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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923910/a-new-approach-to-chromosomal-evolution-in-the-giant-water-bug-heteroptera-belostomatidae
#1
Raquel Bozini Gallo, Rachel Colauto Milanezi Aguiar, Ana Paula Scaramal Ricietto, Laurival Vilas-Boas, Carlos Roberto Maximiano da Silva, José Ricardo Inacio Ribeiro, Renata Da Rosa
The genus Belostoma, known colloquially as 'giant water bugs', presents striking cytogenetic diversity and extensive chromosome variability. Notwithstanding, its karyotype evolution is not well understood. We analyzed eight species of Belostoma (77 samples). The meiotic analysis revealed 2n=14+XY for B. horvathi and B. candidulum; 2n=22+XY for B. cummings; 2n=26+X1X2Y for B. dentatum, B. elongatum, and B. discretum; and 2n=26+X1X2X3Y for B. testacopallidum and B. dilatatum. All species showed holokinetic chromosomes...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911792/transcriptomics-and-neuroanatomy-of-the-clonal-raider-ant-implicate-an-expanded-clade-of-odorant-receptors-in-chemical-communication
#2
Sean K McKenzie, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Vanessa Ruta, Daniel J C Kronauer
A major aim of sociogenomic research is to uncover common principles in the molecular evolution of sociality. This endeavor has been hampered by the small number of specific genes currently known to function in social behavior. Here we provide several lines of evidence suggesting that ants have evolved a large and novel clade of odorant receptor (OR) genes to perceive hydrocarbon-based pheromones, arguably the most important signals in ant communication. This genomic expansion is also mirrored in the ant brain via a corresponding expansion of a specific cluster of glomeruli in the antennal lobe...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909914/association-of-snp-variants-of-mhc-class-ii-drb-gene-with-thermo-physiological-traits-in-tropical-goats
#3
Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Adebowale E Salako, Marcos De Donato, Sunday O Peters, Michael I Takeet, Mathew Wheto, Moses Okpeku, Ikhide G Imumorin
Host defense in vertebrates depend on many secreted regulatory proteins such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II which provide important regulatory and effector functions of T cells. Gene polymorphism in the second exon of Capra-DRB gene in three major Nigerian goat breeds [West African Dwarf (WAD), Red Sokoto (RS), and Sahel (SH)] was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Four restriction enzymes, BsaHI, AluI, HaeIII, and SacII, were utilized. The association between the polymorphic sites and some heat tolerance traits were also investigated in a total of 70 WAD, 90 RS, and 50 SH goats...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905469/selection-for-predation-not-female-fecundity-explains-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-the-orchid-mantises
#4
Gavin J Svenson, Sydney K Brannoch, Henrique M Rodrigues, James C O'Hanlon, Frank Wieland
Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901122/parental-and-sexual-conflicts-over-the-peg3-imprinted-domain
#5
Hongzhi He, Bambarendage P U Perera, An Ye, Joomyeong Kim
In the current study, the imprinting control region of the mouse Peg3 domain was deleted to test its functional impact on animal growth and survival. The paternal transmission of the deletion resulted in complete abolition of the transcription of two paternally expressed genes, Peg3 and Usp29, causing the reduced body weight of the pups. In contrast, the maternal transmission resulted in the unexpected transcriptional up-regulation of the remaining paternal allele of both Peg3 and Usp29, causing the increased body weight and survival rates...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899728/evolution-of-sex-differences-in-trait-and-age-specific-vulnerabilities
#6
David C Geary
Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice generally have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. They have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and nutritional and social stressors, and they are compromised by exposure to man-made toxins. Although these traits can differ from one species or sex to the next, an understanding of the dynamics of competition and choice can in theory be used to generate a priori predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899139/fruitful-analysis-of-sex-chromosomes-reveals-x-treme-genetic-diversity
#7
Angela M Taravella, Melissa A Wilson Sayres
A new study on sex chromosome evolution in papaya helps to illuminate sex chromosome biology, including deviations from expected trajectories.Please see related Research article: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-016-1095-9.
