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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818587/phenanthrene-responsive-micrornas-and-their-targets-in-wheat-roots
#1
Jinfeng Li, Le Yue, Yu Shen, Yu Sheng, Xinhua Zhan, Guohua Xu, Baoshan Xing
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stress. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. However, it is yet unknown how miRNAs work during PAH uptake by plant roots. Thus, in this study we ascertain phenanthrene (a model PAH)-responsive miRNAs using small RNA high-throughput deep sequencing and their target genes in wheat roots. We identified 108 conserved and non-conserved miRNA members belonging to 82 miRNA families and found 11 differentially expressed miRNAs, among which four miRNAs (miR156, miR164, miR171a and miR9678-3p) were up-regulated and the other seven miRNAs (miR398, miR531, miR1121, miR5048-5p, miR9653b, miR9773 and miR9778) were down-regulated...
August 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818467/mathematical-modelling-and-analysis-of-the-brassinosteroid-and-gibberellin-signalling-pathways-and-their-interactions
#2
Henry R Allen, Mariya Ptashnyk
The plant hormones brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) have important roles in a wide range of processes involved in plant growth and development. In this paper we derive and analyse new mathematical models for the BR signalling pathway and for the crosstalk between the BR and GA signalling pathways. To analyse the effects of spatial heterogeneity of the signalling processes, along with spatially-homogeneous ODE models we derive coupled PDE-ODE systems modelling the temporal and spatial dynamics of molecules involved in the signalling pathways...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818383/methyl-jasmonate-and-salicylic-acid-are-able-to-modify-cell-wall-but-only-salicylic-acid-alters-biomass-digestibility-in-the-model-grass-brachypodium-distachyon
#3
Thiago Alves Napoleão, Giuliana Soares, Camilo Elber Vital, Carla Bastos, Robson Castro, Marcelo Ehlers Loureiro, Andrea Giordano
In addition to playing a key role in the response to environmental changes, cell walls are also considered as a valuable feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. Here we explored the effects of the stress-response hormones, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, on cell wall biosynthesis and biomass digestibility in Brachypodium distachyon, a species recently considered as a suitable model for biomass conversion. We found that in response to salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate treatment, plant growth was reduced coupled with significant changes in cell wall composition...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818374/cell-wall-modifications-of-two-arabidopsis-thaliana-ecotypes-col-and-sha-in-response-to-sub-optimal-growth-conditions-an-integrative-study
#4
Harold Duruflé, Vincent Hervé, Philippe Ranocha, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Josiane Chourré, Hélène San Clemente, Vincent Burlat, Cécile Albenne, Sébastien Déjean, Elisabeth Jamet, Christophe Dunand
With the global temperature change, plant adaptations are predicted, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying them. Arabidopsis thaliana is a model plant adapted to various environmental conditions, in particular able to develop along an altitudinal gradient. Two ecotypes, Columbia (Col) growing at low altitude, and Shahdara (Sha) growing at 3400m, have been studied at optimal and sub-optimal growth temperature (22°C vs 15°C). Macro- and micro-phenotyping, cell wall monosaccharides analyses, cell wall proteomics, and transcriptomics have been performed in order to accomplish an integrative analysis...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818366/expression-of-recombinant-snrk1-in-e-coli-characterization-of-adenine-nucleotide-binding-to-the-snrk1-1-akin%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-3-complex
#5
José Luis Maya-Bernal, Alejandra Ávila, Ana Ruiz-Gayosso, Ricardo Trejo-Fregoso, Nancy Pulido, Alejandro Sosa-Peinado, Esther Zúñiga-Sánchez, Eleazar Martínez-Barajas, Rogelio Rodríguez-Sotres, Patricia Coello
The SnRK1 complexes in plants belong to the family of AMPK/SNF1 kinases, which have been associated with the control of energy balance, in addition to being involved in the regulation of other aspects of plant growth and development. Analysis of complex formation indicates that increased activity is achieved when the catalytic subunit is phosphorylated and bound to regulatory subunits. SnRK1.1 subunit activity is higher than that of SnRK1.2, which also exhibits reduced activation due to the regulatory subunits...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816367/the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antiangiogenic-effects-of-flavokawain-b
#6
Mariana C Rossette, Débora C Moraes, Erika K Sacramento, Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva, Juliana L Carvalho, Dawidson A Gomes, Hanna Caldas, Eitan Friedman, Luciana Bastos-Rodrigues, Luiz De Marco
Angiogenesis is implicated in the development of a variety of pathological processes, most commonly cancer. It is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, making it an important cancer therapeutic target. Naturally occurring substances have led to the discovery of anticancer agents. Flavokawain B (FKB), a chalcone isolated from the root extracts of kava-kava plant, inhibits proliferation and causes apoptosis in vitro and in vivo of various cancer cell lines. The antimetastatic potential of FKB has also been suggested...
