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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644860/time-dependent-genetic-analysis-links-field-and-controlled-environment-phenotypes-in-the-model-c4-grass-setaria
#1
Max J Feldman, Rachel E Paul, Darshi Banan, Jennifer F Barrett, Jose Sebastian, Muh-Ching Yee, Hui Jiang, Alexander E Lipka, Thomas P Brutnell, José R Dinneny, Andrew D B Leakey, Ivan Baxter
Vertical growth of plants is a dynamic process that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and has a pronounced effect on overall plant architecture and biomass composition. We have performed six controlled growth trials of an interspecific Setaria italica x Setaria viridis recombinant inbred line population to assess how the genetic architecture of plant height is influenced by developmental queues, water availability and planting density. The non-destructive nature of plant height measurements has enabled us to monitor height throughout the plant life cycle in both field and controlled environments...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644067/border-cell-release-cell-separation-without-cell-wall-degradation
#2
Jozef Mravec
Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release...
June 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643086/gallic-and-ellagic-acids-two-natural-immunomodulator-compounds-solve-infection-of-macrophages-by-leishmania-major
#3
Michel Muálem de Moraes Alves, Lucas Moreira Brito, Adriana Cunha Souza, Bárbara Cristina Silva Holanda Queiroz, Thaynara Parente de Carvalho, Joilson Ferreira Batista, Jéssica Sara de Sousa Macêdo Oliveira, Ivete Lopes de Mendonça, Silvéria Regina de Sousa Lira, Mariana Helena Chaves, Juan Carlos Ramos Gonçalves, Sabrina Maria Portela Carneiro, Daniel Dias Rufino Arcanjo, Fernando Aécio de Amorim Carvalho
Leishmaniasis is a complex of parasitic protozoan diseases caused by more than 20 different species of parasites from Leishmania genus. Conventional treatments are high costly, and promote a sort of side effects. Besides, protozoan resistance to treatments has been reported. Natural products have been investigated as a source of new therapeutic alternatives, not only acting directly against the parasite but also being able to synergistically act on the host immune system in order to control parasitemia. Gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) are plant-derived phenolic compounds which are able to induce antiinflammatory, gastroprotective, and anticarcinogenic activities...
June 22, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642761/overexpression-of-bdmate-gene-improves-aluminum-tolerance-in-setaria-viridis
#4
Ana P Ribeiro, Wagner R de Souza, Polyana K Martins, Felipe Vinecky, Karoline E Duarte, Marcos F Basso, Bárbara A D B da Cunha, Raquel B Campanha, Patrícia A de Oliveira, Danilo C Centeno, Geraldo M A Cançado, Jurandir V de Magalhães, Carlos A F de Sousa, Alan C Andrade, Adilson K Kobayashi, Hugo B C Molinari
Acidic soils are distributed worldwide, predominantly in tropical and subtropical areas, reaching around 50% of the arable soil. This type of soil strongly reduces crop production, mainly because of the presence of aluminum, which has its solubility increased at low pH levels. A well-known physiological mechanism used by plants to cope with Al stress involves activation of membrane transporters responsible for organic acid anions secretion from the root apex to the rhizosphere, which chelate Al, preventing its absorption by roots...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637253/synthesis-and-secretion-of-isoflavones-by-field-grown-soybean
#5
Akifumi Sugiyama, Yumi Yamazaki, Shoichiro Hamamoto, Hisabumi Takase, Kazufumi Yazaki
Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analysed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expressions of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (Isoflavone conjugates hydrolysing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages...
June 16, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631440/recognition-cascade-and-metabolite-transfer-in-a-marine-bacteria-phytoplankton-model-system
#6
Bryndan P Durham, Stephen P Dearth, Shalabh Sharma, Shady A Amin, Christa B Smith, Shawn R Campagna, E Virginia Armbrust, Mary Ann Moran
The trophic linkage between marine bacteria and phytoplankton in the surface ocean is a key step in the global carbon cycle, with almost half of marine primary production transformed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton within hours to weeks of fixation. Early studies conceptualized this link as the passive addition and removal of organic compounds from a shared seawater reservoir. Here we analyzed transcript and intracellular metabolite patterns in a two-member model system and found that the presence of a heterotrophic bacterium induced a potential recognition cascade in a marine phytoplankton species that parallels better-understood vascular plant response systems...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631319/herbivory-induced-jasmonates-constrain-plant-sugar-accumulation-and-growth-by-antagonizing-gibberellin-signaling-and-not-by-promoting-secondary-metabolite-production
#7
Ricardo A R Machado, Ian T Baldwin, Matthias Erb
Plants respond to herbivory by reconfiguring hormonal networks, increasing secondary metabolite production and decreasing growth. Furthermore, some plants display a decrease in leaf energy reserves in the form of soluble sugars and starch, leading to the hypothesis that herbivory-induced secondary metabolite production and growth reduction may be linked through a carbohydrate-based resource trade-off. In order to test the above hypothesis, we measured leaf carbohydrates and plant growth in seven genetically engineered Nicotiana attenuata genotypes that are deficient in one or several major herbivore-induced, jasmonate-dependent defensive secondary metabolites and proteins...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630399/dietary-mastic-oil-extracted-from-pistacia-lentiscus-var-chia-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-experimental-colon-cancer-models