November 29, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893151/anomalies-in-human-sex-determination-provide-unique-insights-into-the-complex-genetic-interactions-of-early-gonad-development
#8
REVIEW
Anu Bashamboo, Caroline Eozenou, Sandra Rojo, Ken McElreavey
Human sex-determination (SD) involves complex mutually antagonistic genetic interactions of testis- and ovary-determining pathways. For many years both male and female sex-determination was considered to be regulated by a linear cascade of pro-male and pro-female genes respectively, however it has become clear that male and female development is achieved through the repression of the alternative state. A gene determining the formation of a testis may function by repressing the female state and vice-versa. Uniquely in development, SD is achieved by suppression of the alternate fate and maintained in adulthood by a mutually antagonistic double-repressive pathway...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886138/time-trend-in-psychotropic-medication-use-in-spain-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#9
Pilar Carrasco-Garrido, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Isabel Jiménez-Trujillo, Jesús Esteban-Hernández, Alejandro Álvaro-Meca, Ana López-de Andrés, José Luis DelBarrio-Fernández, Rodrigo Jiménez-García
Background: We performed an epidemiologic study to analyze nationwide time trends in adult psychotropic drug use over a period from 2006 to 2012, and to identify those factors associated with the likelihood of consumption of these drugs during the study period; Methods: Cross-sectional study on psychotropic medication in the Spanish adult population. We used secondary individualized data drawn from the 2006 and 2012 Spanish National Health Surveys (SNHS). The dependent variable was the use of psychotropic drugs in the previous two weeks...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883363/sexual-selection-shapes-development-and-maturation-rates-in-drosophila
#10
Brian Hollis, Laurent Keller, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Explanations for the evolution of delayed maturity usually invoke trade-offs mediated by growth, but processes of reproductive maturation continue long after growth has ceased. Here, we tested whether sexual selection shapes the rate of posteclosion maturation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that populations maintained for more than 100 generations under a short generation time and polygamous mating system evolved faster posteclosion maturation and faster egg-to-adult development of males, when compared to populations kept under short generations and randomized monogamy that eliminated sexual selection...
November 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881894/competition-related-factors-directly-influence-preferences-for-facial-cues-of-dominance-in-allies
#11
Christopher D Watkins, Benedict C Jones
ABSTRACT: Alliance formation is a critical dimension of social intelligence in political, social and biological systems. As some allies may provide greater "leverage" than others during social conflict, the cognitive architecture that supports alliance formation in humans may be shaped by recent experience, for example in light of the outcomes of violent or non-violent forms intrasexual competition. Here we used experimental priming techniques to explore this issue. Consistent with our predictions, while men's preferences for dominant allies strengthened following losses (compared to victories) in violent intrasexual contests, women's preferences for dominant allies weakened following losses (compared to victories) in violent intrasexual contests...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881751/artificial-selection-on-male-genitalia-length-alters-female-brain-size
#12
Séverine D Buechel, Isobel Booksmythe, Alexander Kotrschal, Michael D Jennions, Niclas Kolm
Male harassment is a classic example of how sexual conflict over mating leads to sex-specific behavioural adaptations. Females often suffer significant costs from males attempting forced copulations, and the sexes can be in an arms race over male coercion. Yet, despite recent recognition that divergent sex-specific interests in reproduction can affect brain evolution, sexual conflict has not been addressed in this context. Here, we investigate whether artificial selection on a correlate of male success at coercion, genital length, affects brain anatomy in males and females...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879256/determination-and-regulation-of-body-composition-in-elite-athletes
#13
Peter Sonksen
In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and IOC introduced a 'hyperandrogenism' rule that excluded women with a serum testosterone >10 nmol/L from participating in elite sport. This rule was based on the false premise that the greater lean body mass in men was a consequence of their higher serum testosterone. This rule did not have scientific backing and the Court of Arbitration for Sport subsequently rescinded the rule following an appeal from an Indian athlete barred from the Commonwealth Games...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878072/concordance-between-stabilizing-sexual-selection-intraspecific-variation-and-interspecific-divergence-in-phymata
#14
David Punzalan, Locke Rowe
