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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896464/a-hypergravity-environment-increases-chloroplast-size-photosynthesis-and-plant-growth-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#1
Kaori Takemura, Hiroyuki Kamachi, Atsushi Kume, Tomomichi Fujita, Ichirou Karahara, Yuko T Hanba
The physiological and anatomical responses of bryophytes to altered gravity conditions will provide crucial information for estimating how plant physiological traits have evolved to adapt to significant increases in the effects of gravity in land plant history. We quantified changes in plant growth and photosynthesis in the model plant of mosses, Physcomitrella patens, grown under a hypergravity environment for 25 days or 8 weeks using a custom-built centrifuge equipped with a lighting system. This is the first study to examine the response of bryophytes to hypergravity conditions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893833/increasing-the-size-of-the-microbial-biomass-altered-bacterial-community-structure-which-enhances-plant-phosphorus-uptake
#2
Pu Shen, Daniel Vaughan Murphy, Suman J George, Hazel Lapis-Gaza, Minggang Xu, Deirdre Bridget Gleeson
Agricultural production can be limited by low phosphorus (P) availability, with soil P being constrained by sorption and precipitation reactions making it less available for plant uptake. There are strong links between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability and P cycling within soil P pools, with microorganisms being an integral component of soil P cycling mediating the availability of P to plants. Here we tested a conceptual model that proposes (i) the addition of readily-available organic substrates would increase the size of the microbial biomass thus exhausting the pool of easily-available P and (ii) this would cause the microbial biomass to access P from more recalcitrant pools...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893193/the-oil-contaminated-soil-diazotroph-azoarcus-olearius-dqs-4-t-is-genetically-and-phenotypically-similar-to-the-model-grass-endophyte-azoarcus-sp-bh72
#3
Helisson Faoro, Rodrigo Rene Menegazzo, Federico Battistoni, Prasad Gyaneshwar, Fernanda P do Amaral, Cecilia Taulé, Sydnee Rausch, Patricia Gonçalves Galvão, Cecilia de Los Santos, Shubhajit Mitra, Gabriela Heijo, Shih-Yi Sheu, Wen-Ming Chen, Cintia Mareque, Michelle Zibetti Tadra-Sfeir, J Ivo Baldani, Marta Maluk, Ana Paula Guimarães, Gary Stacey, Emanuel M de Souza, Fabio O Pedrosa, Leonardo Magalhães Cruz, Euan K James
The genome of Azoarcus olearius DQS-4(T) , a N2 -fixing Betaproteobacterium isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Taiwan, was sequenced and compared with other Azoarcus strains. The genome sequence showed high synteny with Azoarcus sp. BH72, a model endophytic diazotroph, but low synteny with five non-plant-associated strains (Azoarcus CIB, Azoarcus EBN1, Azoarcus KH32C, A. toluclasticus MF63(T) and Azoarcus PA01). Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) revealed that DQS-4(T) shares 98.98% identity with Azoarcus BH72, which should now be included in the species A...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888338/a-comprehensively-quantitative-method-of-evaluating-the-impact-of-drought-on-crop-yield-using-daily-multi-scale-spei-and-crop-growth-process-model
#4
Qianfeng Wang, Jianjun Wu, Xiaohan Li, Hongkui Zhou, Jianhua Yang, Guangpo Geng, Xueli An, Leizhen Liu, Zhenghong Tang
The quantitative evaluation of the impact of drought on crop yield is one of the most important aspects in agricultural water resource management. To assess the impact of drought on wheat yield, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop growth model and daily Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is based on daily meteorological data, are adopted in the Huang Huai Hai Plain. The winter wheat crop yields are estimated at 28 stations, after calibrating the cultivar coefficients based on the experimental site data, and SPEI data was taken 11 times across the growth season from 1981 to 2010...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885769/diverging-shrub-and-tree-growth-from-the-polar-to-the-mediterranean-biomes-across-the-european-continent
#5
Elena Pellizzari, J Julio Camarero, Antonio Gazol, Elena Granda, Rohan Shetti, Martin Wilmking, Pavel Moiseev, Mario Pividori, Marco Carrer
Climate warming is expected to enhance productivity and growth of woody plants, particularly in temperature-limited environments at the northernmost or uppermost limits of their distribution. However, this warming is spatially uneven and temporally variable, and the rise in temperatures differently affects biomes and growth forms. Here, applying a dendroecological approach with generalized additive mixed models, we analysed how the growth of shrubby junipers and coexisting trees (larch and pine species) responds to rising temperatures along a 5000-km latitudinal range including sites from the Polar, Alpine to the Mediterranean biomes...