#8
Katerina Spyridopoulou, Angeliki Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Evangeli Lampri, Eleni Fitsiou, Stavros Vasileiadis, Manolis Vamvakias, Haido Bardouki, Anna Goussia, Vasiliki Malamou-Mitsi, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Alex Galanis, Aglaia Pappa, Katerina Chlichlia
Plant-derived bioactive compounds attract considerable interest as potential chemopreventive anticancer agents. We analyzed the volatile dietary phytochemicals (terpenes) present in mastic oil extracted from the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia and comparatively investigated their effects on colon carcinoma proliferation, a) in vitro against colon cancer cell lines and b) in vivo on tumor growth in mice following oral administration. Mastic oil inhibited - more effectively than its major constituents- proliferation of colon cancer cells in vitro, attenuated migration and downregulated transcriptional expression of survivin (BIRC5a)...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630384/modulation-of-cd4-t-cell-subsets-by-euphorbia-microciadia-and-euphorbia-osyridea-plant-extracts
#9
Haideh Namdari, Maryam Izad, Zahra Amirghofran
BACKGROUND: Euphorbia plants are traditionally used in folk medicine for infections, inflammation, and cancer. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of the butanolic extracts of Euphorbia micorociadia and Euphorbia osyridea on specific transcription factors and cytokines expression of T cell subsets. METHODS: Activated mouse splenocytes were cultured in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts. Cells were evaluated for the gene expressions of T cell transcription factors and cytokines of T helper (Th)1 [T-bet and interferon gamma (IFNγ)], Th17 [retinoic acid receptor related orphan receptor (RORγt) and interleukin (IL)-17], and T regulatory (Treg) cells [forkhead box P3(Foxp3), IL-10, and Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β] using real-time PCR...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630302/new-perspective-on-spring-vegetation-phenology-and-global-climate-change-based-on-tibetan-plateau-tree-ring-data
#10
Bao Yang, Minhui He, Vladimir Shishov, Ivan Tychkov, Eugene Vaganov, Sergio Rossi, Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist, Achim Bräuning, Jussi Grießinger
Phenological responses of vegetation to climate, in particular to the ongoing warming trend, have received much attention. However, divergent results from the analyses of remote sensing data have been obtained for the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the world's largest high-elevation region. This study provides a perspective on vegetation phenology shifts during 1960-2014, gained using an innovative approach based on a well-validated, process-based, tree-ring growth model that is independent of temporal changes in technical properties and image quality of remote sensing products...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628949/photosynthate-partitioning-to-starch-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-is-insensitive-to-light-intensity-but-sensitive-to-photoperiod-due-to-a-restriction-on-growth-in-the-light-in-short-photoperiods
#11
Virginie Mengin, Eva-Theresa Pyl, Thiago Alexandre Moraes, Ronan Sulpice, Nicole Krohn, Beatrice Encke, Mark Stitt
Photoperiod duration can be predicted from previous days but irradiance fluctuates in an unpredictable manner. To investigate how allocation to starch responds to changes in these two environmental variables, Arabidopsis Col-0 was grown in a 6-h and a 12-h photoperiod at three different irradiances. The absolute rate of starch accumulation increased when photoperiod duration was shortened and when irradiance was increased. The proportion of photosynthate allocated to starch increased strongly when photoperiod duration was decreased but only slightly when irradiance was decreased...
June 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626614/identification-of-two-cigads-from-caragana-intermedia-and-their-transcriptional-responses-to-abiotic-stresses-and-exogenous-abscisic-acid
#12
Jing Ji, Lingyu Zheng, Jianyun Yue, Xiamei Yao, Ermei Chang, Tiantian Xie, Nan Deng, Lanzhen Chen, Yuwen Huang, Zeping Jiang, Shengqing Shi
BACKGROUND: Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), as a key enzyme in the γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to form GABA. This pathway has attracted much interest because of its roles in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, and signaling in higher plants. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize genes encoding GADs from Caragana intermedia, an important nitrogen-fixing leguminous shrub. METHODS: Two full-length cDNAs encoding GADs (designated as CiGAD1 and CiGAD2) were isolated and characterized...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625992/flow-cytometry-a-powerful-novel-tool-to-assess-viability-of-fungal-conidia-in-metal-working-fluids
#13
D Vanhauteghem, K Demeyere, N Callaert, A Boelaert, G Haesaert, K Audenaert, E Meyer
Fungal contamination of metal working fluids (MWF) is a dual problem in automatized processing plants because resulting fungal biofilms obstruct cutting, drilling and polishing machines. Moreover, some fungal species of MWF comprise pathogens such as Fusarium solani Therefore, the development of an accurate analytical tool to evaluate conidia viability in MWF is important. We developed a flow cytometric method to measure fungal viability in MWF using F. solani as model organism. To validate this method, viable and dead conidia were mixed in several proportions and flow cytometrically analyzed...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624671/radiation-exposure-of-barley-seeds-can-modify-the-early-stages-of-plants-development
#14
