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Yuanyuan Li, David Heckmann, Martin J Lercher, Veronica G Maurino
To feed a world population projected to reach 9 billion people by 2050, the productivity of major crops must be increased by at least 50%. One potential route to boost the productivity of cereals is to equip them genetically with the 'supercharged' C4 type of photosynthesis; however, the necessary genetic modifications are not sufficiently understood for the corresponding genetic engineering programme. In this opinion paper, we discuss a strategy to solve this problem by developing a new paradigm for plant breeding...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Helene von Bibra, Walter Paulus, Martin St John Sutton
Approximately 50 % of patients with heart failure have diastolic heart failure (HFPEF) with the major predisposing risk factors age, inactivity, obesity, insulin resistance (IR), type-2 diabetes, and hypertension. The prognosis of HFPEF is comparable to that of systolic heart failure, but without any specific or effective treatment. This review presents a biomathematically corrected diagnostic approach for quantification of diastolic dysfunction (DD) via the age dependency of diastolic function. Pathophysiological mechanisms for DD in the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) are mainly based on downstream effects of IR including insufficient myocardial energy supply...
August 18, 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
James A Martin, Donald D Anderson, Jessica E Goetz, Douglas Fredericks, Douglas R Pedersen, Bruce P Ayati, J Lawrence Marsh, Joseph A Buckwalter
Two categories of joint overloading cause post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA): single acute traumatic loads/impactions and repetitive overloading due to incongruity/instability. We developed and refined three classes of complementary models to define relationships between overloading and progressive cartilage loss across the spectrum of acute injuries and chronic joint abnormalities: explant and whole joint models that allow probing of cellular responses to mechanical injury and contact stresses, animal models that enable study of PTOA pathways in living joints and pre-clinical testing of treatments, and patient-specific computational models that define the overloading that causes OA in humans...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Sandra Winkler, Madlen Hempel, Sandra Brückner, Hans-Michael Tautenhahn, Roland Kaufmann, Bruno Christ
BACKGROUND: The beneficial impact of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on both acute and chronic liver diseases has been confirmed, although the molecular mechanisms behind it remain elusive. We aim to identify factors secreted by undifferentiated and hepatocytic differentiated MSC in vitro in order to delineate liver repair pathways potentially targeted by MSC. METHODS: Secreted factors were determined by protein arrays and related pathways identified by biomathematical analyses...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexandra Sánchez, Bernard Larouzé
The high tuberculosis (TB) rates observed in the Brazilian prison population highlights the need for more efficient TB control measures in this population, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro where detection rates are 30 times higher than in the general population. We present results of epidemiological, biomathematics modelling, molecular biology, psychosocological, architectural and juridical studies carried out in this state in order to assess the situation and to develop TB control strategies adapted to the specificities of the prison context...
June 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Gesche Frohwitter, Horst Buerger, Paul J VAN Diest, Eberhard Korsching, Johannes Kleinheinz, Thomas Fillies
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is a morphological heterogeneous disease. Various cytokeratin (CK) expression patterns with different prognostic values have been described, but little is known concerning the underlying biological cell mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated 193 cases of oral SCCs using immunohistochemistry for α/β/γ-catenin, glucose transporter 1, caspase-3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, mast/stem cell growth factor receptor, p21, p27, p16, p53, B-cell lymphoma 6, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1 and CK1, 5/6, 8/18, 10, 14 and 19...
July 2016: Oncology Letters
Jonathan Swinton, Erinma Ochu
This citizen science study evaluates the occurrence of Fibonacci structure in the spirals of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedheads. This phenomenon has competing biomathematical explanations, and our core premise is that observation of both Fibonacci and non-Fibonacci structure is informative for challenging such models. We collected data on 657 sunflowers. In our most reliable data subset, we evaluated 768 clockwise or anticlockwise parastichy numbers of which 565 were Fibonacci numbers, and a further 67 had Fibonacci structure of a predefined type...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Diego A Guzmán, Stefania Pellegrini, Ana G Flesia, Miguel A Aon, Raúl H Marin, Jackelyn M Kembro
Temporal and spatial patterns of locomotion reflect both resting periods and the movement from one place to another to satisfy physiological and behavioural needs. Locomotion is studied in diverse areas of biology such as chronobiology and physiology, as well as in biomathematics. Herein, the locomotion of 24 visually-isolated Japanese quails in their home-box environment was recorded continuously over a 6.5 days at a 0.5 s sampling rate. Three time series are presented for each bird: (1) locomotor activity, (2) distance ambulated, and (3) zone of the box where the bird is located...