November 25, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885754/adaptive-and-plastic-responses-of-quercus-petraea-populations-to-climate-across-europe
#6
Cuauhtémoc Sáenz-Romero, Jean-Baptiste Lamy, Alexis Ducousso, Brigitte Musch, François Ehrenmann, Sylvain Delzon, Stephen Cavers, Władysław Chałupka, Said Dağdaş, Jon Kehlet Hansen, Steve J Lee, Mirko Liesebach, Hans-Martin Rau, Achilleas Psomas, Volker Schneck, Wilfried Steiner, Niklaus E Zimmermann, Antoine Kremer
How temperate forests will respond to climate change is uncertain; projections range from severe decline to increased growth. We conducted field tests of sessile oak (Quercus petraea), a widespread keystone European forest tree species, including more than 150,000 trees sourced from 116 geographically diverse populations. The tests were planted on 23 field sites in six European countries, in order to expose them to a wide range of climates, including sites reflecting future warmer and drier climates. By assessing tree height and survival, our objectives were twofold: (1) to identify the source of differential population responses to climate (genetic differentiation due to past divergent climatic selection versus plastic responses to ongoing climate change), (2) to explore which climatic variables (temperature or precipitation) trigger the population responses...
November 25, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883138/characterization-of-size-dependent-mechanical-properties-of-tip-growing-cells-using-a-lab-on-chip-device
#7
Chengzhi Hu, Gautam Munglani, Hannes Vogler, Tohnyui Ndinyanka Fabrice, Naveen Shamsudhin, Falk K Wittel, Christoph Ringli, Ueli Grossniklaus, Hans J Herrmann, Bradley J Nelson
Quantification of mechanical properties of tissues, living cells, and cellular components is crucial for the modeling of plant developmental processes such as mechanotransduction. Pollen tubes are tip-growing cells that provide an ideal system to study the mechanical properties at the single cell level. In this article, a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device is developed to quantitatively measure the biomechanical properties of lily (Lilium longiflorum) pollen tubes. A single pollen tube is fixed inside the microfluidic chip at a specific orientation and subjected to compression by a soft membrane...
November 24, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881090/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-tpx2-family-proteins-in-eucalyptus-grandis
#8
Pingzhou Du, Manoj Kumar, Yuan Yao, Qiaoli Xie, Jinyan Wang, Baolong Zhang, Siming Gan, Yuqi Wang, Ai-Min Wu
BACKGROUND: The Xklp2 (TPX2) proteins belong to the microtubule-associated (MAP) family of proteins. All members of the family contain the conserved TPX2 motif, which can interact with microtubules, regulate microtubule dynamics or assist with different microtubule functions, for example, maintenance of cell morphology or regulation of cell growth and development. However, the role of members of the TPX family have not been studied in the model tree species Eucalyptus to date. Here, we report the identification of the members of the TPX2 family in Eucalyptus grandis (Eg) and analyse the expression patterns and functions of these genes...
November 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879376/the-fractionated-toona-sinensis-leaf-extract-induces-apoptosis-of-human-osteosarcoma-cells-and-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-a-murine-xenograft-model
#9
Chung-Hwan Chen, Ching-Ju Li, I-Chun Tai, Xiao-Hui Lin, Hseng-Kuang Hsu, Mei-Ling Ho
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is a malignant bone tumor prevalent in adolescents with poor prognosis. Toona sinensis showed potent antiproliferation effect on lung, melatonin, ovary, colon, and liver cancers. However, the effects of the species on osteosarcoma cells are rarely investigated. RESULTS: In this study, we found fraction 1 of Toona sinensis leaf (TSL-1) resulted in inhibition of cell viability in MG-63, Saos-2, and U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines, while it only caused a moderate suppressive effect on normal osteoblasts...
