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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533787/genome-wide-analysis-of-gene-expression-provides-new-insights-into-cold-responses-in-thellungiella-salsuginea
#1
Jiangshan Wang, Quan Zhang, Feng Cui, Lei Hou, Shuzhen Zhao, Han Xia, Jingjing Qiu, Tingting Li, Ye Zhang, Xingjun Wang, Chuanzhi Zhao
Low temperature is one of the major environmental stresses that affects plant growth and development, and leads to decrease in crop yield and quality. Thellungiella salsuginea (salt cress) exhibits high tolerance to chilling, is an appropriate model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cold tolerance. Here, we compared transcription changes in the roots and leaves of T. salsuginea under cold stress using RNA-seq. We identified 2,782 and 1,430 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in leaves and roots upon cold treatment, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533439/gene-introgression-in-weeds-depends-on-initial-gene-location-in-the-crop-brassica-napus-raphanus-raphanistrum-model
#2
Katarzyna Adamczyk-Chauvat, Sabrina Delaunay, Anne Vannier, Caroline François, Gwenaëlle Thomas, Frédérique Eber, Maryse Lodé, Marie Gilet, Virginie Huteau, Jérôme Morice, Sylvie Nègre, Cyril Falentin, Olivier Coriton, Henri Darmency, Bachar Alrustom, Eric Jenczewski, Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin, Anne-Marie Chèvre
The effect of gene location within a crop genome on its transfer to a weed genome remains an open question for gene flow assessment. To elucidate this question, we analyzed advanced generations of intergeneric hybrids, derived from an initial pollination of known oilseed rape varieties (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n=38) by a local population of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n=18). After five generations of recurrent pollination, 307 G5 plants with a chromosome number similar to wild radish were genotyped using 105 B...
May 22, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532231/external-coincidence-model-for-hypocotyl-thermomorphogenesis
#3
Young-Joon Park, Chung-Mo Park
High but nonstressful temperatures profoundly affect plant growth and developmental processes, termed thermomorphogenesis. Thermo-induced hypocotyl elongation is a typical thermomorphogenic trait, which contributes to cooling plant organs. It is known that external light signals and the circadian clock coordinate rhythmic hypocotyl growth. However, it was unclear how light, temperature, and circadian rhythms are harmonized during hypocotyl thermomorphogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is activated at warm temperatures...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532230/hsp90-stabilizes-auxin-receptor-tir1-and-ensures-plasticity-of-auxin-responses
#4
Etsuko Watanabe, Shoji Mano, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura, Mikio Nishimura, Kenji Yamada
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that facilitates the maturation of target proteins. Here, we report that the auxin receptor TIR1 is a target of cytosolic HSP90 and that HSP90 and TIR1 form a complex. Inhibition of HSP90 compromised the nuclear localization of TIR1, and abrogated plant responses to the hormone auxin. Our findings suggest that HSP90 positively regulates auxin receptor function. We also propose that HSP90 buffers or hides phenotypic variations in animals and plants by masking mutations in some of its target proteins...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531954/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-fungi-facilitate-rapid-adaptation-of-elsholtzia-splendens-to-copper
#5
Junmin Li, Huijuan Liang, Ming Yan, Luxi Chen, Huating Zhang, Jie Liu, Suizi Wang, Zexin Jin
Closely associated microbes have been shown to drive local adaptation of plants. However, few studies provide direct evidence, disclosing the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) in their rapid adaptation of plants toward heavy metal tolerance. Elsholtzia splendens is a Cu-tolerant plant that was used as a model plant to study seed morphological traits as well as traits related to seed germination and seedling growth. This was achieved after acclimation for two generations with 1000mg/kg CuSO4 in either absence or presence of AMF...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531195/livestock-metabolomics-and-the-livestock-metabolome-a-systematic-review
#6
Seyed Ali Goldansaz, An Chi Guo, Tanvir Sajed, Michael A Steele, Graham S Plastow, David S Wishart
Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529514/two-rab5-homologs-are-essential-for-the-development-and-pathogenicity-of-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#7
Cheng D Yang, Xie Dang, Hua W Zheng, Xiao F Chen, Xiao L Lin, Dong M Zhang, Yakubu S Abubakar, Xin Chen, Guodong Lu, Zonghua Wang, Guangpu Li, Jie Zhou
The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, infects many economically important cereal crops, particularly rice. It has emerged as an important model organism for studying the growth, development, and pathogenesis of filamentous fungi. RabGTPases are important molecular switches in regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes. MoRab5A and MoRab5B are Rab5 homologs in M. oryzae, but their functions in the fungal development and pathogenicity are unknown. In this study, we have employed a genetic approach and demonstrated that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are crucial for vegetative growth and development, conidiogenesis, melanin synthesis, vacuole fusion, endocytosis, sexual reproduction, and plant pathogenesis in M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529082/rice-expression-database-red-an-integrated-rna-seq-derived-gene-expression-database-for-rice
