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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455256/terrestrial-aquatic-trophic-linkages-support-fish-production-in-a-tropical-oligotrophic-river
#1
Sandra Bibiana Correa, Kirk Winemiller
Despite low in situ primary productivity, tropical oligotrophic rivers support highly diverse fish assemblages and productive fisheries. This raises the question, what energy sources support fish production in these ecosystems? We sampled fish and food resources in the floodplain of a nearly pristine, large, oligotrophic river in western Amazonia. We combined data from stomach contents and stable isotopes to test the hypothesis that floodplain forests sustain fisheries in tropical oligotrophic rivers. Analysis of stomach contents from > 800 specimens of 12 omnivorous fish species demonstrated that during the annual flood, forest plant matter dominated diets...
February 17, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455116/linking-mode-of-action-of-the-model-respiratory-and-photosynthesis-uncoupler-3-5-dichlorophenol-to-adverse-outcomes-in-lemna-minor
#2
Li Xie, Tânia Gomes, Knut Asbjørn Solhaug, You Song, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Standard chemical toxicity testing guidelines using aquatic plant Lemna minor have been developed by several international standardisation organisations. Although being highly useful for regulatory purposes by focusing on traditional adverse endpoints, these tests provide limited information about the toxic mechanisms and modes of action (MoA). The present study aimed to use selected functional assays in L. minor after exposure to 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP) as a model to characterise the toxic mechanisms causing growth inhibition and lethality in primary producers...
February 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454355/temporal-changes-of-fine-root-overyielding-and-foraging-strategies-in-planted-monoculture-and-mixed-forests
#3
Weiwei Shu, Xiaoxiao Shen, Pifeng Lei, Wenhua Xiang, Shuai Ouyang, Wende Yan
BACKGROUND: Mixed forests are believed to enhance ecosystem functioning and sustainability due to complementary resource use, environmental benefits and improved soil properties. The facilitation between different species may induce overyielding. Meanwhile, the species-specific fine root foraging strategies and tradeoffs would determine the structure and dynamics of plant communities. Here the aim was to investigate the admixing effects of fine-root biomass, vertical distribution and morphology in Pinus massoniana-Cinnamomum camphora mixed plantations and corresponding monocultures at 10-, 24- and 45-year old stands...
February 17, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449595/temporal-differentiation-of-crop-growth-as-one-of-the-drivers-of-intercropping-yield-advantage
#4
Nan Dong, Ming-Ming Tang, Wei-Ping Zhang, Xing-Guo Bao, Yu Wang, Peter Christie, Long Li
Intercropping studies usually focus on yield advantage and interspecific interactions but few quantify temporal niche differentiation and its relationship with intercropping yield advantage. A field experiment conducted in northwest China in 2013 and 2014 examined four intercropping systems (oilseed rape/maize, oilseed rape/soybean, potato/maize, and soybean/potato) and the corresponding monocultures. Total dry matter data collected every 20 d after maize emergence were fitted to logistic models to investigate the temporal dynamics of crop growth and interspecific interactions...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449088/temperature-modulates-tissue-specification-program-to-control-fruit-dehiscence-in-brassicaceae
#5
Xin-Ran Li, Joyita Deb, S Vinod Kumar, Lars Østergaard
Plants respond to diurnal and seasonal changes in temperature by reprogramming vital developmental pathways. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that define environmental modulation of plant growth and reproduction is critical in the context of climate change that threatens crop yield worldwide. Here, we report that elevated temperature accelerates fruit dehiscence in members of the Brassicaceae family including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and important crop species. Arabidopsis fruit development is controlled by a network of interacting regulatory genes...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449027/suberized-transport-barriers-in-arabidopsis-barley-and-rice-roots-from-the-model-plant-to-crop-species
#6
Tino Kreszies, Lukas Schreiber, Kosala Ranathunge
Water is the most important prerequisite for life and plays a major role during uptake and transport of nutrients. Roots are the plant organs that take up the major part of water, from the surrounding soil. Water uptake is related to the root system architecture, root growth, age and species dependent complex developmental changes in the anatomical structures. The latter is mainly attributed to the deposition of suberized barriers in certain layers of cell walls, such as endo- and exodermis. With respect to water permeability, changes in the suberization of roots are most relevant...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448176/mechanisms-of-phloem-loading
#7
REVIEW
Cankui Zhang, Robert Turgeon
The complex form of higher plants requires continuous, balanced transport of nutrients in the phloem. The initial step of transferring sugars, amino acids, and other materials from photosynthetic cells to the conducting sieve tubes is known as phloem loading. Three phloem loading mechanisms have been described. The first involves release of sucrose into the apoplast and subsequent retrieval by the phloem. The initial release step in this process is now known to be mediated by a new class of transporters, the SWEET proteins...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447375/coupling-individual-kernel-filling-processes-with-source-sink-interactions-into-greenlab-maize