November 21, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878095/on-the-influence-of-provenance-to-soil-quality-enhanced-stress-reaction-of-young-beech-trees-to-summer-drought
#10
Constanze Buhk, Marcel Kämmer, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Anke Jentsch, Jürgen Kreyling, Hermann F Jungkunst
Climate projections propose that drought stress will become challenging for establishing trees. The magnitude of stress is dependent on tree species, provenance, and most likely also highly influenced by soil quality. European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) is of major ecological and economical importance in Central European forests. The species has an especially wide physiological and ecological amplitude enabling growth under various soil conditions within its distribution area in Central Europe. We studied the effects of extreme drought on beech saplings (second year) of four climatically distinct provenances growing on different soils (sandy loam and loamy sand) in a full factorial pot experiment...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877177/comparative-transcriptomic-analyses-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-transgenic-melatonin-biosynthesis-ovine-hiomt-gene-in-switchgrass
#11
Shan Yuan, Cong Guan, Sijia Liu, Yanhua Huang, Danyang Tian, Xin Cui, Yunwei Zhang, Fuyu Yang
Melatonin serves pleiotropic functions in prompting plant growth and resistance to various stresses. The accurate biosynthetic pathway of melatonin remains elusive in plant species, while the N-acetyltransferase and O-methyltransferase were considered to be the last two key enzymes during its biosynthesis. To investigate the biosynthesis and metabolic pathway of melatonin in plants, the RNA-seq profile of overexpression of the ovine HIOMT was analyzed and compared with the previous transcriptome of transgenic oAANAT gene in switchgrass, a model plant for cellulosic ethanol production...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872633/a-factor-linking-floral-organ-identity-and-growth-revealed-by-characterization-of-the-tomato-mutant-unfinished-flower-development-ufd
#12
Sandra Poyatos-Pertíñez, Muriel Quinet, Ana Ortíz-Atienza, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Clara Pons, Estela Giménez, Trinidad Angosto, Antonio Granell, Juan Capel, Rafael Lozano
Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872292/disturbance-is-the-key-to-plant-invasions-in-cold-environments
#13
Jonas J Lembrechts, Aníbal Pauchard, Jonathan Lenoir, Martín A Nuñez, Charly Geron, Arne Ven, Pablo Bravo-Monasterio, Ernesto Teneb, Ivan Nijs, Ann Milbau
Until now, nonnative plant species were rarely found at high elevations and latitudes. However, partly because of climate warming, biological invasions are now on the rise in these extremely cold environments. These plant invasions make it timely to undertake a thorough experimental assessment of what has previously been holding them back. This knowledge is key to developing efficient management of the increasing risks of cold-climate invasions. Here, we integrate human interventions (i.e., disturbance, nutrient addition, and propagule input) and climatic factors (i...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871001/identification-of-mirna-from-bouteloua-gracilis-a-drought-tolerant-grass-by-deep-sequencing-and-their-in-silico-analysis
#14
Perla Lucía Ordóñez-Baquera, Everardo González-Rodríguez, Gerardo Armando Aguado-Santacruz, Quintín Rascón-Cruz, Ana Conesa, Verónica Moreno-Brito, Raquel Echavarria, Joel Dominguez-Viveros
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate signal transduction, development, metabolism, and stress responses in plants through post-transcriptional degradation and/or translational repression of target mRNAs. Several studies have addressed the role of miRNAs in model plant species, but miRNA expression and function in economically important forage crops, such as Bouteloua gracilis (Poaceae), a high-quality and drought-resistant grass distributed in semiarid regions of the United States and northern Mexico remain unknown...