2016: Scientific Data
Sibylle Schirm, Peter Ahnert, Sandra Wienhold, Holger Mueller-Redetzky, Geraldine Nouailles-Kursar, Markus Loeffler, Martin Witzenrath, Markus Scholz
Pneumonia is considered to be one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The outcome depends on both, proper antibiotic treatment and the effectivity of the immune response of the host. However, due to the complexity of the immunologic cascade initiated during infection, the latter cannot be predicted easily. We construct a biomathematical model of the murine immune response during infection with pneumococcus aiming at predicting the outcome of antibiotic treatment. The model consists of a number of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing dynamics of pneumococcal population, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, neutrophils and macrophages fighting the infection and destruction of alveolar tissue due to pneumococcus...
2016: PloS One
K W Chung, Roger Lui
The question about whether a periodic solution can exists for a given epidemiological model is a complicated one and has a long history (Hethcote and Levin, Applied math. ecology, biomathematics, vol 18. Springer, Berlin, pp 193-211, 1989). For influenza models, it is well known that a periodic solution can exists for a single-strain model with periodic contact rate (Aron and Schwartz, J Math Biol 110:665-679, 1984; Kuznetsov and Piccardi, J Math Biol 32:109-121, 1994), or a multiple-strain model with cross-immunity and quarantine class or age-structure (Nuño et al...
April 8, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Itziar Frades, Erik Andreasson
In this study we applied biomathematical searches of gene regulatory mechanisms to learn more about oomycete biology and to identify new putative targets for pesticides or biological control against Phytophthora infestans. First, oomycete phylum-specific phosphorylation motifs were found by discriminative n-gram analysis. We found 11.600 P. infestans specific n-grams, mapping 642 phosphoproteins. The most abundant group among these related to phosphatidylinositol metabolism. Due to the large number of possible targets found and our hypothesis that multi-level control is a sign of usefulness as targets for intervention, we identified overlapping targets with a second screen...
April 2016: Fungal Biology
Yuji Seo, Keisuke Tamari, Yasuo Yoshioka, Fumiaki Isohashi, Osamu Suzuki, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Yutaka Takahashi, SungJae Baek, Keisuke Otani, Kazuhiko Ogawa
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether radiosensitization is beneficial when radiotherapy is administered at a high dose per fraction. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of radiation dose on the effectiveness of a broad range of radiosensitizers. METHODS: We analyzed 653 pairs of clonogenic survival curves in 285 published articles, in which modifications of radiosensitivity were studied using the colony-forming assay. The modifications of radiosensitivity were arbitrarily classified into 20 classes...
June 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Irvin M Modlin, Lisa Bodei, Mark Kidd
The management of neuroendocrine neoplasia remains a perplexing problem because of the lack of knowledge of the biology of the disease, its late presentation, the relative insensitivity of imaging modalities and a paucity of predictably effective treatment options. A critical limitation is posed by the lack of accurate biomarkers to guide management, monitor the efficacy of therapy and provide a prognostic assessment of disease progress. Currently utilized monoanalyte biomarkers (e.g. chromogranin, serotonin, pancreastatin etc...
January 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Larry Bodgi, Nicolas Foray
PURPOSE: For 50 years, cellular radiosensitivity has been defined in vitro as the lack of clonogenic capacity of irradiated cells and its mathematical link with dose has been described by the target theory. Among the numerous formulas provided from the target theory, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model empirically describes cell survival as a negative exponential of a second degree polynomial dose-function in which αD is the linear component and βD(2) is the quadratic one. The LQ model is extensively used in radiobiology (to describe survival curves) and in radiotherapy (the α/β ratio indicates whether tissue reactions can occur early or late after the treatment)...
