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Sex evolution

Matthew W Pennell, Judith E Mank, Catherine L Peichel
Despite the prevalence of sexual reproduction across eukaryotes, there is a remarkable diversity of sex determination mechanisms. The underlying causes of this diversity remain unclear, and it is unknown if there are convergent trends in the directionality of turnover in sex determination mechanisms. We used the recently assembled Tree of Sex database to assess patterns in the evolution of sex determination systems in the remarkably diverse vertebrate clades of teleost fish, squamate reptiles, and amphibians...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Hui-Su Kim, Bo-Young Lee, Jeonghoon Han, Chang-Bum Jeong, Dae-Sik Hwang, Min-Chul Lee, Hye-Min Kang, Duck-Hyun Kim, Hee-Jin Kim, Spiros Papakostas, Steven A J Declerck, Ik-Young Choi, Atsushi Hagiwara, Heum Gi Park, Jae-Seong Lee
Monogononta is the most speciose class of rotifers, with more than 2000 species. The monogonont genus Brachionus is widely distributed at a global scale, and a few of its species are commonly used as ecological and evolutionary models to address questions related to aquatic ecology, cryptic speciation, evolutionary ecology, the evolution of sex, and ecotoxicology. With the importance of Brachionus species in many areas of research, it is remarkable that the genome has not been characterized. This study aims to address this lacuna by presenting, for the first time, the whole genome assembly of the freshwater species Brachionus calyciflorus...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Sahin Naqvi, Daniel W Bellott, Kathy S Lin, David C Page
Mammalian X and Y Chromosomes evolved from an ordinary autosomal pair. Genetic decay of the Y led to X Chromosome inactivation (XCI) in females, but some Y-linked genes were retained during the course of sex chromosome evolution, and many X-linked genes did not become subject to XCI. We reconstructed gene-by-gene dosage sensitivities on the ancestral autosomes through phylogenetic analysis of microRNA (miRNA) target sites and compared these preexisting characteristics to the current status of Y-linked and X-linked genes in mammals...
February 15, 2018: Genome Research
Francisco Dávila, Anne Botteaux, David Bauman, Sarah Chérasse, Serge Aron
Bacteria can damage sperm and thus reduce the reproductive success of both males and females; selection should therefore favour the evolution of antimicrobial protection. Eusocial hymenopterans might be particularly affected by such bacterial infections because of their mating ecology. In both sexes, mating is restricted to a short window early in the adult stage; there are no further chances to mate later in life. Males die shortly after mating, but queens use the acquired sperm to fertilise their eggs for years, sometimes decades...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Juan M Ferro, Dario E Cardozo, Pablo Suárez, Juan M Boeris, Ailin Blasco-Zúñiga, Gastón Barbero, Anderson Gomes, Thiago Gazoni, William Costa, Cleusa Y Nagamachi, Miryan Rivera, Patricia P Parise-Maltempi, John E Wiley, Julio C Pieczarka, Celio F B Haddad, Julián Faivovich, Diego Baldo
The hylid tribe Cophomantini is a diverse clade of Neotropical treefrogs composed of the genera Aplastodiscus, Boana, Bokermannohyla, Hyloscirtus, and Myersiohyla. The phylogenetic relationships of Cophomantini have been comprehensively reviewed in the literature, providing a suitable framework for the study of chromosome evolution. Employing different banding techniques, we studied the chromosomes of 25 species of Boana and 3 of Hyloscirtus; thus providing, for the first time, data for Hyloscirtus and for 15 species of Boana...
