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Sex evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087686/amoebozoans-are-secretly-but-ancestrally-sexual-evidence-for-sex-genes-and-potential-novel-crossover-pathways-in-diverse-groups-of-amoebae
#1
Yonas I Tekle, Fiona C Wood, Laura A Katz, Mario A Cerón-Romero, Lydia A Gorfu
Sex is beneficial in eukaryotes as it can increase genetic diversity, reshuffle their genomes, and purge deleterious mutations. Yet, its evolution remains a mystery. The eukaryotic clade supergroup Amoebozoa encompasses diverse lineages of polymorphic amoeboid forms, including both free-living and parasitic lineages. The group is generally believed to be asexual, though recent studies show that some of its members are implicated in cryptic forms of sexual cycles. In this study we conduct a comprehensive inventory and analysis of genes involved in meiosis and related processes, in order to investigate the evolutionary history of sex in the clade...
January 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081279/karyotype-analysis-and-ribosomal-gene-localization-of-spotted-knifejaw-oplegnathus-punctatus
#2
P Z Li, D D Cao, X B Liu, Y J Wang, H Y Yu, X J Li, Q Q Zhang, X B Wang
The spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, is an important aquaculture fish species in China. To better understand the chromosomal microstructure and the karyotypic origin of this species, cytogenetic analysis was performed using Giemsa staining to identify metaphase chromosomes, C-banding to detect C-positive heterochromatin, silver staining to identify the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for physical mapping of the major (18S rDNA) and minor (5S rDNA) ribosomal genes...
December 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077152/gender-bias-and-sex-based-differences-in-health-care-efficiency-in-polish-regions
#3
Błażej Łyszczarz
BACKGROUND: Health differences between sexes are relatively well recognized, though less is known about the specificity of women's and men's health responsiveness to medical care. Applying data from Polish regions, this study identifies sex-based differences in medical care efficiency and investigates the reasons for these disparities in the gender bias context. METHODS: The study estimates sex-specific health production functions for regional data from Poland (1999-2013)...
January 11, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074860/sex-and-age-dependent-patterns-of-survival-and-breeding-success-in-a-long-lived-endangered-avian-scavenger
#4
Ana Sanz-Aguilar, Ainara Cortés-Avizanda, David Serrano, Guillermo Blanco, Olga Ceballos, Juan M Grande, José L Tella, José A Donázar
In long-lived species, the age-, stage- and/or sex-dependent patterns of survival and reproduction determine the evolution of life history strategies, the shape of the reproductive value, and ultimately population dynamics. We evaluate the combined effects of age and sex in recruitment, breeder survival and breeding success of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), using 31-years of exhaustive data on marked individuals in Spain. Mean age of first reproduction was 7-yrs for both sexes, but females showed an earlier median and a larger variance than males...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073352/you-are-what-you-eat-diet-shapes-body-composition-personality-and-behavioural-stability
#5
Chang S Han, Niels J Dingemanse
BACKGROUND: Behavioural phenotypes vary within and among individuals. While early-life experiences have repeatedly been proposed to underpin interactions between these two hierarchical levels, the environmental factors causing such effects remain under-studied. We tested whether an individual's diet affected both its body composition, average behaviour (thereby causing among-individual variation or 'personality') and within-individual variability in behaviour and body weight (thereby causing among-individual differences in residual within-individual variance or 'stability'), using the Southern field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus as a model...
January 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068919/construction-of-high-resolution-recombination-maps-in-asian-seabass
#6
Le Wang, Bin Bai, Peng Liu, Shu Qing Huang, Zi Yi Wan, Elaine Chua, Baoqing Ye, Gen Hua Yue
BACKGROUND: A high-density genetic map is essential for de novo genome assembly, fine mapping QTL for important complex traits, comparative genomic studies and understanding the mechanisms of genome evolution. Although a number of genomic resources are available in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), a high-density linkage map is still lacking. To facilitate QTL mapping for marker-assisted selection and genome assembly, and to understand the genome-wide recombination rates, we constructed high density linkage maps using three families and genotyping by sequencing...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067325/free-flight-odor-tracking-in-drosophila-effect-of-wing-chemosensors-sex-and-pheromonal-gene-regulation
#7
Benjamin Houot, Vincent Gigot, Alain Robichon, Jean-François Ferveur
The evolution of powered flight in insects had major consequences for global biodiversity and involved the acquisition of adaptive processes allowing individuals to disperse to new ecological niches. Flies use both vision and olfactory input from their antennae to guide their flight; chemosensors on fly wings have been described, but their function remains mysterious. We studied Drosophila flight in a wind tunnel. By genetically manipulating wing chemosensors, we show that these structures play an essential role in flight performance with a sex-specific effect...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064164/the-relative-contributions-of-the-x-chromosome-and-autosomes-to-local-adaptation
#8
Clémentine Lasne, Carla M Sgrò, Tim Connallon
Models of sex chromosome and autosome evolution yield key predictions about the genomic basis of adaptive divergence, and such models have been important in guiding empirical research in comparative genomics and studies of speciation. In addition to the adaptive differentiation that occurs between species over time, selection also favors genetic divergence across geographic space, with subpopulations of single species evolving conspicuous differences in traits involved in adaptation to local environmental conditions...
