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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714973/light-triggers-pils-dependent-reduction-in-nuclear-auxin-signalling-for-growth-transition
#1
Chloé Béziat, Elke Barbez, Mugurel I Feraru, Doris Lucyshyn, Jürgen Kleine-Vehn
The phytohormone auxin induces or represses growth depending on its concentration and the underlying tissue type. However, it remains unknown how auxin signalling is modulated to allow tissues transiting between repression and promotion of growth. Here, we used apical hook development as a model for growth transitions in plants. A PIN-FORMED (PIN)-dependent intercellular auxin transport module defines an auxin maximum that is causal for growth repression during the formation of the apical hook. Our data illustrate that growth transition for apical hook opening is largely independent of this PIN module, but requires the PIN-LIKES (PILS) putative auxin carriers at the endoplasmic reticulum...
July 17, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714011/mangiferin-induces-apoptosis-in-human-ovarian-adenocarcinoma-ovcar3-cells-via-the-regulation-of-notch3
#2
Bingyu Zou, Hailian Wang, Yilong Liu, Ping Qi, Tiantian Lei, Minghan Sun, Yi Wang
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the world. Our previous studies showed that mangiferin, purified from plant source, possessed anti-neoplasm effect on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. This study aimed to determine the apoptosis-inducing effect of mangiferin on human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR3 cells. By in vitro studies, we found mangiferin significantly inhibited viability of OVCAR3 cells, and remarkably increased the sensitivity of OVCAR3 cells to cisplatin. In addition, the activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis was observed in mangiferin treated ovarian cancer cells...
July 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713404/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-genes-conserved-between-japonica-and-indica-rice-cultivars-that-respond-to-low-temperature-stress-at-the-vegetative-growth-stage
#3
Manu Kumar, Yun-Shil Gho, Ki-Hong Jung, Seong-Ryong Kim
Cold stress is very detrimental to crop production. However, only a few genes in rice have been identified with known functions related to cold tolerance. To meet this agronomic challenge more effectively, researchers must take global approaches to select useful candidate genes and find the major regulatory factors. We used five Gene expression omnibus series data series of Affymetrix array data, produced with cold stress-treated samples from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/), and identified 502 cold-inducible genes common to both japonica and indica rice cultivars...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710130/dead-or-alive-using-membrane-failure-and-chlorophyll-fluorescence-to-predict-mortality-from-drought
#4
Carmela Rosaria Guadagno, Brent E Ewers, Heather N Speckman, Timothy L Aston, Bridger J Huhn, Stanley B DeVore, Joshua T Ladwig, Rachel N Strawn, Cynthia Weinig
Climate models predict widespread increases in both drought intensity and duration in the next decades. Although water deficiency is one of the greatest environmental pressures to plant survival, limited understanding of how plants respond to extreme drought impedes adequate forecasts of how increasing aridity will impact both forest and crop productivity. Drought induces a suite of physiological responses; however, we lack an accurate mechanistic description of plant response to lethal drought that would improve predictive understanding of the timing of lethal drought with climate change...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704927/the-tor-signaling-network-in-the-model-unicellular-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#5
REVIEW
María Esther Pérez-Pérez, Inmaculada Couso, José L Crespo
Cell growth is tightly coupled to nutrient availability. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase transmits nutritional and environmental cues to the cellular growth machinery. TOR functions in two distinct multiprotein complexes, termed TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). While the structure and functions of TORC1 are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, including algae and plants, TORC2 core proteins seem to be missing in photosynthetic organisms. TORC1 controls cell growth by promoting anabolic processes, including protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis, and inhibiting catabolic processes such as autophagy...
July 12, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701882/comparison-of-anticancer-activities-of-korean-red-ginseng-derived-fractions
#6
Kwang-Soo Baek, Young-Su Yi, Young-Jin Son, Deok Jeong, Nak Yoon Sung, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is an ethnopharmacological plant that is traditionally used to improve the body's immune functions and ameliorate the symptoms of various diseases. However, the antitumorigenic effects of KRG and its underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not fully understood in terms of its individual components. In this study, in vitro and in vivo antitumorigenic activities of KRG were explored in water extract (WE), saponin fraction (SF), and nonsaponin fraction (NSF)...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698411/estimation-of-turgor-pressure-through-comparison-between-single-plant-cell-and-pressurized-shell-mechanics
#7
Pauline Durand-Smet, Nicolas Chastrette, Estelle Gauquelin, Arezki Boudaoud, Atef Asnacios
While plant growth is well known to rely on turgor pressure, it is challenging to quantify the contribution of turgor pressure to plant cell rheology. Here we used a custom-made micro-rheometer to quantify the viscoelastic behavior of isolated plant cells while varying their internal turgor pressure. To get insight into how plant cells adapt their internal pressure to the osmolarity of their medium, we compared the mechanical behavior of single plant cells to that of a simple, passive, pressurized shell: a soccer ball...