November 9, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870859/plant-distribution-data-show-broader-climatic-limits-than-expert-based-climatic-tolerance-estimates
#15
Caroline A Curtis, Bethany A Bradley
BACKGROUND: Although increasingly sophisticated environmental measures are being applied to species distributions models, the focus remains on using climatic data to provide estimates of habitat suitability. Climatic tolerance estimates based on expert knowledge are available for a wide range of plants via the USDA PLANTS database. We aim to test how climatic tolerance inferred from plant distribution records relates to tolerance estimated by experts. Further, we use this information to identify circumstances when species distributions are more likely to approximate climatic tolerance...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870294/advances-on-plant-pathogen-interactions-from-molecular-toward-systems-biology-perspectives
#16
Rémi Peyraud, Ullrich Dubiella, Adelin Barbacci, Stéphane Genin, Sylvain Raffaele, Dominique Roby
In the past two decades, progress in molecular analyses of the plant immune system has revealed key elements of a complex response network. Current paradigms depict the interaction of pathogen secreted molecules with host target molecules leading to the activation of multiple plant response pathways. Further research will be required to fully understand how these responses are integrated in space and time, and exploit this knowledge in agriculture. In this review, we highlight systems biology as a promising approach to reveal properties of molecular plant pathogen interactions and predict the outcome of such interactions...
November 21, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870053/absence-of-net-long-term-successional-facilitation-by-alder-in-a-boreal-alaska-floodplain
#17
F Stuart Chapin, Alexandra J Conway, Jill F Johnstone, Teresa N Hollingsworth, Jamie Hollingsworth
Long-term experiments provide a way to test presumed causes of successional or environmentally driven vegetation changes. Early-successional nitrogen (N)-fixing plants are widely thought to facilitate productivity and vegetation development on N-poor sites, thus accounting for observed vegetation patterns later in succession. We tested this facilitative impact on vegetation development in a 23-yr field experiment on an Interior Alaska (USA) floodplain. On three replicate early-successional silt bars, we planted late-successional white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings in the presence and absence of planted seedlings of an early-successional N-fixing shrub, thinleaf alder (Alnus incana)...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870009/photosynthetic-rates-influence-the-population-dynamics-of-understory-herbs-in-stochastic-light-environments
#18
Andrea C Westerband, Carol C Horvitz
Temporal variability in light from gaps in the tree canopy strongly influences the vital rates of understory plants. From 2012-2015, we estimated the size-specific vital rates of two herbs, Calathea crotalifera and Heliconia tortuosa, over a range of light environments. We estimated maximum photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) for a subset of individuals each year during three annual censuses, and modelled future size as a linear function of current size (a plant trait that changes ontogenetically), canopy openness (an environmental variable), and Amax (a potentially plastic physiological trait)...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866894/syp73-anchors-the-er-to-the-actin-cytoskeleton-for-maintenance-of-er-integrity-and-streaming-in-arabidopsis
#19
Pengfei Cao, Luciana Renna, Giovanni Stefano, Federica Brandizzi
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle that spreads throughout the cytoplasm as one interconnected network of narrow tubules and dilated cisternae that enclose a single lumen. The ER network undergoes extensive remodeling, which critically depends on membrane-cytoskeleton interactions [1]. In plants, the ER is also highly mobile, and its streaming contributes significantly to the movement of other organelles [2, 3]. The remodeling and motility of the plant ER rely mainly on actin [4] and to a minor extent on microtubules [5]...
November 16, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864542/involvement-of-three-putative-glucosyltransferases-from-the-ugt72-family-in-flavonol-glucoside-rhamnoside-biosynthesis-in-lotus-japonicus-seeds
#20
Qinggang Yin, Guoan Shen, Zhenzhan Chang, Yuhong Tang, Hongwen Gao, Yongzhen Pang
Flavonols are one of the largest groups of flavonoids that confer benefits for the health of plants and animals. Flavonol glycosides are the predominant flavonoids present in the model legume Lotus japonicus The molecular mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of flavonol glycosides as yet remain unknown in L. japonicus. In the present study, we identified a total of 188 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) in L. japonicus by genome-wide searching. Notably, 12 UGTs from the UGT72 family were distributed widely among L...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
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