August 17, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814921/distribution-of-the-invasive-plant-species-heracleum-sosnowskyi-manden-in-the-komi-republic-russia
#7
Ivan Chadin, Igor Dalke, Ilya Zakhozhiy, Ruslan Malyshev, Elena Madi, Olga Kuzivanova, Dmitrii Kirillov, Vladimir Elsakov
Occurrences of the invasive plant species Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. in the Komi Republic (northeastern part of European Russia) were recorded and published in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF http://www.gbif.org) using the RIVR information system (http://ib.komisc.ru/add/rivr/en). RIVR stands for "Rasprostranenie Invasionnyh Vidov Rastenij" [Occurrence of Invasion Plant Species]. This citizen science project aims at collecting occurrence data about invasive plant species with the help of citizen scientists...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814797/adjustment-of-the-arabidopsis-circadian-oscillator-by-sugar-signalling-dictates-the-regulation-of-starch-metabolism
#8
Motohide Seki, Takayuki Ohara, Timothy J Hearn, Alexander Frank, Viviane C H da Silva, Camila Caldana, Alex A R Webb, Akiko Satake
Arabidopsis plants store part of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis as starch to sustain growth at night. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain this diel starch turnover based on either the measurement of starch abundance with respect to circadian time, or the sensing of sugars to feedback to the circadian oscillator to dynamically adjust the timing of starch turnover. We report a phase oscillator model that permitted derivation of the ideal responses of the circadian regulation of starch breakdown to maintain sucrose homeostasis...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814793/resolving-the-central-metabolism-of-arabidopsis-guard-cells
#9
Semidán Robaina-Estévez, Danilo M Daloso, Youjun Zhang, Alisdair R Fernie, Zoran Nikoloski
Photosynthesis and water use efficiency, key factors affecting plant growth, are directly controlled by microscopic and adjustable pores in the leaf-the stomata. The size of the pores is modulated by the guard cells, which rely on molecular mechanisms to sense and respond to environmental changes. It has been shown that the physiology of mesophyll and guard cells differs substantially. However, the implications of these differences to metabolism at a genome-scale level remain unclear. Here, we used constraint-based modeling to predict the differences in metabolic fluxes between the mesophyll and guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana by exploring the space of fluxes that are most concordant to cell-type-specific transcript profiles...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812652/parasites-dominate-hyperdiverse-soil-protist-communities-in-neotropical-rainforests
#10
Frédéric Mahé, Colomban de Vargas, David Bass, Lucas Czech, Alexandros Stamatakis, Enrique Lara, David Singer, Jordan Mayor, John Bunge, Sarah Sernaker, Tobias Siemensmeyer, Isabelle Trautmann, Sarah Romac, Cédric Berney, Alexey Kozlov, Edward A D Mitchell, Christophe V W Seppey, Elianne Egge, Guillaume Lentendu, Rainer Wirth, Gabriel Trueba, Micah Dunthorn
High animal and plant richness in tropical rainforest communities has long intrigued naturalists. It is unknown if similar hyperdiversity patterns are reflected at the microbial scale with unicellular eukaryotes (protists). Here we show, using environmental metabarcoding of soil samples and a phylogeny-aware cleaning step, that protist communities in Neotropical rainforests are hyperdiverse and dominated by the parasitic Apicomplexa, which infect arthropods and other animals. These host-specific parasites potentially contribute to the high animal diversity in the forests by reducing population growth in a density-dependent manner...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811751/bioactive-potential-of-3d-printed-oleo-gum-resin-disks-b-papyrifera-c-myrrha-and-s-benzoin-loading-nanooxides-tio2-p25-cu2o-and-moo3
#11
Diogo José Horst, Sergio Mazurek Tebcherani, Evaldo Toniolo Kubaski, Rogério de Almeida Vieira
This experimental study investigates the bioactive potential of filaments produced via hot melt extrusion (HME) and intended for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing purposes. The oleo-gum-resins from benzoin, myrrha, and olibanum in pure state and also charged with 10% of metal oxide nanoparticles, TiO2, P25, Cu2O, and MoO3, were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
2017: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811333/arabidopsis-lorelei-a-maternally-expressed-imprinted-gene-promotes-early-seed-development
#12
Yanbing Wang, Tatsuya Tsukamoto, Jennifer Ashley Noble, Xunliang Liu, Rebecca Mosher, Ravishankar Palanivelu
n flowering plants the female gametophyte controls pollen tube reception immediately before fertilization and regulates seed development immediately after fertilization, although controlling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that LORELEI (LRE), which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, is critical for pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte before fertilization and initiation of seed development after fertilization. Here, we show that LRE is expressed in the synergid, egg, and central cells of the female gametophyte and in the zygote and proliferating endosperm of the seed...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810832/genome-wide-analysis-of-basic-helix-loop-helix-bhlh-transcription-factors-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#13
Xin Niu, Yuxiang Guan, Shoukun Chen, Haifeng Li
BACKGROUND: As a superfamily of transcription factors (TFs), the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins have been characterized functionally in many plants with a vital role in the regulation of diverse biological processes including growth, development, response to various stresses, and so on. However, no systemic analysis of the bHLH TFs has been reported in Brachypodium distachyon, an emerging model plant in Poaceae. RESULTS: A total of 146 bHLH TFs were identified in the Brachypodium distachyon genome and classified into 24 subfamilies...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808545/dioecious-plants-are-more-precocious-than-cosexual-plants-a-comparative-study-of-relative-sizes-at-the-onset-of-sexual-reproduction-in-woody-species