Empirical studies show that lineages typically exhibit long periods of evolutionary stasis and that relative levels of within-species trait covariance often correlate with the extent of between-species trait divergence. These observations have been interpreted by some as evidence of genetic constraints persisting for long periods of time. However, an alternative explanation is that both intra- and interspecific variation are shaped by the features of the adaptive landscape (e.g., stabilizing selection). Employing a genus of insects that are diverse with respect to a suite of secondary sex traits, we related data describing nonlinear phenotypic (sexual) selection to intraspecific trait covariances and macroevolutionary divergence...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870408/sex-specific-effects-of-the-huntington-gene-on-normal-neurodevelopment
#15
Jessica K Lee, Yue Ding, Amy L Conrad, Elena Cattaneo, Eric Epping, Kathy Mathews, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Larry Cahill, Vincent Magnotta, Bradley L Schlaggar, Joel S Perlmutter, Regina E Y Kim, Jeffrey D Dawson, Peg Nopoulos
Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a gene (HTT) with a unique feature of trinucleotide repeats ranging from 10 to 35 in healthy people; when expanded beyond 39 repeats, Huntington disease develops. Animal models demonstrate that HTT is vital to brain development; however, this has not been studied in humans. Moreover, evidence suggests that triplet repeat genes may have been vital in evolution of the human brain. Here we evaluate brain structure using magnetic resonance imaging and brain function using cognitive tests in a sample of school-aged children ages 6 to 18 years old...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870407/evolutionary-framework-for-identifying-sex-and-species-specific-vulnerabilities-in-brain-development-and-functions
#16
REVIEW
David C Geary
Sexual selection describes the reproductive dynamics that drive the evolution of many sex differences but is rarely used to guide the study of brain development or function. This Mini-Review describes how these dynamics can result in trait elaboration in one sex or the other and why these traits have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. The framework provides a conceptual model that will help to organize what we know about sex differences in brain and cognition, a means to focus the search for additional sex differences, and a means to predict brain systems that are particularly vulnerable to disruption by exposure to stressors...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870212/ancestral-androgenic-differentiation-pathways-are-repurposed-during-the-evolution-of-adult-sexual-plasticity
#17
Eric R Schuppe, Tessa K Solomon-Lane, Devaleena S Pradhan, Kevin Thonkulpitak, Matthew S Grober
Although early exposure to androgens is necessary to permanently organize male phenotype in many vertebrates, animals that exhibit adult sexual plasticity require mechanisms that prevent early fixation of genital morphology and allow for genital morphogenesis during adult transformation. In Lythrypnus dalli, a teleost fish that exhibits bi-directional sex change, adults display dimorphic genitalia morphology despite the absence of sex differences in the potent fish androgen 11-ketotestosterone. Based on conserved patterns of vertebrate development, two steroid-based mechanisms may regulate the early development and adult maintenance of dimorphic genitalia; local androgen receptor (AR) and steroidogenic enzyme expression...
December 2016: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867762/a-global-analysis-of-bird-plumage-patterns-reveals-no-association-between-habitat-and-camouflage
#18
Marius Somveille, Kate L A Marshall, Thanh-Lan Gluckman
Evidence suggests that animal patterns (motifs) function in camouflage. Irregular mottled patterns can facilitate concealment when stationary in cluttered habitats, whereas regular patterns typically prevent capture during movement in open habitats. Bird plumage patterns have predominantly converged on just four types-mottled (irregular), scales, bars and spots (regular)-and habitat could be driving convergent evolution in avian patterning. Based on sensory ecology, we therefore predict that irregular patterns would be associated with visually noisy closed habitats and that regular patterns would be associated with open habitats...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867240/internal-and-international-migration-across-the-urban-hierarchy-in-albania
#19
Mathias Lerch
The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models...
2016: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862511/sperm-competition-shapes-gene-expression-and-sequence-evolution-in-the-ocellated-wrasse
#20
Rebecca Dean, Alison E Wright, Susan E Marsh-Rollo, Bridget M Nugent, Suzanne H Alonzo, Judith E Mank
Gene expression differences between males and females often underlie sexually dimorphic phenotypes and the expression levels of genes that are differentially expressed between the sexes is thought to respond to sexual selection. Most studies on the transcriptomic response to sexual selection treat sexual selection as a single force, but post-mating sexual selection in particular is expected to specifically target gonadal tissue. The three male morphs of the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus) make it possible to test the role of post-mating sexual selection in shaping the gonadal transcriptome...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology
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