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Sex evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665967/structural-and-functional-changes-in-the-heart-of-adult-patients-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-case-control-study
#1
Verónica Hernández Jiménez, Jesús Saavedra Falero, María Teresa Alberca Vela, Rebeca Mata Caballero, José Antonio Rosado Sierra, Isabel Pavón de Paz
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disease characterised by an anomalous synthesis of type i collagen. Little is known about the cardiovascular affectation suffered by these patients. The most frequently described are valvular dysfunction and dilatation of the aorta. We wanted to analyse the structural and functional changes of the heart in adult patients with OI. METHODS: We prospectively studied 82 patients with OI and compared them with 60 healthy subjects matched for age and sex...
April 14, 2018: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663185/synergy-from-reproductive-division-of-labor-and-genetic-complexity-drive-the-evolution-of-sex
#2
Klaus Jaffe
Computer experiments that mirror the evolutionary dynamics of sexual and asexual organisms as they occur in nature were used to test features proposed to explain the evolution of sexual recombination. Results show that this evolution is better described as a network of interactions between possible sexual forms, including diploidy, thelytoky, facultative sex, assortation, bisexuality, and division of labor between the sexes, rather than a simple transition from parthenogenesis to sexual recombination. Diploidy was shown to be fundamental for the evolution of sex; bisexual reproduction emerged only among anisogamic diploids with a synergistic division of reproductive labor; and facultative sex was more likely to evolve among haploids practicing assortative mating...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662598/-clinical-epidemiological-and-therapeutic-features-of-biliary-tract-cancers-about-20-cases
#3
Ibrahima Ka, Magatte Faye, Papa Saloum Diop, Amadou Bocar Niang Aliou Coly Faye, Jean Marc Ndoye, Babacar Fall
Biliary tract cancers mainly occur in two sites: gallbladder cancer which are adenocarcinomas and intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. We conducted a retrospective study of 20 cases with biliary tract cancer in the Department of Surgery at the General Hospital in Grand-Yoff between January 2006 and October 2014. 40% of patients had gallbladder cancer, 60% of patients had common bile duct cancer. Sex ratio was 1. The average age of patients was 58.1 years. The average time to diagnosis was 3.77 months...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661690/the-history-of-testosterone-and-the-evolution-of-its-therapeutic-potential
#4
REVIEW
Abraham Morgentaler, Abdulmaged Traish
INTRODUCTION: Testosterone therapy has been controversial since its synthesis in the 1930s to the present day. Testosterone's history provides depth and context for current controversies. AIM: To review the history of testosterone therapy from its initial synthesis in the 1930s to the modern day. METHODS: Expert review of the literature. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Impactful events in the history of testosterone. RESULTS: By the 1940s there was already a fascinating literature that described the many symptomatic benefits of testosterone therapy that are recognized today...
April 13, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658161/parallel-evolutionary-forces-influence-the-evolution-of-male-and-female-songs-in-a-tropical-songbird
#5
Brendan A Graham, Daniel D Heath, Ryan P Walter, Melissa M Mark, Daniel J Mennill
Given the important role that animal vocalizations play in mate attraction and resource defence, acoustic signals are expected to play a significant role in speciation. Most studies, however, have focused on the acoustic traits of male animals living in the temperate zone. In contrast to temperate environments, in the tropics it is commonplace for both sexes to produce complex acoustic signals. Therefore tropical birds offer the opportunity to compare the sexes and provide a more comprehensive understanding of the evolution of animal signals...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656128/agrobacterium-rhizogenes-mediated-transformation-of-a-dioecious-plant-model-silene-latifolia
#6
Vojtech Hudzieczek, Radim Cegan, Tomas Cermak, Nela Bacovska, Zuzana Machalkova, Karel Dolezal, Lucie Plihalova, Daniel Voytas, Roman Hobza, Boris Vyskot
Silene latifolia serves as a model species to study dioecy, the evolution of sex chromosomes, dosage compensation and sex-determination systems in plants. Currently, no protocol for genetic transformation is available for this species, mainly because S. latifolia is considered recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration and infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Using cytokinins and their synthetic derivatives, we markedly improved the efficiency of regeneration. Several agrobacterial strains were tested for their ability to deliver DNA into S...
April 12, 2018: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645091/sex-in-the-wild-how-and-why-field-based-studies-contribute-to-solving-the-problem-of-sex
#7
Maurine Neiman, Patrick G Meirmans, Tanja Schwander, Stephanie Meirmans
Why and how sexual reproduction is maintained in natural populations, the so-called "queen of problems", is a key unanswered question in evolutionary biology. Recent efforts to solve the problem of sex have often emphasized results generated from laboratory settings. Here, we use a survey of representative "sex in the wild" literature to review and synthesize the outcomes of empirical studies focused on natural populations. Especially notable results included relatively strong support for mechanisms involving niche differentiation and a near absence of attention to adaptive evolution...