#8
Lin Xia, Dong Zou, Jian Sang, Xingjian Xu, Hongyan Yin, Mengwei Li, Shuangyang Wu, Songnian Hu, Lili Hao, Zhang Zhang
Rice is one of the most important stable food as well as a monocotyledonous model organism for the plant research community. Here, we present RED (Rice Expression Database; http://expression.ic4r.org), an integrated database of rice gene expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data. RED features a comprehensive collection of 284 high-quality RNA-Seq experiments, integrates a large number of gene expression profiles and covers a wide range of rice growth stages as well as various treatments. Based on massive expression profiles, RED provides a list of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes and dynamically constructs co-expression networks for gene(s) of interest...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527355/antimycotic-activity-of-fengycin-c-biosurfactant-and-its-interaction-with-phosphatidylcholine-model-membranes
#9
Lina María González-Jaramillo, Francisco José Aranda, José Antonio Teruel, Valeska Villegas-Escobar, Antonio Ortiz
Lipopeptide biosurfactants constitute one of the most promising groups of compounds for the treatment and prevention of fungal diseases in plants. Bacillus subtilis strain EA-CB0015 produces iturin A, fengycin C and surfactin and it has been proven useful for the treatment of black Sigatoka disease in banana plants, an important pathology caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet). We have found that B. subtilis EA-CB0015 cell free supernatants and purified fractions inhibit M. fijiensis cellular growth...
May 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527179/making-time-conservation-of-biological-clocks-from-fungi-to-animals
#10
Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
The capacity for biological timekeeping arose at least three times through evolution, in prokaryotic cyanobacteria, in cells that evolved into higher plants, and within the group of organisms that eventually became the fungi and the animals. Neurospora is a tractable model system for understanding the molecular bases of circadian rhythms in the last of these groups, and is perhaps the most intensively studied circadian cell type. Rhythmic processes described in fungi include growth rate, stress responses, developmental capacity, and sporulation, as well as much of metabolism; fungi use clocks to anticipate daily environmental changes...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526713/co-evolution-of-domain-interactions-in-the-chloroplast-tgd1-2-3-lipid-transfer-complex-specific-to-brassicaceae-and-poaceae-plants
#11
Yang Yang, Agnieszka Zienkiewicz, Anastasiya Lavell, Christoph Benning
The import of lipids into the chloroplast is essential for photosynthetic membrane biogenesis. This process requires an ABC transporter in the inner envelope membrane with three subunits, TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL (TGD) 1, 2, and 3 named after the oligogalactolipids that accumulate in the respective Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Unlike Arabidopsis, in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, chloroplast lipid biosynthesis is largely dependent on imported precursors, resulting in a characteristic difference in chloroplast lipid acyl composition between plants...
May 19, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525308/toxin-antitoxin-systems-implications-for-plant-disease
#12
T Shidore, L R Triplett
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that are ubiquitous in freeliving prokaryotes. Diverse in structure, cellular function, and fitness roles, TA systems are defined by the presence of a toxin gene that suppresses bacterial growth and a toxin-neutralizing antitoxin gene, usually encoded in a single operon. Originally viewed as DNA maintenance modules, TA systems are now thought to function in many roles, including bacterial stress tolerance, virulence, phage defense, and biofilm formation. However, very few studies have investigated the significance of TA systems in the context of plant-microbe interactions...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525299/early-diverging-fungi-diversity-and-impact-at-the-dawn-of-terrestrial-life
#13
Mary L Berbee, Timothy Y James, Christine Strullu-Derrien
As decomposers or plant pathogens, fungi deploy invasive growth and powerful carbohydrate active enzymes to reduce multicellular plant tissues to humus and simple sugars. Fungi are perhaps also the most important mutualistic symbionts in modern ecosystems, transporting poorly soluble mineral nutrients to plants and thus enhancing the growth of vegetation. However, at their origin over a billion years ago, fungus-like plants and animals were unicellular marine microbes. Like the other multicellular kingdoms, Fungi evolved increased size, complexity, and metabolic functioning...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525265/thioarsenate-toxicity-and-tolerance-in-the-model-system-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Britta Planer-Friedrich, Tanja Kühnlenz, Dipti Halder, Regina Lohmayer, Nathaniel Wilson, Colleen Rafferty, Stephan Clemens