#14
Itsuki Ohya, Satoshi Nanami, Akira Itoh
The reproductive capacities of dioecious plant species may be limited by severe pollen limitation and narrow seed shadows for the two reasons. First, they are unable to self-pollinate, and seed production occurs only with pollinator movement from males to females. Second, only 50% of the individuals in populations contribute to seed production. Despite these handicaps, dioecious plants maintain their populations in plant communities with cooccurring cosexual plants, and no substantial difference in population growth rates has been found between dioecious and cosexual plants...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808380/identification-and-analysis-of-jasmonate-pathway-genes-in-coffea-canephora-robusta-coffee-by-in-silico-approach
#15
Kosaraju Bharathi, H L Sreenath
BACKGROUND: Coffea canephora is the commonly cultivated coffee species in the world along with Coffea arabica. Different pests and pathogens affect the production and quality of the coffee. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone which plays an important role in plants growth, development, and defense mechanisms, particularly against insect pests. The key enzymes involved in the production of JA are lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase, allene oxide cyclase, and 12-oxo-phytodienoic reductase...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808104/interaction-between-photosynthetic-electron-transport-and-chloroplast-sinks-triggers-protection-and-signalling-important-for-plant-productivity
#16
Peter J Gollan, Yugo Lima-Melo, Arjun Tiwari, Mikko Tikkanen, Eva-Mari Aro
The photosynthetic light reactions provide energy that is consumed and stored in electron sinks, the products of photosynthesis. A balance between light reactions and electron consumption in the chloroplast is vital for plants, and is protected by several photosynthetic regulation mechanisms. Photosystem I (PSI) is particularly susceptible to photoinhibition when these factors become unbalanced, which can occur in low temperatures or in high light. In this study we used the pgr5 Arabidopsis mutant that lacks ΔpH-dependent regulation of photosynthetic electron transport as a model to study the consequences of PSI photoinhibition under high light...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807999/role-of-co-occurring-competition-and-facilitation-in-plant-spacing-hydrodynamics-in-water-limited-environments
#17
Andrew C Trautz, Tissa H Illangasekare, Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe
Plant performance (i.e., fecundity, growth, survival) depends on an individual's access to space and resources. At the community level, plant performance is reflected in observable vegetation patterning (i.e., spacing distance, density) often controlled by limiting resources. Resource availability is, in turn, strongly dependent on plant patterning mediated by competitive and facilitative plant-plant interactions. Co-occurring competition and facilitation has never been specifically investigated from a hydrodynamic perspective...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806677/influence-of-the-residue-from-an-iron-mining-dam-in-the-growth-of-two-macrophyte-species
#18
F Bottino, J A M Milan, M B Cunha-Santino, I Bianchini
On November 5th, 2015 the worst environmental disaster in Brazil spilled 60 million m(3) of iron mining residue into Gualaxo do Norte River (Minas Gerais State), an affluent of the highest River Basin of the Brazilian Southeast (Doce River Basin), reaching the Atlantic Ocean. To assess the impact of the iron residue on the aquatic plant metabolism, we performed macrophyte growth experiments under controlled light and temperature conditions using two species (Egeria densa and Chara sp.). The plants' growth data were fitted in a kinetic model to obtain the biomass yields (K) and growth rates (μ)...
August 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805962/medicago-truncatula-molybdate-transporter-type-1-mtmot1-3-is-a-plasma-membrane-molybdenum-transporter-required-for-nitrogenase-activity-in-root-nodules-under-molybdenum-deficiency
#19
Manuel Tejada-Jiménez, Patricia Gil-Díez, Javier León-Mediavilla, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Molybdenum, as a component of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase, is essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This nutrient has to be provided by the host plant through molybdate transporters. Members of the molybdate transporter family Molybdate Transporter type 1 (MOT1) were identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula and their expression in nodules was determined. Yeast toxicity assays, confocal microscopy, and phenotypical characterization of a Transposable Element from Nicotiana tabacum (Tnt1) insertional mutant line were carried out in the one M...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800850/characterization-of-the-autophagy-related-gene-bmatg8-in-bipolaris-maydis
#20
Takuya Sumita, Kosuke Izumitsu, Chihiro Tanaka
Autophagy is involved in cellular development and the maintenance of viability under nutrient deprivation in a wide range of eukaryotes. A filamentous ascomycete Bipolaris maydis, responsible for southern corn leaf blight, is also studied as a model fungus for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes that form filiform ascospores. In order to clarify the roles of autophagy in various stages of the life cycle of B. maydis, we constructed null mutants of BmATG8, an orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae autophagy gene ATG8 in B...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
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