suggests that similar evolutionary forces can promote this system, and that these forces could occur also in non-bilaterians. Studying sex determination across the range of Metazoan diversity is indeed important to understand better the evolution of this mechanism and its lability...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405273/assortative-mating-by-colored-ornaments-in-blue-tits-space-and-time-matter
#14
Amélie Fargevieille, Arnaud Grégoire, Anne Charmantier, Maria Del Rey Granado, Claire Doutrelant
Assortative mating is a potential outcome of sexual selection, and estimating its level is important to better understand local adaptation and underlying trait evolution. However, assortative mating studies frequently base their conclusions on small numbers of individuals sampled over short periods of time and limited spatial scales even though spatiotemporal variation is common. Here, we characterized assortative mating patterns over 10 years in four populations of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), a passerine bird...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401924/the-human-coparental-bond-implicates-distinct-corticostriatal-pathways-longitudinal-impact-on-family-formation-and-child-well-being
#15
Eyal Abraham, Gadi Gilam, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Yael Jacob, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Talma Hendler, Ruth Feldman
Alloparental care, the cooperative care of offspring by group members other than the biological mother, has been widely practiced since early hominin evolution to increase infant survival and thriving. The coparental bond-a relationship of solidarity and commitment between two adults who join their effort to care for children- is a central contributor to children's well-being and sociality; yet, the neural basis of coparenting has not been studied in humans. Here, we followed 84 first-time co-parents (42 couples) across the first six years of family formation, including opposite-sex and same-sex couples, measured brain response to coparental stimuli, observed collaborative and undermining coparental behaviors in infancy and preschool, assayed oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP), and measured coparenting and child behavior problems at six years...
April 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397763/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-homeostasis-in-reproductive-physiology-and-pathology
#16
REVIEW
Elif Guzel, Sefa Arlier, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Mehmet Selcuk Tabak, Tugba Ekiz, Nihan Semerci, Kellie Larsen, Frederick Schatz, Charles Joseph Lockwood, Umit Ali Kayisli
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394412/population-density-and-structure-drive-differential-investment-in-pre-and-postmating-sexual-traits-in-frogs
#17
Stefan Lüpold, Long Jin, Wen Bo Liao
Sexual selection theory predicts a trade-off between premating (ornaments and armaments) and postmating (testes and ejaculates) sexual traits, assuming that growing and maintaining these traits is costly and that total reproductive investments are limited. The number of males in competition, the reproductive gains from investing in premating sexual traits, and the level of sperm competition are all predicted to influence how males allocate their finite resources to these traits. Yet, empirical examination of these predictions is currently scarce...
April 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394153/attributions-about-homelessness-in-homeless-and-domiciled-people-in-madrid-spain-why-are-they-homeless-people
#18
José Juan Vázquez, Sonia Panadero, Claudia Zúñiga
Causal attributions of homelessness may affect both the design and acceptance of public policies aimed at improving the situation of homeless people and the strategies that homeless people themselves decide to adopt in order to cope with their situation. This article analyzes the differences in causal attributions of homelessness based on gender, age, nationality, educational background, perceived social class, evolution of personal economic situation, and future expectations between the members of 2 groups: (a) "homeless group", consisting of a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid, Spain (n = 188); and (b) "domiciled group", consisting of a sample of people in Madrid at no risk of homelessness (n = 180), matched for sex, age and nationality...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391324/the-evolution-of-sex-chromosomes-and-dosage-compensation-in-plants
#19
Aline Muyle, Rylan Shearn, Gabriel Ab Marais
Plant sex chromosomes can be vastly different from those of the few historical animal model organisms from which most of our understanding of sex chromosome evolution is derived. Recently, we have seen several advancements from studies on green algae, brown algae, and land plants that are providing a broader understanding of the variable ways in which sex chromosomes can evolve in distant eukaryotic groups. Plant sex-determining genes are being identified and, as expected, are completely different from those in animals...
March 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389066/incidence-and-mortality-of-physician-diagnosed-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome-time-trends-over-a-40-year-period-in-a-population-based-us-cohort
#20
Gabriel Maciel, Cynthia S Crowson, Eric L Matteson, Divi Cornec
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and mortality rates, and their evolution over time, of physician-diagnosed primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) in residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients with a diagnosis or suspicion of SS in Olmsted County from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2015, were reviewed to identify incident cases of pSS (defined by physician diagnosis). These cases were combined with those from a 1976 through 2005 incident cohort (n=111) from the same population...
April 4, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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