April 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626726/identification-and-evolution-of-olfactory-genes-in-the-small-poplar-longhorn-beetle-saperda-populnea
#8
Yinliang Wang, Jian Zhang, Qi Chen, Hanbo Zhao, Jiatong Wang, Ming Wen, Jinghui Xi, Bingzhong Ren
Saperda populnea is a serious pest of poplar and willow trees in the Palaearctic region, causing extensive damage to forests and the lumber industry. Until recently, there is no safe and effective chemical method to control this pest due to the lack of sufficient knowledge on the molecular basis of its olfactory genes, moreover, the evolutionary history of the olfactory gene family in subfamily Lamiinae is still fully unknown. Our RNA sequencing of the antennae of S. populnea identified 43 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 15 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 56 odorant receptors (ORs) and 24 inotropic receptors (IRs) in S...
March 21, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626069/a-y-encoded-suppressor-of-feminization-arose-via-lineage-specific-duplication-of-a-cytokinin-response-regulator-in-kiwifruit
#9
Takashi Akagi, Isabelle Marie Henry, Haruka Ohtani, Takuya Morimoto, Kenji Beppu, Ikuo Kataoka, Ryutaro Tao
Dioecy, the presence of male and female flowers on distinct individuals, has evolved independently in multiple plant lineages and the genes involved in this differential development are just starting to be uncovered in a few species. Here, we used genomic approaches to investigate this pathway in kiwifruits (genus Actinidia). Genome-wide cataloging of male-specific subsequences, combined with transcriptome analysis, led to the identification of a type-C cytokinin response regulator as a potential sex determinant gene in this genus...
April 6, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618750/evolution-of-sex-determination-loci-in-atlantic-salmon
#10
James Kijas, Sean McWilliam, Marina Naval Sanchez, Peter Kube, Harry King, Bradley Evans, Torfinn Nome, Sigbjørn Lien, Klara Verbyla
Teleost fish exhibit a remarkable diversity in the control of sex determination, offering the opportunity to identify novel differentiation mechanisms and their ecological consequences. Here, we perform GWAS using 4715 fish and 46,501 SNP to map sex determination to three separate genomic locations in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To characterize each, whole genome sequencing was performed to 30-fold depth of coverage using 20 fish representing each of three identified sex lineages. SNP polymorphism reveals male fish carry a single copy of the male specific region, consistent with an XX/XY or male heterogametric sex system...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617732/a-new-approach-for-comprehensively-describing-heterogametic-sex-chromosomes
#11
Shenglong Li, Masahiro Ajimura, Zhiwei Chen, Jianqiu Liu, Enxiang Chen, Huizhen Guo, Vidya Tadapatri, Chilakala Gangi Reddy, Jiwei Zhang, Hirohisa Kishino, Hiroaki Abe, Qingyou Xia, Kallare P Arunkumar, Kazuei Mita
Notwithstanding the rapid developments in sequencing techniques, Y and W sex chromosomes have still been mostly excluded from whole genome sequencing projects due to their high repetitive DNA content. Therefore, Y and W chromosomes are poorly described in most species despite their biological importance. Several methods were developed for identifying Y or W-linked sequences among unmapped scaffolds. However, it is not enough to discover functional regions from short unmapped scaffolds. Here, we provide a new and simple strategy based on k-mer comparison for comprehensive analysis of the W chromosome in Bombyx mori...