#8
Yuntao Ma, Youjia Chen, Jinyu Zhu, Lei Meng, Yan Guo, Baoguo Li, Gerrit Hoogenboom
Background and Aims: Failure to account for the variation of kernel growth in a cereal crop simulation model may cause serious deviations in the estimates of crop yield. The goal of this research was to revise the GREENLAB-Maize model to incorporate source- and sink-limited allocation approaches to simulate the dry matter accumulation of individual kernels of an ear (GREENLAB-Maize-Kernel). Methods: The model used potential individual kernel growth rates to characterize the individual potential sink demand...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447350/soil-protists-a-fertile-frontier-in-soil-biology-research
#9
Stefan Geisen, Edward A D Mitchell, Sina Adl, Michael Bonkowski, Micah Dunthorn, Flemming Ekelund, Leonardo D Fernández, Alexandre Jousset, Valentyna Krashevska, David Singer, Frederick W Spiegel, Julia Walochnik, Enrique Lara
Protists include all eukaryotes except plants, fungi and animals. They are an essential, yet often forgotten, component of the soil microbiome. Method developments have now furthered our understanding of the real taxonomic and functional diversity of soil protists. They occupy key roles in microbial foodwebs as consumers of bacteria, fungi and other small eukaryotes. As parasites of plants, animals and even of larger protists, they regulate populations and shape communities. Pathogenic forms play a major role in public health issues as human parasites, or act as agricultural pests...
February 13, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443531/application-of-copper-chitosan-nanoparticles-stimulate-growth-and-induce-resistance-in-finger-millet-eleusine-coracana-gaertn-plants-against-blast-disease
#10
Muthukrishnan Sathiyabama, Appu Manikandan
Copper-chitosan nanoparticle (CuChNp) was synthesized and used to study its effect on finger millet plant as a model plant system. Our objective was to explore the efficacy of CuChNp application to control blast disease of finger millet. CuChNp was applied to finger millet either as a foliar spray or as a combined application (involving seed coat and foliar spray). Both the application methods enhanced growth profile of finger millet plants and increased yield. The increased yield was nearly 89% in combined application method...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439563/co-compartmentation-of-terpene-biosynthesis-and-storage-via-synthetic-droplet
#11
Cheng Zhao, YongKyoung Kim, Yining Zeng, Man Li, Xin Wang, Cheng Hu, Connor Gorman, Susie Y Dai, Shi-You Ding, Joshua S Yuan
Traditional bioproduct engineering focuses on pathway optimization, yet is often complicated by product inhibition, downstream consumption, and the toxicity of certain products. Here, we present the co-compartmentation of biosynthesis and storage via a synthetic droplet as an effective new strategy to improve the bioproduct yield, with squalene as a model compound. A hydrophobic protein was designed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplast to generate a synthetic droplet for terpene storage. Simultaneously, squalene biosynthesis enzymes were introduced to chloroplasts together with the droplet-forming protein to co-compartmentalize the biosynthesis and storage of squalene...
February 16, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438895/piriformospora-indica-cell-wall-extract-as-the-best-elicitor-for-asiaticoside-production-in-centella-asiatica-l-urban-evidenced-by-morphological-physiological-and-molecular-analyses
#12
S Jisha, P R Gouri, K N Anith, K K Sabu
Vascular plants synthesise a multitude of organic molecules or phytochemicals, referred to as "secondary metabolites". These molecules are involved in a variety of roles in the life span of plants, ranging from structural ones to protection. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban has probably been used since prehistoric times and has been reported to have been used for various medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The plant contains several active constituents, of which the most important is asiaticoside, a triterpenoid. Asiaticoside content in C...
February 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438430/unravelling-the-bioherbicide-potential-of-eucalyptus-globulus-labill-biochemistry-and-effects-of-its-aqueous-extract
#13
Carolina G Puig, Manuel J Reigosa, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B Andrade, Nuria Pedrol
In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438088/prohibitin-3-forms-complexes-with-isochorismate-synthase-1-to-regulate-stress-induced-salicylic-acid-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis
#14
Aldo Luis Seguel, Joanna Jelenska, Ariel Herrera-Vásquez, Sharon K Marr, Michael B Joyce, Kelsey R Gagesch, Nadia Shakoor, Shang-Chuan Jiang, Alejandro Fonseca, Mary Wildermuth, Jean T Greenberg, Loreto Holuigue
Salicylic acid (SA) is a major defense signal in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the main source of SA biosynthesis during abiotic stress (such as UV-C) or pathogen infections is a chloroplast-localized pathway. The enzyme isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1) uses chorismate to produce isochorismate, which is subsequently converted to SA by an as yet unknown enzyme in higher plants.  We show here that ICS1 protein levels increased during UV-C stress. To identify additional proteins that play roles in SA production via regulation of ICS1, proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with ICS1 were analyzed by mass spectrometry...