2018: PloS One
Darren E Irwin
Theory and empirical patterns suggest a disproportionate role for sex chromosomes in evolution and speciation. Focusing on ZW sex determination (females ZW, males ZZ; the system in birds, many snakes, and lepidopterans), I review how evolutionary dynamics are expected to differ between the Z, W, and the autosomes, discuss how these differences may lead to a greater role of the sex chromosomes in speciation, and use data from birds to compare relative evolutionary rates of sex chromosomes and autosomes. Neutral mutations, partially or completely recessive beneficial mutations, and deleterious mutations under many conditions are expected to accumulate faster on the Z than on autosomes...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Milla de Andrade Machado, Julio C Pieczarka, Fernando H R Silva, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Cleusa Y Nagamachi
The genus Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes) contains over 40 species of freshwater electric fishes exhibiting a wide distribution throughout Central and South America, and being particularly prevalent in the Amazon basin. Cytogenetics has been an important tool in the cytotaxonomy and elucidation of evolutionary processes in this genus, including the unraveling the variety of diploid chromosome number (2n = from 34 to 54), the high karyotype diversity among species with a shared diploid number, different sex chromosome systems, and variation in the distribution of several Repetitive DNAs and colocation and association between those sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Sarah Jane Quillin, H Steven Seifert
The host-adapted human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhoea. Consistent with its proposed evolution from an ancestral commensal bacterium, N. gonorrhoeae has retained features that are common in commensals, but it has also developed unique features that are crucial to its pathogenesis. The continued worldwide incidence of gonorrhoeal infection, coupled with the rising resistance to antimicrobials and the difficulties in controlling the disease in developing countries, highlights the need to better understand the molecular basis of N...
February 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Yuji Yasukochi, Bin Yang, Toshiaki Fujimoto, Ken Sahara, Takashi Matsuo, Yukio Ishikawa
General odorant binding proteins (GOBPs) and pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) form a monophyletic subfamily of insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) specific for Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths. The GOBP/PBP genes include six subgroups (GOBP1-2, PBP-A-D) previously reported to form a complex arrayed in a conserved order in representative moths (superfamily Bombycoidea) and butterflies (Nymphalidae). Although our knowledge of lepidopteran genomes has increased greatly recently, the structure of the GOBP/PBP complex has been studied only for species that represent limited lineages of the highly diverged Ditrysia...
2018: PloS One
Songzhen He, Xiaoling Tong, Minjin Han, Hai Hu, Fangyin Dai
WD40 proteins are scaffolding molecules in protein-protein interactions and play crucial roles in fundamental biological processes. Genome-wide characterization of WD40 proteins in animals has been conducted solely in humans. We retrieved 172 WD40 protein genes in silkworm (BmWD40s) and identified these genes in 7 other insects, 9 vertebrates and 5 nematodes. Comparative analysis revealed that the WD40 protein gene family underwent lineage-specific expansions during animal evolution, but did not undergo significant expansion during insect evolution...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Massimo Giovannotti, Paola Nisi Cerioni, Verónica Rojo, Ettore Olmo, Tahar Slimani, Andrea Splendiani, Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi
In this study, IMO-TaqI satDNA, previously isolated in several species of Lacertidae, was isolated and characterized from four species of the genus Lacerta and three of the genus Timon. The aim was to gain further insights into the evolutionary dynamics of this satDNA, its occurrence among lacertids and to understand if it plays any role in sex chromosome evolution in these seven species. The results here obtained highlighted the presence of this repetitive element in the genome of all the species investigated, thus indicating that IMO-TaqI satDNA is evolutionary conserved among a wide variety of lacertids...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Karen J Thompson
Grasshoppers produce an extraordinary oviposition behavior that is associated with multiple specializations of the skeletal and neuromuscular systems in the posterior abdomen, including a central pattern generator (CPG) in the female's terminal abdominal ganglion. Two pairs of shovel-shaped appendages, the ovipositor valves on the abdomen tip, excavate the soil for deposition of eggs. By contrast, the sexually monomorphic pregenital region of the abdomen is without appendages. Morphological homologues of ovipositor muscles and efferent neurons in the eighth abdominal segment are nevertheless present in pregenital segments of males and females...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Daniel Frynta, Jitka Jančúchová-Lásková, Petra Frýdlová, Eva Landová
An extensive research effort is devoted to the evolution of life-histories and processes underlying the variation in adult body weight; however, in this regard, some animal taxa remain neglected. Here we report rates and timing of growth recorded in two wild-derived populations of a model lizard species, Eublepharis macularius (M, W), other two related species, i.e., E. angramainyu (A) and E. sp. (D), and their between-species hybrids. We detected clear differences among the examined species/populations, which can be interpreted in the terms of "fast - slow" continuum of life-history strategies...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Torvid Kiserud, Alexandra Benachi, Kurt Hecher, Rogelio González Perez, José Carvalho, Gilda Piaggio, Lawrence D Platt
Ultrasound biometry is an important clinical tool for the identification, monitoring, and management of fetal growth restriction and development of macrosomia. This is even truer in populations in which perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are high, which is a reason that much effort is put onto making the technique available everywhere, including low-income societies. Until recently, however, commonly used reference ranges were based on single populations largely from industrialized countries. Thus, the World Health Organization prioritized the establishment of fetal growth charts for international use...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
David C H Metzger, Patricia M Schulte
Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are a key component of dosage compensation on sex chromosomes and have been proposed as an important source of phenotypic variation influencing plasticity and adaptive evolutionary processes, yet little is known about the role of DNA methylation in an ecological or evolutionary context in vertebrates. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an ecological an evolutionary model system that has been used to study mechanisms involved in the evolution of adaptive phenotypes in novel environments as well as the evolution heteromorphic sex chromosomes and dosage compensation in vertebrates...