July 12, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695465/trichoderma-for-climate-resilient-agriculture
#8
REVIEW
Prem Lal Kashyap, Pallavi Rai, Alok Kumar Srivastava, Sudheer Kumar
Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of the twenty-first century for sustainable agricultural production. Several reports highlighted the need for better agricultural practices and use of eco-friendly methods for sustainable crop production under such situations. In this context, Trichoderma species could be a model fungus to sustain crop productivity. Currently, these are widely used as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation. They are reported to improve photosynthetic efficiency, enhance nutrient uptake and increase nitrogen use efficiency in crops...
August 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692936/tritium-forms-discrimination-in-ryegrass-under-constant-tritium-exposure-from-seed-germination-to-seedling-autotrophy
#9
H Renard, D Maro, S Le Dizès, A Escobar-Gutiérrez, C Voiseux, L Solier, D Hébert, M Rozet, C Cossonnet, R Barillot
Uncertainties remain regarding the fate of atmospheric tritium after it has been assimilated in grasslands (ryegrass) in the form of TFWT (Tissue Free Water Tritium) or OBT (Organically Bound Tritium). One such uncertainty relates to the tritium forms discrimination during transfer from TFWT to OBT resulting from photosynthesis (OBTphoto), corresponding to the OBTphoto/TFWT ratio. In this study, the OBT/TFWT ratio is determined by experiments in the laboratory using a ryegrass model and hydroponic cultures, with constant activity of tritium in the form of tritiated water (denoted as HTO) in the "water" compartment (liquid HTO) and "air" compartment (HTO vapour in the air)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690842/chemical-genetics-and-strigolactone-perception
#10
REVIEW
Shelley Lumba, Michael Bunsick, Peter McCourt
Strigolactones (SLs) are a collection of related small molecules that act as hormones in plant growth and development. Intriguingly, SLs also act as ecological communicators between plants and mycorrhizal fungi and between host plants and a collection of parasitic plant species. In the case of mycorrhizal fungi, SLs exude into the soil from host roots to attract fungal hyphae for a beneficial interaction. In the case of parasitic plants, however, root-exuded SLs cause dormant parasitic plant seeds to germinate, thereby allowing the resulting seedling to infect the host and withdraw nutrients...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690669/establishment-of-integrated-protocols-for-automated-high-throughput-kinetic-chlorophyll-fluorescence-analyses
#11
Henning Tschiersch, Astrid Junker, Rhonda C Meyer, Thomas Altmann
BACKGROUND: Automated plant phenotyping has been established as a powerful new tool in studying plant growth, development and response to various types of biotic or abiotic stressors. Respective facilities mainly apply non-invasive imaging based methods, which enable the continuous quantification of the dynamics of plant growth and physiology during developmental progression. However, especially for plants of larger size, integrative, automated and high throughput measurements of complex physiological parameters such as photosystem II efficiency determined through kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence analysis remain a challenge...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690631/bdvrn1-expression-confers-flowering-competency-and-is-negatively-correlated-with-freezing-tolerance-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#12
Ying Feng, Yanhai Yin, Shuizhang Fei
Vernalization is an essential process by which many temperate plant species acquire competence for flowering. Brachypodium distachyon is a model plant for temperate grasses including many cool-season forage and turfgrasses and cereals. Grasses with spring growth habit do not require vernalization for flowering and are typically less winter hardy. Yet the connection between vernalization and freezing tolerance remain unclear. The diverse requirement of vernalization for flowering makes it an ideal choice for studying the relationship between vernalization and freezing tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690617/transcriptomic-analysis-of-soil-grown-t-aestivum-cv-root-to-reveal-the-changes-in-expression-of-genes-in-response-to-multiple-nutrients-deficiency
#13
Saurabh Gupta, Brijesh S Yadav, Utkarsh Raj, Shiri Freilich, Pritish K Varadwaj
Deficiency of necessary macronutrients, i.e., Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Sulfate (S) in the soil leads to a reduction in plant growth and yield, which is a result of changes in expression level of various genes. This study was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes and its associated metabolic pathways occurred in soil grown wheat root samples excavated from the control and treated fields. To identify the difference in gene expression levels due to deficiency of the said nutrients, a transcriptomic, meta-analysis was performed on array expression profile data...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687952/the-dynamics-of-root-growth-a-geometric-model
#14
Julia Pulwicki, David Hobill
A new model for macroscopic root growth based on a dynamical Riemannian geometry is presented. Assuming that the thickness of the root is much less than its length, the model is restricted to growth in one dimension (1D). We treat 1D tissues as continuous, deformable, growing geometries for sizes larger than 1 mm. The dynamics of the growing root are described by a set of coupled tensor equations for the metric of the tissue and velocity field of material transport in non-Euclidean space. These coupled equations represent a novel feedback mechanism between growth and geometry...