April 2, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615551/the-biology-of-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligases-in-drosophila-development-immunity-and-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Mona Abed, Eliya Bitman-Lotan, Amir Orian
The ubiquitin and SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) pathways modify proteins that in turn regulate diverse cellular processes, embryonic development, and adult tissue physiology. These pathways were originally discovered biochemically in vitro, leading to a long-standing challenge of elucidating both the molecular cross-talk between these pathways and their biological importance. Recent discoveries in Drosophila established that ubiquitin and SUMO pathways are interconnected via evolutionally conserved SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) proteins...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608717/divergent-evolutionary-trajectories-of-two-young-homomorphic-and-closely-related-sex-chromosome-systems
#13
Benjamin L S Furman, Ben J Evans
There exists extraordinary variation among species in the degree and nature of sex chromosome divergence. However, much of our knowledge about sex chromosomes is based on comparisons between deeply diverged species with different ancestral sex chromosomes, making it difficult to establish how fast and why sex chromosomes acquire variable levels of divergence. To address this problem, we studied sex chromosome evolution in two species of African clawed frog (Xenopus), both of whom acquired novel systems for sex determination from a recent common ancestor, and both of whom have female (ZW/ZZ) heterogamy...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606909/early-stages-of-xy-sex-chromosomes-differentiation-in-the-fish-hoplias-malabaricus-characiformes-erythrinidae-revealed-by-dna-repeats-accumulation
#14
Natália Lourenço de Freitas, Ahmed Basheer Hamid Al-Rikabi, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, Tariq Ezaz, Cassia Fernanda Yano, Ezequiel Aguiar de Oliveira, Terumi Hatanaka, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi
Background: Species with 'young' or nascent sex chromosomes provide unique opportunities to understand early evolutionary mechanisms (e.g. accumulation of repetitive sequences, cessation of recombination and gene loss) that drive the evolution of sex chromosomes. Among vertebrates, fishes exhibit highly diverse and a wide spectrum of sex-determining mechanisms and sex chromosomes, ranging from cryptic to highly differentiated ones, as well as, from simple to multiple sex chromosome systems...
April 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606595/-informative-predation-towards-a-new-species-concept
#15
Philippe Lherminier
We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news...
March 29, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603814/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-polypharmacy-in-the-older-people-2006-2014
#16
Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres, Ana Isabel Cobo-Cuenca, Beatriz Recio-Andrade, José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera, María Manuela Martins, María Aurora Rodríguez-Borrego
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To analyse the prevalence, risk factors and evolution over time of polypharmacy and self-medication in the older people in Spain from 2006-2014. BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is a public health problem for older people worldwide that cause different negative effects on their health, increasing health costs and pharmaceutical spending. However, previous studies do not include nationally representative samples and none of them provide updated data...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603725/digest-life-history-evolution-in-darwin-s-dream-ponds
#17
Foteini Spagopoulou, Mozes P K Blom
Can variation in sex-specific parental investment lead to sexual dimorphism in immune response? Keller et al. (2018) measured immune cell parameters, expression of candidate genes and composition of buccal microbiota in mouthbrooding cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika that show either maternal or biparental care. They found that maternal mouthbrooding species have increased sexual dimorphism in immune parameters, while biparental mouthbrooders exhibit an upregulated adaptive immune response, suggesting resource allocation shifts between parental investment and the immune system...
March 31, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602695/-radiotherapy-of-bone-metastases-in-france-a-descriptive-monocentric-retrospective-study
#18
C Le Fèvre, D Antoni, A Thiéry, A Keller, P Truntzer, C Vigneron, J-B Clavier, S Guihard, M Pop, C Schumacher, P Salze, G Noël
PURPOSE: Bone metastases cause pain and affect patients' quality of life. Radiation therapy is one of the reference analgesic treatments. The objective of this study was to compare the current practices of a French radiotherapy department for the treatment of uncomplicated bone metastases with data from the literature in order to improve and optimize the management of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective monocentric study of patients who underwent palliative irradiation of uncomplicated bone metastases was performed...
March 27, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602213/expression-of-the-sox9-foxl2-vasa-and-trpv4-genes-in-the-ovaries-and-testes-of-the-morelet-s-crocodile-crocodylus-moreletii
#19
Adriana Martínez-Juárez, Marco A López-Luna, Tania J Porras-Gómez, Norma Moreno-Mendoza
The Sox9 gene is important for determining sex in vertebrates, as well as for maintaining testis morphology and fertility during adult life. In the same way, Vasa is an important gene for the maintenance of the germinal lineage and has been highly conserved throughout evolution, as it is expressed in germ cells of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the particular case of crocodiles, the expression of Sox9 during gonadal morphogenesis and in the testes of 3-month-old Alligator mississippiensis has been studied...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597186/levels-of-endocan-angiopoietin-2-and-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1a-in-patients-with-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-and-different-levels-of-renal-function
#20
Vassilios Raptis, Constantinos Bakogiannis, Charalampos Loutradis, Afroditi K Boutou, Ioanna Lampropoulou, Elena Intzevidou, Athanasios Sioulis, Elias Balaskas, Pantelis A Sarafidis
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction leading to unbalanced vasoconstriction and ischemia of renal parenchyma is increasingly proposed as an alternative pathway of renal damage in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, human studies investigating the evolution of such phenomena are limited. This study investigated the levels of emerging biomarkers of endothelial function, angiogenesis and hypoxia, in ADPKD patients with different renal function. METHODS: The study population consisted of three groups: 26 ADPKD patients with impaired renal function (Group A; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 45-70 mL/min/1...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
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