January 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060676/karyotype-diversity-and-evolutionary-trends-in-armored-catfish-species-of-the-genus-harttia-siluriformes-loricariidae
#9
Daniel Rodrigues Blanco, Marcelo Ricardo Vicari, Roberto Laridondo Lui, Josiane Baccarin Traldi, Vanessa Bueno, Juliana de Fátima Martinez, Heleno Brandão, Osvaldo Takeshi Oyakawa, Orlando Moreira Filho
Most species of the genus Harttia inhabits the headwaters of small tributaries, but some species are restricted to the main channel of some rivers. This feature, combined with limited dispersal ability, leads to the formation of small isolated populations with reduced gene flow. Currently, there are 23 taxonomically defined and recognized species, and 17 of these are found in Brazil, distributed in several hydrographic basins. Despite this diversity, few chromosomal data for the species belonging to this genus are found in the literature...
January 6, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057829/evolution-of-the-asexual-queen-succession-system-and-its-underlying-mechanisms-in-termites
#10
REVIEW
Kenji Matsuura
One major advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is its promotion of genetic variation, although it reduces the genetic contribution to offspring. Queens of social insects double their contribution to the gene pool, while overuse of asexual reproduction may reduce the ability of the colony to adapt to environmental stress because of the loss of genetic diversity. Recent studies have revealed that queens of some termite species can solve this tradeoff by using parthenogenesis to produce the next generation of queens and sexual reproduction to produce other colony members...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057732/satellite-dna-and-transposable-elements-in-seabuckthorn-hippophae-rhamnoides-a-dioecious-plant-with-small-y-and-large-x-chromosomes
#11
Janka Puterova, Olga Razumova, Tomas Martinek, Oleg Alexandrov, Mikhail Divashuk, Zdenek Kubat, Roman Hobza, Gennady Karlov, Eduard Kejnovsky
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is a dioecious shrub commonly used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and environmental industry as a source of oil, minerals and vitamins. In this study, we analyzed the transposable elements and satellites in its genome. We carried out Illumina DNA sequencing and reconstructed the main repetitive DNA sequences. For data analysis, we developed a new bioinformatics approach for advanced satellite DNA analysis and showed that about 25% of the genome consists of satellite DNA and about 24% is formed of transposable elements, dominated by Ty3/Gypsy and Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons...
January 4, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054713/alternating-terminal-electron-acceptors-at-the-basis-of-symbiogenesis-how-oxygen-ignited-eukaryotic-evolution
#12
Dave Speijer
What kind of symbiosis between archaeon and bacterium gave rise to their eventual merger at the origin of the eukaryotes? I hypothesize that conditions favouring bacterial uptake were based on exchange of intermediate carbohydrate metabolites required by recurring changes in availability and use of the two different terminal electron chain acceptors, the bacterial one being oxygen. Oxygen won, and definitive loss of the archaeal membrane potential allowed permanent establishment of the bacterial partner as the proto-mitochondrion, further metabolic integration and highly efficient ATP production...
January 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053226/higher-rates-of-sex-evolve-during-adaptation-to-more-complex-environments
#13
Pepijn Luijckx, Eddie Ka Ho Ho, Majid Gasim, Suyang Chen, Andrijana Stanic, Connor Yanchus, Yun Seong Kim, Aneil F Agrawal
A leading hypothesis for the evolutionary maintenance of sexual reproduction proposes that sex is advantageous because it facilitates adaptation. Changes in the environment stimulate adaptation but not all changes are equivalent; a change may occur along one or multiple environmental dimensions. In two evolution experiments with the facultatively sexual rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, we test how environmental complexity affects the evolution of sex by adapting replicate populations to various environments that differ from the original along one, two, or three environmental dimensions...
