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Sex evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730692/self-perception-of-voice-in-transgender-persons-during-cross-sex-hormone-therapy
#1
Charlotte Bultynck, Charlotte Pas, Justine Defreyne, Marjan Cosyns, Martin den Heijer, Guy T'Sjoen
OBJECTIVE: Self-perception of voice has a significant psychosocial impact on transgender persons. Research about the evolution of self-perception of voice during cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT) is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if self-perception of voice changes during CSHT, and if a change of serum testosterone levels as a result of CSHT can predict a change of self-perception of voice. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. METHODS: The Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQ), consisting of three factors-anxiety and avoidance (AA), gender identity (GI), and voice quality (VQ)-was used...
July 21, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730408/evolution-of-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-utility-in-assessing-the-progression-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#2
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Understanding the progression of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a critical need as the prevalence of HIV-1 in older individuals (>50 years) is markedly increasing due to the great success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Longitudinal experimental designs, in comparison to cross-sectional studies, provide an opportunity to establish age-related disease progression in HAND. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which has been promoted for investigating the effect of long-term HIV-1 viral protein exposure, was used to examine two interrelated goals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725982/analysis-of-risk-factors-influencing-the-outcome-of-the-epley-maneuver
#3
E Domínguez-Durán, E Domènech-Vadillo, M G Álvarez-Morujo de Sande, R González-Aguado, G Guerra-Jiménez, Á Ramos-Macías, C Morales-Angulo, A J Martín-Mateos, E Figuerola-Massana, H Galera-Ruiz
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent type of vertigo. The treatment of canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal consists in performing a particle-repositioning maneuver, such as the Epley maneuver (EM). However, the EM is not effective in all cases. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors, which predict the EM failure, among the clinical variables recorded in anamnesis and patient examination. This is an observational prospective multicentric study. All patients presenting with BPPV were recruited and applied the EM and appointed for a follow-up visit 7 days later...
July 19, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725386/the-coevolution-of-sexual-imprinting-by-males-and-females
#4
Miguel Angel Gómez-Llano, Eva María Navarro-López, Robert Tucker Gilman
Sexual imprinting is the learning of a mate preference by direct observation of the phenotype of another member of the population. Sexual imprinting can be paternal, maternal, or oblique if individuals learn to prefer the phenotypes of their fathers, mothers, or other members of the population, respectively. Which phenotypes are learned can affect trait evolution and speciation rates. "Good genes" models of polygynous systems predict that females should evolve to imprint on their fathers, because paternal imprinting helps females to choose mates that will produce offspring that are both viable and sexy...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721523/from-endosymbionts-to-host-communities-factors-determining-the-reproductive-success-of-arthropod-vectors
#5
Irit Messika, Mario Garrido, Hadar Kedem, Victor China, Yoni Gavish, Qunfeng Dong, Clay Fuqua, Keith Clay, Hadas Hawlena
Elucidating the factors determining reproductive success has challenged scientists since Darwin, but the exact pathways that shape the evolution of life history traits by connecting extrinsic (e.g., landscape structure) and intrinsic (e.g., female's age and endosymbionts) factors and reproductive success have rarely been studied. Here we collected female fleas from wild rodents in plots differing in their densities and proportions of the most dominant rodent species. We then combined path analysis and model selection approaches to explore the network of effects, ranging from micro to macroscales, determining the reproductive success of these fleas...