Thioarsenates form from arsenite under sulfate-reducing conditions, e.g. in rice paddy soils, and are structural analogues to arsenate. Even though rice is one of the most important sources of human arsenic (As) intake, nothing is published about uptake, toxicity, or tolerance of thioarsenates in plants. Experiments using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana showed that monothioarsenate is less toxic than arsenite, but more toxic than arsenate at concentrations >= 25 µM As, reflected in stronger seedlings growth inhibition on agar plates...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524697/emerging-functions-of-multi-protein-complex-mediator-with-special-emphasis-on-plants
#15
Naveen Malik, Pinky Agarwal, Akhilesh Tyagi
Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Functional attributes of different Mediator subunits have been largely defined in yeast and mammalian systems earlier, while such studies in plants have gained momentum recently...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524023/the-mycelium-as-a-network
#16
Mark D Fricker, Luke L M Heaton, Nick S Jones, Lynne Boddy
The characteristic growth pattern of fungal mycelia as an interconnected network has a major impact on how cellular events operating on a micron scale affect colony behavior at an ecological scale. Network structure is intimately linked to flows of resources across the network that in turn modify the network architecture itself. This complex interplay shapes the incredibly plastic behavior of fungi and allows them to cope with patchy, ephemeral resources, competition, damage, and predation in a manner completely different from multicellular plants or animals...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523006/virtual-plant-tissue-building-blocks-for-next-generation-plant-growth-simulation
#17
Dirk De Vos, Abdiravuf Dzhurakhalov, Sean Stijven, Przemyslaw Klosiewicz, Gerrit T S Beemster, Jan Broeckhove
Motivation: Computational modeling of plant developmental processes is becoming increasingly important. Cellular resolution plant tissue simulators have been developed, yet they are typically describing physiological processes in an isolated way, strongly delimited in space and time. Results: With plant systems biology moving toward an integrative perspective on development we have built the Virtual Plant Tissue (VPTissue) package to couple functional modules or models in the same framework and across different frameworks...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520770/life-history-trade-off-moderates-model-predictions-of-diversity-loss-from-climate-change
#18
Helen Moor
Climate change can trigger species range shifts, local extinctions and changes in diversity. Species interactions and dispersal capacity are important mediators of community responses to climate change. The interaction between multispecies competition and variation in dispersal capacity has recently been shown to exacerbate the effects of climate change on diversity and to increase predictions of extinction risk dramatically. Dispersal capacity, however, is part of a species' overall ecological strategy and are likely to trade off with other aspects of its life history that influence population growth and persistence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515732/osmotic-stress-induced-cell-death-in-wheat-is-alleviated-by-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-and-involves-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-gene-expression
#19
Liting Zhang, Zeyu Xin, Xing Yu, Chao Ma, Weiwei Liang, Meichen Zhu, Qiwei Cheng, Zongzhen Li, Yanan Niu, Yongzhe Ren, Zhiqiang Wang, Tongbao Lin
Although, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been widely studied in mammalian cells because of its role in inhibiting apoptosis, its effects on plants remain almost unknown, especially in the case of crops such as wheat. In this study, we conducted a series of experiments to explore the effects and mechanisms of action of TUDCA on wheat growth and cell death induced by osmotic stress. Our results show that TUDCA: (1) ameliorates the impact of osmotic stress on wheat height, fresh weight, and water content; (2) alleviates the decrease in chlorophyll content as well as membrane damage caused by osmotic stress; (3) decreases the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes under osmotic stress; and (4) to some extent alleviates osmotic stress-induced cell death probably by regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related gene expression, for example expression of the basic leucine zipper genes bZIP60B and bZIP60D, the binding proteins BiP1 and BiP2, the protein disulfide isomerase PDIL8-1, and the glucose-regulated protein GRP94...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513916/global-forest-carbon-uptake-due-to-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-deposition-from-1850-to-2100
#20
Rong Wang, Daniel Goll, Yves Balkanski, Didier Hauglustaine, Olivier Boucher, Philippe Ciais, Ivan Janssens, Josep Penuelas, Bertrand Guenet, Jordi Sardans, Laurent Bopp, Nicolas Vuichard, Feng Zhou, Bengang Li, Shilong Piao, Shushi Peng, Ye Huang, Shu Tao
Spatial patterns and temporal trend of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition are important for quantifying their impact on forest carbon (C) uptake. In a first step, we modeled historical and future change in the global distributions of the atmospheric deposition of N and P from the dry and wet deposition of aerosols and gases containing N and P. Future projections were compared between two scenarios with contrasting aerosol emissions. Modeled fields of N and P deposition and P concentration were evaluated using globally distributed in situ measurements...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
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