February 1, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437225/landscapes-of-facilitation-how-self-organized-patchiness-of-aquatic-macrophytes-promotes-diversity-in-streams
#15
Loreta Cornacchia, Johan van de Koppel, Daphne van der Wal, Geraldene Wharton, Sara Puijalon, Tjeerd J Bouma
Spatial heterogeneity plays a crucial role in the coexistence of species. Despite recognition of the importance of self-organization in creating environmental heterogeneity in otherwise uniform landscapes, the effects of such self-organized pattern formation in promoting coexistence through facilitation are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of pattern formation on species interactions and community spatial structure in ecosystems with limited underlying environmental heterogeneity, using self-organized patchiness of the aquatic macrophyte Callitriche platycarpa in streams as a model system...
February 13, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435616/the-response-of-lemna-minor-to-mixtures-of-pesticides-that-are-commonly-used-in-thailand
#16
Rungnapa Tagun, Alistair B A Boxall
In the field, aquatic organisms are exposed to multiple contaminants rather than to single compounds. It is therefore important to understand the toxic interactions of co-occurring substances in the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of individual herbicides (atrazine, 2,4-D, alachlor and paraquat) that are commonly used in Thailand and their mixtures on Lemna minor. Plants were exposed to individual and binary mixtures for 7 days and the effects on plant growth rate were assesed based on frond area measurements...
February 13, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435598/community-structure-of-endophytic-actinobacteria-in-a-new-zealand-native-medicinal-plant-pseudowintera-colorata-horopito-and-their-influence-on-plant-growth
#17
Neeraj Purushotham, Eirian Jones, Jana Monk, Hayley Ridgway
The role of plant endophytic Actinobacteria remains poorly understood with no reports of these communities in New Zealand native plants. This first investigation of endophytic Actinobacteria in New Zealand targeted the culturally significant medicinal shrub Pseudowintera colorata (horopito) as a model plant. Community analysis in plant tissues collected from ten geographically distinct sites showed that tissue type had the strongest influence on diversity and richness of endophytic Actinobacteria. More denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were obtained from stems (n = 18) compared to roots (n = 13)...
February 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432520/crootbox-a-structural-functional-modelling-framework-for-root-systems
#18
Andrea Schnepf, Daniel Leitner, Magdalena Landl, Guillaume Lobet, Trung Hieu Mai, Shehan Morandage, Cheng Sheng, Mirjam Zörner, Jan Vanderborght, Harry Vereecken
Background and Aims: Root architecture development determines the sites in soil where roots provide input of carbon and take up water and solutes. However, root architecture is difficult to determine experimentally when grown in opaque soil. Thus, root architecture models have been widely used and been further developed into functional-structural models that simulate the fate of water and solutes in the soil-root system. The root architecture model CRootBox presented here is a flexible framework to model root architecture and its interactions with static and dynamic soil environments...
February 8, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427970/removal-of-antiretroviral-drugs-stavudine-and-zidovudine-in-water-under-uv254-and-uv254-h2o2-processes-quantum-yields-kinetics-and-ecotoxicology-assessment
#19
Danilo Russo, Antonietta Siciliano, Marco Guida, Roberto Andreozzi, Nuno M Reis, Gianluca Li Puma, Raffaele Marotta
The concentration of antiretroviral drugs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of many countries has increased significantly due to their widespread use for HIV treatment. In this study, the removal of stavudine and zidovudine under UV254 photolysis or UV254/H2O2 was investigated in a microcapillary film (MCF) photoreactor, using minimal water samples quantities. The UV254 quantum yield of zidovudine, (2.357 ± 0.0589)·10-2 mol ein-1 (pH 4.0-8.0), was 28-fold higher that the yield of stavudine (8...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427424/resde-two-component-regulatory-system-mediates-oxygen-limitation-induced-biofilm-formation-in-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-sqr9
#20
Xuan Zhou, Nan Zhang, Liming Xia, Qing Li, Jiahui Shao, Qirong Shen, Ruifu Zhang
Efficient biofilm formation and root colonization capabilities facilitate the ability of beneficial plant rhizobacteria to promote plant growth and antagonize soil-borne pathogens. Biofilm formation by plant-beneficial Bacillus strains is triggered by environmental cues, including oxygen deficiency, but the pathways that sense these environmental signals and regulate biofilm formation have not been thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we showed that the ResDE two-component regulatory system in the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 senses the oxygen deficiency signal and regulates biofilm formation...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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