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biomathematics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693672/inceptions-of-biomathematics-from-lotka-to-thom
#1
Hugo A Van Den Berg
Mathematical biology occupies a special place at the interface between the physical, mathematical and life sciences. Is this interface merely a meeting point for dabblers venturing out of their own proper domains to work on problems of mutual interest? Or is it an incipient science in its own right, with its own particular character, principles, and practices? The past century has seen vast advances in the application of mathematical and physical ideas and techniques to biological problems, in the process transforming many of them almost beyond recognition...
March 1, 2017: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438455/lesser-trochanter-size-on-plain-anteroposterior-radiographs-correlates-with-native-femoral-anteversion
#2
Michael C Worlicek, Michael L Wörner, Benjamin S Craiovan, Florian Zeman, Joachim Grifka, Tobias F Renkawitz, Markus Weber
BACKGROUND: Assessing femoral version in orthopedic surgery is important for preoperative planning of total hip arthroplasty, especially for recognizing excessive anteversion or retroversion. The present study addressed the following: (1) Is the position of the lesser trochanter correlated to the femoral neck axis? (2) If so, may femoral version be assessed by means of plain pelvic radiographs? METHODS: Three-dimensional computed tomography scans of 60 patients undergoing minimally invasive cement-free total hip arthroplasty were retrospectively analyzed, particularly with regard to the relation between the femoral neck axis and the lesser trochanter, the femoral version, and the size of the projected lesser trochanter in different rotational positions...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282410/biomathematical-pattern-of-emg-signal-propagation-in-smooth-muscle-of-the-non-pregnant-porcine-uterus
#3
Malgorzata Domino, Bartosz Pawlinski, Zdzislaw Gajewski
Uterine contractions are generated by myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that comprise most of the myometrial layer of the uterine wall. Aberrant uterine motility (i.e., hypo- or hyper-contractility or asynchronous contractions) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of infertility due to the failure of implantation, endometriosis and abnormal estrous cycles. The mechanism whereby the non-pregnant uterus initiates spontaneous contractions remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to employ linear synchronization measures for analyzing the pattern of EMG signal propagation (direction and speed) in smooth muscles of the non-pregnant porcine uterus in vivo using telemetry recording system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231575/individual-biomarkers-using-molecular-personalized-medicine-approaches
#4
Hans P Zenner
Molecular personalized medicine tries to generate individual predictive biomarkers to assist doctors in their decision making. These are thought to improve the efficacy and lower the toxicity of a treatment. The molecular basis of the desired high-precision prediction is modern "omex" technologies providing high-throughput bioanalytical methods. These include genomics and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, imaging, and functional analyses. In most cases, producing big data also requires a complex biomathematical analysis...
2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217793/quantitative-analysis-of-the-proliferative-to-invasive-transition-of-hypoxic-glioma-cells
#5
Hector Gomez
Hypoxia is a hallmark of gliomas that is often associated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapies. Insufficient oxygen supply reduces the proliferation rate of tumor cells, which contributes to a slower progression of the lesion, but also increases the invasiveness of the tumor, making it more aggressive. To understand how these two counteracting mechanisms combine and modify the tumor's global growth, this paper proposes a quantitative approach based on a biomathematical model. The model predicts that the net effect of the proliferative-to-invasive transition leads to a lower survival even for slight increments of the invasive capacity of hypoxic tumor cells...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210999/computational-cognitive-modeling-of-the-temporal-dynamics-of-fatigue-from-sleep-loss
#6
Matthew M Walsh, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hans P A Van Dongen
Computational models have become common tools in psychology. They provide quantitative instantiations of theories that seek to explain the functioning of the human mind. In this paper, we focus on identifying deep theoretical similarities between two very different models. Both models are concerned with how fatigue from sleep loss impacts cognitive processing. The first is based on the diffusion model and posits that fatigue decreases the drift rate of the diffusion process. The second is based on the Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture and posits that fatigue decreases the utility of candidate actions leading to microlapses in cognitive processing...