February 6, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Yue Yang, Xiu-Ping Zhao, Hua-Chun Zou, Min-Jie Chu, Ping Zhong, Xiao-Shan Li, Xiao-Yan Li, Yu-Hui Yu, Ke-Xin Zhu, Yu-Jia Chen, Fei Xia, Bo-Wen Zhu, Luan-Qi Ruan, Yi-Ning Bao, Xun Zhuang
The prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among men who have sex with men (MSM) are on the rise throughout China. With a large population of MSM, Jiangsu Province is facing an escalating HIV-1 epidemic.The aim of this study was to explore the phylogenetic and temporal dynamics of HIV-1 CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve MSM recently infected with HIV-1 in Jiangsu Province.We recruited MSM in Jiangsu Province (Suzhou, Wuxi, Nantong, Taizhou and Yancheng) 2012 to 2015...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Vikram Mehraj, Joseph Cox, Bertrand Lebouché, Cecilia Costiniuk, Wei Cao, Taisheng Li, Rosalie Ponte, Réjean Thomas, Jason Szabo, Jean-Guy Baril, Benoit Trottier, Pierre Côté, Roger LeBlanc, Julie Bruneau, Cécile Tremblay, Jean-Pierre Routy
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines regarding antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV infection have varied over time, with the 2015 World Health Organization recommendation suggesting ART initiation at the time of diagnosis regardless of CD4 T-cell counts. Herein, we investigated the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors in addition to time trends on early ART initiation among participants of the Montreal Primary HIV Infection Study. METHODS: The Montreal Primary HIV Infection Study is a prospective cohort established in three community medical centres (CMCs) and two university medical centres (UMCs)...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Érica Assunção Carmo, Patrícia Honório Silva Santos, Bárbara Santos Ribeiro, Carine de Jesus Soares, Maria Lydia Aroz D'Almeida Santana, Eliane Dos Santos Bomfim, Bruno Gonçalves de Oliveira, Juliana da Silva Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: to describe sociodemographic aspects and time evolution of mortality due to suicide among elderly individuals in Bahia State, Brazil, from 1996 to 2013. METHODS: time series descriptive and ecological study, with data from the Mortality Information System (SIM); Prais-Winsten regression was used for trend analysis and to calculate annual percent change (APC). RESULTS: 858 deaths due to suicide were identified in elderly in Bahia; 85...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
B V Gomes, D M Guimarães, D Szczupak, K Neves
The evolution of mating strategies is not well understood. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variation in mating strategies, with varying levels of support. Specifically, female dispersion, adult sex ratio and mate guarding have been proposed as drivers of the evolution of monogamous strategies. In this study, we used an agent-based model (ABM) to examine how different mating behaviors evolve in a population under different conditions related to these putative drivers, looking to understand the interaction between them...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexey S Kondrashov
Theoretically, a variety of mechanisms can make amphimixis advantageous due to reshuffling of offspring genotypes. Recently, it has been shown experimentally that some of these mechanisms can indeed work in artificial populations. However, we still do not know which of them, if any, are relevant in nature, and the available indirect estimates seem to suggest that neither negative nor positive selection in natural populations is strong enough to provide evolutionary protection for obligate amphimixis. Thus, progress in understanding the evolution of amphimixis will depend on direct measurements of the strength of natural selection...
February 3, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
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