July 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719359/levodopa-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-review-of-population-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-analysis
#6
Amélie Marsot, Romain Guilhaumou, Jean Philippe Azulay, Olivier Blin
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. Although levodopa remains the single effective agent in the management of Parkinson's disease, the accurate determination of this optimal dosage is complicated by marked between-subject and between-occasion variability in this population.  This review presents a synthesis of the population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models of levodopa described in Parkinson's disease...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714429/structural-brain-correlations-of-visuospatial-and-visuoperceptual-tests-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Anna Isabel Garcia-Diaz, Barbara Segura, Hugo Cesar Baggio, Maria Jose Marti, Francesc Valldeoriola, Yaroslau Compta, Nuria Bargallo, Carme Uribe, Anna Campabadal, Alexandra Abos, Carme Junque
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is relevant because it is a marker for evolution to dementia. However, the selection of suitable tests to evaluate separate cognitive domains in mild cognitive impairment related to PD remains an open question. The current work aims to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of several visuospatial/visuoperceptual tests using the same sample and a multimodal MRI approach. METHODS: The study included 36 PD patients and 20 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and education...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714129/coevolution-between-flight-morphology-vertical-stratification-and-sexual-dimorphism-what-can-we-learn-from-tropical-butterflies
#8
M B Graça, P A C L Pequeno, E Franklin, J W Morais
Occurrence patterns are partly shaped by the affinity of species with habitat conditions. For winged organisms, flight-related attributes are vital for ecological performance. However, due to the different reproductive roles of each sex, we expect divergence in flight energy budget, and consequently different selection responses between sexes. We used tropical frugivorous butterflies as models to investigate coevolution between flight morphology, sex dimorphism and vertical stratification. We studied 94 species of Amazonian fruit-feeing butterflies sampled in seven sites across 3341 ha...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710131/gene-regulatory-networks-for-the-haploid-to-diploid-transition-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#9
Sunjoo Joo, Yoshiki Nishimura, Evan Cronmiller, Ran Ha Hong, Thamali Kariyawasam, Ming Hsiu Wang, Nai Chun Shao, Saif-El-Din El Akkad, Takamasa Suzuki, Tetsuya Higashiyama, EonSeon Jin, Jae-Hyeok Lee
The sexual cycle of the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii culminates in the formation of diploid zygotes which differentiate into dormant spores that eventually undergo meiosis. Mating between gametes induces rapid cell wall shedding via the enzyme g-lysin; cell fusion is followed by heterodimerization of sex-specific homeobox transcription factors, GSM1 and GSP1, and initiation of zygote-specific gene expression. To investigate the genetic underpinnings of the zygote developmental pathway, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of both pre- and post-fertilization samples...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709837/what-are-the-possibilities-of-spontaneous-resorption-of-a-thoracic-disc-herniation-occupying-more-than-20-of-the-spinal-canal-in-the-asymptomatic-subject-comparative-study
#10
David Brauge, Rachid Madkouri, Robert Clément, Vincent Reina, Thomas Brauge, Stephan Gaillard
Thoracic disc herniation is a rare pathology for which surgical treatment is difficult. The discovery of asymptomatic or only slightly symptomatic lesions can be problematic, especially in cases of marked canal stenosis. The possibility of spontaneous resorption has been documented by a few case reports but there is no study on this subject. Our objective was to compare the clinical and radiological data for two groups of patients with significant thoracic herniation (occupying more than 20% of the spinal canal): one showing spontaneous resorption (group 1) and the other persistence of the lesion during follow up (group 2)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707221/modelling-the-evolution-of-traits-in-a-two-sex-population-with-an-application-to-grandmothering
#11
Matthew H Chan, Kristen Hawkes, Peter S Kim
We present a mathematical simplification for the evolutionary dynamics of a heritable trait within a two-sex population. This trait is assumed to control the timing of sex-specific life-history events, such as the age of sexual maturity and end of female fertility, and each sex has a distinct fitness trade-off associated with the trait. We provide a formula for the fitness landscape of the population and show a natural extension of the result to an arbitrary number of heritable traits. Our method can be viewed as a dynamical systems generalisation of the Price equation to include two sexes, age structure and multiple traits...
July 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705249/vector-control-with-driving-y-chromosomes-modelling-the-evolution-of-resistance
#12
Andrea Beaghton, Pantelis John Beaghton, Austin Burt
BACKGROUND: The introduction of new malaria control interventions has often led to the evolution of resistance, both of the parasite to new drugs and of the mosquito vector to new insecticides, compromising the efficacy of the interventions. Recent progress in molecular and population biology raises the possibility of new genetic-based interventions, and the potential for resistance to evolve against these should be considered. Here, population modelling is used to determine the main factors affecting the likelihood that resistance will evolve against a synthetic, nuclease-based driving Y chromosome that produces a male-biased sex ratio...
July 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698378/haploid-selection-within-a-single-ejaculate-increases-offspring-fitness
#13
Ghazal Alavioon, Cosima Hotzy, Khriezhanuo Nakhro, Sandra Rudolf, Douglas G Scofield, Susanne Zajitschek, Alexei A Maklakov, Simone Immler
An inescapable consequence of sex in eukaryotes is the evolution of a biphasic life cycle with alternating diploid and haploid phases. The occurrence of selection during the haploid phase can have far-reaching consequences for fundamental evolutionary processes including the rate of adaptation, the extent of inbreeding depression, and the load of deleterious mutations, as well as for applied research into fertilization technology. Although haploid selection is well established in plants, current dogma assumes that in animals, intact fertile sperm within a single ejaculate are equivalent at siring viable offspring...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693607/dynamics-of-plasmodium-vivax-sporogony-in-wild-anopheles-stephensi-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-of-western-india
#14
Praveen Balabaskaran Nina, Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Shuvankar Ballav, Smita Vernekar, Sushma Bhinge, Maria D'souza, Jayashree Walke, Suresh Kumar Manoharan, Anjali Mascarenhas, Edwin Gomes, Laura Chery, Neena Valecha, Ashwani Kumar, Pradipsinh K Rathod
BACKGROUND: In global efforts to track mosquito infectivity and parasite elimination, controlled mosquito-feeding experiments can help in understanding the dynamics of parasite development in vectors. Anopheles stephensi is often accepted as the major urban malaria vector that transmits Plasmodium in Goa and elsewhere in South Asia. However, much needs to be learned about the interactions of Plasmodium vivax with An. stephensi. As a component of the US NIH International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) for Malaria Evolution in South Asia (MESA), a series of membrane-feeding experiments with wild An...