February 16, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209386/dietary-therapy-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-or-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Helene von Bibra, Alexander Ströhle, Martin St John Sutton, Nicolai Worm
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is an ongoing epidemic of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and/or dysfunction due to the increasing prevalence of predisposing risk factors such as age, physical inactivity, (abdominal) obesity, and type-2-diabetes. Approximately half of these patients have diastolic heart failure (HFpEF). The prognosis of HFpEF is comparable to that of systolic heart failure, but without any known effective treatment. DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION: A biomathematically corrected diagnostic approach is presented that quantifies diastolic dysfunction via the predominant age dependency of LV diastolic function and unmasks (metabolic) risk factors, that are independent of age and, therefore, potential targets for therapy...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062596/prediction-of-the-clinical-standardized-uptake-value-ratio-in-amyloid-pet-imaging-using-a-biomathematical-modeling-approach-towards-the-efficient-development-of-a-radioligand
#8
Yuma Arakawa, YingHwey Nai, Miho Shidahara, Shozo Furumoto, Chie Seki, Nobuyuki Okamura, Manabu Tashiro, Yukitsuka Kudo, Kazuhiko Yanai, Kohsuke Gonda, Hiroshi Watabe
OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to develop a method to mathematically predict the kinetic parameters K1, k2 and BPND of amyloid PET tracers, and finally obtain standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) values from predicted time-activity curves (TACs) of target and reference regions. METHODS: Ten clinically applied amyloid PET radioligands, (11)C-PIB, (11)C-BF-227, (11)C-AZD2184, (11)C-SB-13, (18)F-FACT, (18)F-Florbetapir, (18)F-Florbetaben, (18)F-Flutemetamol, (18)F-FDDNP and (18)F-AZD4694, were investigated...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979444/biomathematical-optimization-of-radiation-therapy-in-the-era-of-targeted-agents
#9
EDITORIAL
Clemens Grassberger, Jacob G Scott, Harald Paganetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812027/in-vivo-bioluminescence-tomography-for-monitoring-breast-tumor-growth-and-metastatic-spreading-comparative-study-and-mathematical-modeling
#10
Séverine Mollard, Raphaelle Fanciullino, Sarah Giacometti, Cindy Serdjebi, Sebastien Benzekry, Joseph Ciccolini
This study aimed at evaluating the reliability and precision of Diffuse Luminescent Imaging Tomography (DLIT) for monitoring primary tumor and metastatic spreading in breast cancer mice, and to develop a biomathematical model to describe the collected data. Using orthotopic mammary fat pad model of breast cancer (MDAMB231-Luc) in mice, we monitored tumor and metastatic spreading by three-dimensional (3D) bioluminescence and cross-validated it with standard bioluminescence imaging, caliper measurement and necropsy examination...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806610/on-the-new-metrics-for-imrt-qa-verification
#11
Alejandro Garcia-Romero, Araceli Hernandez-Vitoria, Esther Millan-Cebrian, Veronica Alba-Escorihuela, Sonia Serrano-Zabaleta, Pablo Ortega-Pardina
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to search for new metrics that could give more reliable acceptance/rejection criteria on the IMRT verification process and to offer solutions to the discrepancies found among different conventional metrics. Therefore, besides conventional metrics, new ones are proposed and evaluated with new tools to find correlations among them. These new metrics are based on the processing of the dose-volume histogram information, evaluating the absorbed dose differences, the dose constraint fulfillment, or modified biomathematical treatment outcome models such as tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP)...
November 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660481/combining-genetic-and-evolutionary-engineering-to-establish-c4-metabolism-in-c3-plants
#12
Yuanyuan Li, David Heckmann, Martin J Lercher, Veronica G Maurino
To feed a world population projected to reach 9 billion people by 2050, the productivity of major crops must be increased by at least 50%. One potential route to boost the productivity of cereals is to equip them genetically with the 'supercharged' C4 type of photosynthesis; however, the necessary genetic modifications are not sufficiently understood for the corresponding genetic engineering programme. In this opinion paper, we discuss a strategy to solve this problem by developing a new paradigm for plant breeding...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539049/cardiometabolic-syndrome-and-increased-risk-of-heart-failure
#13
REVIEW
Helene von Bibra, Walter Paulus, Martin St John Sutton
Approximately 50 % of patients with heart failure have diastolic heart failure (HFPEF) with the major predisposing risk factors age, inactivity, obesity, insulin resistance (IR), type-2 diabetes, and hypertension. The prognosis of HFPEF is comparable to that of systolic heart failure, but without any specific or effective treatment. This review presents a biomathematically corrected diagnostic approach for quantification of diastolic dysfunction (DD) via the age dependency of diastolic function. Pathophysiological mechanisms for DD in the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) are mainly based on downstream effects of IR including insufficient myocardial energy supply...