January 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051947/early-life-effects-on-adult-physical-activity-concepts-relevance-and-experimental-approaches
#14
Theodore Garland, Marcell D Cadney, Robert A Waterland
Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment)...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051217/changes-of-crohn-s-disease-phenotype-over-time
#15
Afef Ouaz, Monia Fekih, Asma Labidi, Nadia Ben Mustapha, Meriem Serghini, Lilia Zouiten, Jalel Boubaker, Azza Filali
Background - Crohn's disease is a clinically heterogeneous condition. Our aim was to identify the phenotype evolution of Crohn's disease over time according to the Montreal Classification and to precise predictive factors of the need for immunosuppressant treatment or surgery. Methods - We included Crohn's disease patients who were followed up for at least 5 years. We excluded patients who were lost to follow up before five. Patients were classified according to the Montreal classification for phenotype at diagnosis and five years later...
June 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035715/sequence-diversity-patterns-suggesting-balancing-selection-in-partially-sex-linked-genes-of-the-plant-silene-latifolia-are-not-generated-by-demographic-history-or-gene-flow
#16
Sara Guirao-Rico, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, Deborah Charlesworth
DNA sequence diversity in genes in the partially sex-linked pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the sex chromosomes of the plant Silene latifolia is higher than expected from within-species diversity of other genes. This could be the footprint of sexually antagonistic (SA) alleles that are maintained by balancing selection in a PAR gene (or genes) and affect polymorphism in linked genome regions. SA selection is predicted to occur during sex chromosome evolution, but it is important to test whether the unexpectedly high sequence polymorphism could be explained without it, purely by the combined effects of partial linkage with the sex-determining region and the population's demographic history, including possible introgression from S...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028227/oxytocin-reactivity-during-intergroup-conflict-in-wild-chimpanzees
#17
Liran Samuni, Anna Preis, Roger Mundry, Tobias Deschner, Catherine Crockford, Roman M Wittig
Intergroup conflict is evident throughout the history of our species, ubiquitous across human societies, and considered crucial for the evolution of humans' large-scale cooperative nature. Like humans, chimpanzee societies exhibit intragroup coordination and coalitionary support during violent intergroup conflicts. In both species, cooperation among group members is essential for individuals to gain access to benefits from engaging in intergroup conflict. Studies suggest that a contributive mechanism regulating in-group cooperation during intergroup conflicts in humans involves the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin, known to influence trust, coordination, and social cognition, although evidence from natural settings is lacking...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027432/an-allelic-series-at-pax7a-is-associated-with-color-polymorphism-diversity-in-lake-malawi-cichlid-fish
#18
Reade B Roberts, Emily C Moore, Thomas D Kocher
Despite longstanding interest in the evolution and maintenance of discrete phenotypic polymorphisms, the molecular genetic basis of such polymorphism in the wild is largely unknown. Female sex-associated blotched color polymorphisms found in cichlids of Lake Malawi, East Africa represent a highly successful polymorphic phenotype, found and maintained in four genera across the geographic expanse of the lake. Previously, we identified an association with an allelic variant of the paired-box transcription factor gene pax7a and blotched color morphs in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025585/biparental-care-is-predominant-and-beneficial-to-parents-in-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-orbicollis-coleoptera-silphidae
#19
Kyle M Benowitz, Allen J Moore
Parenting strategies can be flexible within a species, and may have varying fitness effects. Understanding this flexibility and its fitness consequences is important for understanding why parenting strategies evolve. Here, we investigate the fitness consequences of flexible parenting in the burying beetle Nicrophorus orbicollis, a species known for its advanced provisioning behaviour of regurgitated vertebrate carrion to offspring by both sexes. We show that even when a parent is freely allowed to abandon the carcass at any point in time, biparental post-hatching care is the most common pattern of care adopted in N...
December 2016: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013241/oup-lethal-gene-drive-selects-inbreeding
#20
James J Bull
The use of 'selfish' gene drive systems to suppress or even extinguish populations has been proposed on theoretical grounds for almost half a century. Creating these genes has recently become possible with CRISPR technology. One seemingly feasible approach, originally proposed by Burt, is to create a homing endonuclease gene (HEG) that inserts into an essential gene, enabling heterozygote viability but causing homozygote lethality. With 100% segregation distortion in gametes, such genes can cause profound population suppression if resistance does not evolve...
November 8, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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