Stanislav Geras'kin, Roman Churyukin, Polina Volkova
The reactions of barley seeds (Nur and Grace varieties) in terms of the root and sprout lengths, germination and root mass were studied after γ-irradiation with doses in the range of 2-50 Gy. The dose range in which plants' growth stimulation occurs (16-20 Gy) was identified. It was shown that increased size of seedlings after irradiation with stimulating doses was due to the enhancing pace of development rather than an earlier germination. The activity of the majority of the enzymes studied increased in the range of doses that cause stimulation of seedlings development...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621408/a-brief-history-of-developmental-biology-in-israel
#15
Dalit Sela-Donenfeld, Dale Frank
While the history of developmental biology in Israel is relatively short, its impact is far-reaching, so we wanted to present a concise perspective on the Israeli developmental biology community, past-present-future. This community has undergone a wonderful, nearly exponential growth over the last three decades. How exactly did this happen? There are approximately fifty research groups that focus on developmental biology questions in Israel today that are members of the Israel Society of Developmental Biology (IsSDB; http://issdb...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620224/comparing-the-plant-diversity-between-artificial-forest-and-nature-growth-forest-in-a-giant-panda-habitat
#16
Dongwei Kang, Xiaorong Wang, Shuang Li, Junqing Li
Artificial restoration is an important way to restore forests, but little is known about its effect on the habitat restoration of the giant panda. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of artificial forest in the Wanglang Nature Reserve to determine whether through succession it has formed a suitable habitat for the giant panda. We compared artificial forest characteristics with those of natural habitat used by the giant panda. We found that the dominant tree species in artificial forest differed from those in the natural habitat...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620222/nitric-oxide-mediated-transcriptional-modulation-enhances-plant-adaptive-responses-to-arsenic-stress
#17
Pradyumna Kumar Singh, Yuvraj Indoliya, Abhisekh Singh Chauhan, Surendra Pratap Singh, Amit Pal Singh, Sanjay Dwivedi, Rudra Deo Tripathi, Debasis Chakrabarty
Arsenic (As) contamination in rice leads to yield decline and causes carcinogenic risk to human health. Although the role of nitric oxide (NO) in reducing As toxicity is known, NO-mediated genetic modulation in the plant during arsenic toxicity has not yet been established. We analyzed the key components of NO metabolism and the correlations between NO interaction and arsenic stress using rice as a relevant model plant. Illumina sequencing was used to investigate the NO-mediated genome-wide temporal transcriptomic modulation in rice root upon AsIII exposure during 12 days (d) of the growth period...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619365/aucklandia-lappa-dc-extract-enhances-gefitinib-efficacy-in-gefitinib-resistance-secondary-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutations
#18
Guan Huang, Yanli Tong, Qidi He, Jie Wang, Zuanguang Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aucklandia lappa DC. is a widely used medicinal plant in China, India and Pakistan for a long time. Previously, a number of different pharmacological experiments in vitro and in vivo have convincingly demonstrated the abilities of it to exhibit anticancer activities. Reynoutria japonica Houtt. has also been widely used as traditional Chinese medicinal plant. Previous studies have demonstrated that it is bioactive to exhibit anticancer activities. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to investigate whether the extracts of Aucklandia lappa DC...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617190/experimental-and-theoretical-studies-of-cadmium-ions-absorption-by-a-new-reduced-recombinant-defensin
#19
Karim Mahnam, Samira Foruzandeh, Neda Mirakhorli, Behnaz Saffar
Heavy metal pollutants such as Cd, Hg, Pb, As and Se are considered as both a global problem and a growing threat to the humanity. Being strongly poisonous to the metal-sensitive enzymes and leading to the growth inhibition and death of organisms, these metals have a toxic impact on the plants and animals. Inducing the metal-binding cysteine-rich peptides such as metallothioneins, phytochelatins, and defensins, higher organisms like plants and animals usually react to the heavy metal stress. In this study, a recombinant defensin protein was expressed in bean and its ability in the cadmium absorption was determined...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615523/phytoagent-deoxyelephantopin-derivative-inhibits-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cell-activity-by-inducing-oxidative-stress-mediated-paraptosis-like-cell-death
#20
Jeng-Yuan Shiau, Kyoko Nakagawa-Goto, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Lie-Fen Shyur
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly metastatic cancer among the breast cancer subgroups. A thorny issue for clinical therapy of TNBC is lack of an efficient targeted therapeutic strategy. We previously created a novel sesquiterpene lactone analog (named DETD-35) derived from plant deoxyelephantopin (DET) which exhibits potent effects against human TNBC MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Here we studied the mechanisms of both DET and DETD-35 against MDA-MB-231 cells. DETD-35 (3-fold decreased in IC50) exhibited better anti-TNBC cell activity than DET as observed through induction of reactive oxygen species production (within 2 h treatment) and damage to the ER structures, resulting in ER-derived cytoplasmic vacuolation and ubiquitinated protein accumulation in the treated cells...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
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