October 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509320/complementary-models-reveal-cellular-responses-to-contact-stresses-that-contribute-to-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis
#14
James A Martin, Donald D Anderson, Jessica E Goetz, Douglas Fredericks, Douglas R Pedersen, Bruce P Ayati, J Lawrence Marsh, Joseph A Buckwalter
Two categories of joint overloading cause post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA): single acute traumatic loads/impactions and repetitive overloading due to incongruity/instability. We developed and refined three classes of complementary models to define relationships between joint overloading and progressive cartilage loss across the spectrum of acute injuries and chronic joint abnormalities: explant and whole joint models that allow probing of cellular responses to mechanical injury and contact stresses, animal models that enable study of PTOA pathways in living joints and pre-clinical testing of treatments, and patient-specific computational models that define the overloading that causes OA in humans...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409608/identification-of-pathways-in-liver-repair-potentially-targeted-by-secretory-proteins-from-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Sandra Winkler, Madlen Hempel, Sandra Brückner, Hans-Michael Tautenhahn, Roland Kaufmann, Bruno Christ
BACKGROUND: The beneficial impact of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on both acute and chronic liver diseases has been confirmed, although the molecular mechanisms behind it remain elusive. We aim to identify factors secreted by undifferentiated and hepatocytic differentiated MSC in vitro in order to delineate liver repair pathways potentially targeted by MSC. METHODS: Secreted factors were determined by protein arrays and related pathways identified by biomathematical analyses...
July 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383341/tuberculosis-control-in-prisons-from-research-to-action-the-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-experience
#16
Alexandra Sánchez, Bernard Larouzé
The high tuberculosis (TB) rates observed in the Brazilian prison population highlights the need for more efficient TB control measures in this population, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro where detection rates are 30 times higher than in the general population. We present results of epidemiological, biomathematics modelling, molecular biology, psychosocological, architectural and juridical studies carried out in this state in order to assess the situation and to develop TB control strategies adapted to the specificities of the prison context...
June 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347109/cytokeratin-and-protein-expression-patterns-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-oral-cavity-provide-evidence-for-two-distinct-pathogenetic-pathways
#17
Gesche Frohwitter, Horst Buerger, Paul J VAN Diest, Eberhard Korsching, Johannes Kleinheinz, Thomas Fillies
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is a morphological heterogeneous disease. Various cytokeratin (CK) expression patterns with different prognostic values have been described, but little is known concerning the underlying biological cell mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated 193 cases of oral SCCs using immunohistochemistry for α/β/γ-catenin, glucose transporter 1, caspase-3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, mast/stem cell growth factor receptor, p21, p27, p16, p53, B-cell lymphoma 6, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1 and CK1, 5/6, 8/18, 10, 14 and 19...
July 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293788/novel-fibonacci-and-non-fibonacci-structure-in-the-sunflower-results-of-a-citizen-science-experiment
#18
Jonathan Swinton, Erinma Ochu
This citizen science study evaluates the occurrence of Fibonacci structure in the spirals of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedheads. This phenomenon has competing biomathematical explanations, and our core premise is that observation of both Fibonacci and non-Fibonacci structure is informative for challenging such models. We collected data on 657 sunflowers. In our most reliable data subset, we evaluated 768 clockwise or anticlockwise parastichy numbers of which 565 were Fibonacci numbers, and a further 67 had Fibonacci structure of a predefined type...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271772/high-resolution-week-long-locomotion-time-series-from-japanese-quail-in-a-home-box-environment
#19
Diego A Guzmán, Stefania Pellegrini, Ana G Flesia, Miguel A Aon, Raúl H Marin, Jackelyn M Kembro
Temporal and spatial patterns of locomotion reflect both resting periods and the movement from one place to another to satisfy physiological and behavioural needs. Locomotion is studied in diverse areas of biology such as chronobiology and physiology, as well as in biomathematics. Herein, the locomotion of 24 visually-isolated Japanese quails in their home-box environment was recorded continuously over a 6.5 days at a 0.5 s sampling rate. Three time series are presented for each bird: (1) locomotor activity, (2) distance ambulated, and (3) zone of the box where the bird is located...
June 7, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196107/a-biomathematical-model-of-pneumococcal-lung-infection-and-antibiotic-treatment-in-mice
#20
Sibylle Schirm, Peter Ahnert, Sandra Wienhold, Holger Mueller-Redetzky, Geraldine Nouailles-Kursar, Markus Loeffler, Martin Witzenrath, Markus Scholz
Pneumonia is considered to be one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The outcome depends on both, proper antibiotic treatment and the effectivity of the immune response of the host. However, due to the complexity of the immunologic cascade initiated during infection, the latter cannot be predicted easily. We construct a biomathematical model of the murine immune response during infection with pneumococcus aiming at predicting the outcome of antibiotic treatment. The model consists of a number of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing dynamics of pneumococcal population, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, neutrophils and macrophages fighting the infection and destruction of alveolar tissue due to pneumococcus...
2016: PloS One
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