July 7, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681938/%C3%AF-hydroxyundec-9-enoic-acid-induces-apoptosis-by-ros-mediated-jnk-and-p38-phosphorylation-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#15
Joungjwa Ahn, Youn Wook Chung, Jin-Byung Park, Kyung Mi Yang
ω-Hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (ω-HUA), a plant secondary metabolite, exhibits anti-fungal activity. However, its effect on breast cancer cells is unknown. Here, we investigated the anti- breast cancer activity of ω-HUA and its underlying mechanism. Treatment of human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, with ω-HUA induced apoptotic cell death with increased cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) levels, and p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Inhibition of these mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways using specific inhibitors or siRNA, for p38 and JNK, respectively, blocked the ω-HUA-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679171/a-burkholderia-endophyte-of-the-ancient-maize-landrace-chapalote-utilizes-c-di-gmp-dependent-and-independent-signaling-to-suppress-diverse-plant-fungal-pathogen-targets
#16
Hanan R Shehata, Manish N Raizada
Chapalote is a maize (corn) landrace grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, valued in part for its broad-spectrum pathogen resistance. Previously we showed that Chapalote possesses a bacterial endophyte, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, which suppresses growth of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, a fungal pathogen of a maize relative, used as a model system. Ten mutants that lost the anti-pathogen activities were identified, corresponding to five genes. However, S. homoeocarpa is not a known maize pathogen, hence the relevance of these anti-fungal mechanisms to its ancient host has not been clear...
June 29, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676804/simultaneous-downregulation-of-mthfr-and-comt-in-switchgrass-affects-plant-performance-and-induces-lesion-mimic-cell-death
#17
Sijia Liu, Chunxiang Fu, Jiqing Gou, Liang Sun, David Huhman, Yunwei Zhang, Zeng-Yu Wang
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT-deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675670/predicting-the-abundance-of-forest-types-across-the-eastern-u-s-through-inverse-modelling-of-tree-demography
#18
Mark C Vanderwel, Danaë M A Rozendaal, Margaret E K Evans
Global environmental change is expected to induce widespread changes in the geographic distribution and biomass of forest communities. Impacts have been projected from both empirical (statistical) and mechanistic (physiology-based) modelling approaches, but there remains an important gap in accurately predicting abundance across species' ranges from spatial variation in individual-level demographic processes. We address this issue by using a cohort-based forest dynamics model (CAIN) to predict spatial variation in the abundance of six plant functional types (PFTs) across the eastern U...
July 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674544/the-interactions-between-the-long-non-coding-rna-nerdl-and-its-target-gene-affect-wood-formation-in-populus-tomentosa
#19
Wan Shi, Mingyang Quan, Qingzhang Du, Deqiang Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulatory factors for plant growth and development, but little is known about the allelic interactions of lncRNAs with mRNA in perennial plants. Here, we analyzed the interaction of the NERD (Needed for RDR2-independent DNA methylation) Populus tomentosa gene PtoNERD with its putative regulator, the lncRNA NERDL (NERD-related lncRNA), which partially overlaps with the promoter region of this gene. Expression analysis in eight tissues showed a positive correlation between NERDL and PtoNERD (r = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673938/design-starch-stochastic-modeling-of-starch-granule-biogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Adélaïde Raguin, Oliver Ebenhöh
Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants and the main source of carbohydrate in the human diet. Owing to its remarkable properties and commercial applications, starch is still of growing interest. Its unique granular structure made of intercalated layers of amylopectin and amylose has been unraveled thanks to recent progress in microscopic imaging, but the origin of such periodicity is still under debate. Both amylose and amylopectin are made of linear chains of α-1,4-bound glucose residues, with branch points formed by α-1,6 linkages...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
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