July 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692659/lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-lgbt-health-services-in-the-united-states-origins-evolution-and-contemporary-landscape
#15
Alexander J Martos, Patrick A Wilson, Ilan H Meyer
BACKGROUND: LGBT community organizations in the United States have been providing health services since at least the 1970s. However, available explanations for the origins of LGBT health services do not sufficiently explain why health in particular has been so closely and consistently linked to LGBT activism. Little is also known regarding how LGBT health services may have evolved over time with the growing scientific understanding of LGBT health needs. METHODS: This study begins with a review of the early intersections of sexuality and health that led to an LGBT health movement in the United States, as well as the evolution of LGBT health services over time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690799/sex-biased-oviposition-by-a-nursery-pollinator-on-a-gynodioecious-host-plant-implications-for-breeding-system-evolution-and-evolution-of-mutualism
#16
Laura A D Doubleday, Lynn S Adler
Dioecy, a breeding system where individual plants are exclusively male or female, has evolved repeatedly. Extensive theory describes when dioecy should arise from hermaphroditism, frequently through gynodioecy, where females and hermaphrodites coexist, and when gynodioecy should be stable. Both pollinators and herbivores often prefer the pollen-bearing sex, with sex-specific fitness effects that can affect breeding system evolution. Nursery pollination, where adult insects pollinate flowers but their larvae feed on plant reproductive tissues, is a model for understanding mutualism evolution but could also yield insights into plant breeding system evolution...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690227/-association-between-the-changes-in-ideal-cardiovascular-health-status-and-the-decline-of-glomerular-filtration-rates-in-medical-examination-people
#17
Yaqin Wang, Pingting Yang, Xia Cao, Liuxin Wu, Zhiheng Chen
To explore the association between the changes in ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) indices and the renal function.
 Methods: The retrospective cohort study consisted of 837 Chinese individuals from Department of Health Management in the Third Xiangya Hospital. The general information, anthropometry and blood biochemistry were obtained for all subjects from 2008 to 2014, respectively. The 6-year changes of 7 ideal CVH metrics defined by American Heart Association and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated...
June 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690113/male-violence-and-sexual-intimidation-in-a-wild-primate-society
#18
Alice Baniel, Guy Cowlishaw, Elise Huchard
Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits [6]. Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus)...
July 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690112/the-discovery-of-xy-sex-chromosomes-in-a-boa-and-python
#19
Tony Gamble, Todd A Castoe, Stuart V Nielsen, Jaison L Banks, Daren C Card, Drew R Schield, Gordon W Schuett, Warren Booth
For over 50 years, biologists have accepted that all extant snakes share the same ZW sex chromosomes derived from a common ancestor [1-3], with different species exhibiting sex chromosomes at varying stages of differentiation. Accordingly, snakes have been a well-studied model for sex chromosome evolution in animals [1, 4]. A review of the literature, however, reveals no compelling support that boas and pythons possess ZW sex chromosomes [2, 5]. Furthermore, phylogenetic patterns of facultative parthenogenesis in snakes and a sex-linked color mutation in the ball python (Python regius) are best explained by boas and pythons possessing an XY sex chromosome system [6, 7]...
July 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688201/contrasting-patterns-of-x-chromosome-divergence-underlie-multiple-sex-ratio-polymorphisms-in-stalk-eyed-flies
#20
Kimberly A Paczolt, Josephine A Reinhardt, Gerald S Wilkinson
Sex-linked segregation distorters cause offspring sex ratios to differ from equality. Theory predicts that such selfish alleles may either go to fixation and cause extinction, reach a stable polymorphism, or initiate an evolutionary arms race with genetic modifiers. The extent to which a sex ratio distorter follows any of these trajectories in nature is poorly known. Here we used X-linked sequence and simple tandem repeat data for three sympatric species of stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis whitei and two cryptic species of T...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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