2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Javier A Menendez, Bruna Corominas-Faja, Elisabet Cuyàs, María G García, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Agustín F Fernández, Jorge Joven, Mario F Fraga, Tomás Alarcón
By impairing histone demethylation and locking cells into a reprogramming-prone state, oncometabolites can partially mimic the process of induced pluripotent stem cell generation. Using a systems biology approach, combining mathematical modeling, computation, and proof-of-concept studies with live cells, we found that an oncometabolite-driven pathological version of nuclear reprogramming increases the speed and efficiency of dedifferentiating committed epithelial cells into stem-like states with only a minimal core of stemness transcription factors...
March 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
A Senn, K Filzmaier
A rare disease is defined as a disease that affects a maximum of 5 in 10,000 people. As of today there are roughly 7000 different rare diseases known. On account of this one can say that "rare diseases are rare, but people affected by them are common". For Germany this amounts to: 4 million people that are affected by a rare disease. Diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis have substantially improved for some of the rare diseases. Besides the general medical advances--especially in the area of genetics--this is also due to networking and sharing information by so-called Centres of Competence on a national and international scale...
December 1, 2015: Versicherungsmedizin
Yu-Hong Wang, Xu-Hui Yu, Shan-Shun Luo, Hui Han
BACKGROUND: Ageing brings about the gradual deterioration of the immune system, also known as immunosenescence. The role of non-coding circular RNA in immunosenescence is under studied. Using circular RNA microarray data, we assembled Comparison groups (C1, C2, C3 and C4) that allowed us to compare the circular RNA expression profiles between CD28(+)CD8(+) T cells and CD28(-)CD8(+) T cells isolated from healthy elderly or adult control subjects. Using a step-wise biomathematical strategy, the differentially-expressed circRNAs were identified in C1 (CD28(+)CD8(+) vs CD28(-)CD8(+)T cells in the elderly) and C4 (CD28(-)CD8(+)T cells in the elderly vs in the adult), and the commonly-expressed circRNA species from these profiles were optimized as immunosenescence biomarkers...
2015: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Arie C van Vliet, Martijn R Tannemaat, Sjoerd G van Duinen, Joost Verhaagen, Martijn J A Malessy, Fred De Winter
Functional recovery does not occur in 10% of patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. In these patients, resection of a neuroma-in-continuity (NIC) and surgical nerve reconstruction are required. The formation of a NIC seems to prohibit functional recovery, but the underlying biologic mechanisms for this failure are poorly understood. We systematically analyzed a large series of NIC tissue samples from 17 neonatal and 3 adult patients using an array of immunohistochemical techniques. In a large proportion of patients (74%), the NIC contained multiple focal globular areas with markedly diminished myelination...
September 2015: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Lisa M Sweeney, Laura MacCalman, Lynne T Haber, Eileen D Kuempel, C Lang Tran
Biomathematical modeling quantitatively describes the disposition of metal nanoparticles in lungs and other organs of rats. In a preliminary model, adjustable parameters were calibrated to each of three data sets using a deterministic approach, with optimal values varying among the different data sets. In the current effort, Bayesian population analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation was used to recalibrate the model while improving assessments of parameter variability and uncertainty. The previously-developed model structure and some physiological parameter values were modified to improve physiological realism...
October 2015: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Leith Hathout, Whitney B Pope, Albert Lai, Phioanh L Nghiemphu, Timothy F Cloughesy, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhancing low-grade diffuse astrocytomas are an understudied, aggressive subtype at increased risk because of few radiographic indications of malignant transformation. In the current study, we tested whether tumor growth kinetics could identify tumors that undergo malignant transformation to higher grades. METHODS: Thirty patients with untreated diffuse astrocytomas (WHO II) that underwent tumor progression were enrolled. Contrast-enhancing and T2 hyperintense tumor regions were segmented and the radius of tumor at two time points leading to progression was estimated...
2015: CNS Oncology
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