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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284374/niche-contractions-in-declining-species-mechanisms-and-consequences
#1
REVIEW
Ben C Scheele, Claire N Foster, Sam C Banks, David B Lindenmayer
A fundamental aim of conservation biology is to understand how species respond to threatening processes, with much research effort focused on identifying threats and quantifying spatial and temporal patterns of species decline. Here, we argue that threats often reduce the realized niche breadth of declining species because environmental, biotic, and evolutionary processes reduce or amplify threats, or because a species' capacity to tolerate threats varies across niche space. Our 'niche reduction hypothesis' provides a new lens for understanding why species decline in some locations and not others...
March 8, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237605/a-deeper-view-of-insight-in-schizophrenia-insight-dimensions-unawareness-and-misattribution-of-particular-symptoms-and-its-relation-with-psychopathological-factors
#2
Esther Pousa, Susana Ochoa, Jesús Cobo, Lourdes Nieto, Judith Usall, Beatriz Gonzalez, Carles Garcia-Ribera, Victor Pérez Solà, Ada-I Ruiz, Iris Baños, Jesús Cobo, Carles García-Ribera, Beatriz González, Carmina Massons, Lourdes Nieto, Clara Monserrat, Susana Ochoa, Esther Pousa, Ada-Inmaculada Ruiz, Isabel Ruiz, Dolores Sanchez-Cabezudo, Judith Usall
OBJECTIVE: 1. To describe insight in a large sample of schizophrenia subjects from a multidimensional point of view, including unawareness of general insight dimensions as well as unawareness and misattribution of particular symptoms. 2. To explore the relationship between unawareness and clinical and socio-demographic variables. METHODS: 248 schizophrenia patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, five factor model of Lindenmayer) and the full Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD)...
February 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121984/improving-the-design-of-a-conservation-reserve-for-a-critically-endangered-species
#3
Chris Taylor, Natasha Cadenhead, David B Lindenmayer, Brendan A Wintle
Setting aside protected areas is a key strategy for tackling biodiversity loss. Reserve effectiveness depends on the extent to which protected areas capture both known occurrences and areas likely to support the species. We assessed the effectiveness of the existing reserve network for Leadbeater's Possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) and other forest-dependent species, and compared the existing reserve system to a set of plausible reserve expansion options based on area targets implied in a recent Population Viability Analysis (PVA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094171/the-relationship-of-cognitive-improvement-after-cognitive-remediation-with-social-functioning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-severe-cognitive-deficits
#4
J P Lindenmayer, Samantha Fregenti, Guoxin Kang, Veronica Ozog, Isidora Ljuri, Anzalee Khan, A Goldring, Susan R McGurk
BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine the effects of change in neurocognition on functional outcomes and to examine predictors of change in social functions following a 12-week course of cognitive remediation in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with severe cognitive impairments. METHOD: Level of social functioning was assessed using a performance based measure of functional capacity (PSP) in patients prior to and after the completion of 12-week cognitive remediation treatment (CRT)...
January 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042667/the-difficulties-of-systematic-reviews
#5
REVIEW
Martin J Westgate, David B Lindenmayer
The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. Here, we draw on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor-intensive, and to provide potential solutions...
January 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905436/conservation-thrive-on-slings-and-arrows
#6
LETTER
David Lindenmayer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783548/patterns-of-adherence-to-oral-atypical-antipsychotics-among-patients-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia
#7
Joanna P MacEwan, Felicia M Forma, Jason Shafrin, Ainslie Hatch, Darius N Lakdawalla, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence contributes to negative treatment response, symptom relapse, and hospitalizations in schizophrenia. Many health plans use claims-based measures like medication possession ratios or proportion of days covered (PDC) to measure patient adherence to antipsychotics. Classifying patients solely on the basis of a single average PDC measure, however, may mask clinically meaningful variations over time in how patients arrive at an average PDC level. OBJECTIVE: To model patterns of medication adherence evolving over time for patients with schizophrenia who initiated treatment with an oral atypical antipsychotic and, based on these patterns, to identify groups of patients with different adherence behaviors...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755744/disturbance-gradient-shows-logging-affects-plant-functional-groups-more-than-fire
#8
David P Blair, Lachlan M McBurney, Wade Blanchard, Sam C Banks, David B Lindenmayer
Understanding the impacts of natural and human disturbances on forest biota is critical for improving forest management. Many studies have examined the separate impacts on fauna and flora of wildfire, conventional logging, and salvage logging, but empirical comparisons across a broad gradient of simultaneous disturbances are lacking. We quantified species richness and frequency of occurrence of vascular plants, and functional group responses, across a gradient of disturbances that occurred concurrently in 2009 in the mountain ash forests of southeastern Australia...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755726/do-temporal-changes-in-vegetation-structure-additional-to-time-since-fire-predict-changes-in-bird-occurrence
#9
David B Lindenmayer, Steven G Candy, Christopher I MacGregor, Sam C Banks, Martin Westgate, Karen Ikin, Jennifer Pierson, Ayesha Tulloch, Philip Barton
Fire is a major ecological process in ecosystems globally. Its impacts on fauna can be both direct (e.g., mortality) and indirect (e.g., altered habitat), resulting in population recovery being driven by several possible mechanisms. Separating direct from indirect impacts of fire on faunal population recovery can be valuable in guiding management of biodiversity in fire-prone environments. However, resolving the influence of direct and indirect processes remains a key challenge because many processes affecting fauna can change concomitantly with time since fire...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704619/the-contribution-of-policy-law-management-research-and-advocacy-failings-to-the-recent-extinctions-of-three-australian-vertebrate-species
#10
REVIEW
John C Z Woinarski, Stephen T Garnett, Sarah M Legge, David B Lindenmayer
Extinctions typically have ecological drivers, such as habitat loss. However, extinction events are also influenced by policy and management settings that may be antithetical to biodiversity conservation, inadequate to prevent extinction, insufficiently resourced, or poorly implemented. Three endemic Australian vertebrate species-the Christmas Island pipistrelle (Pipistrellus murrayi), Bramble Cay melomys (Melomys rubicola), and Christmas Island forest skink (Emoia nativitatis)-became extinct from 2009 to 2014...
February 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423634/insight-and-gender-in-schizophrenia-and-other-psychoses
#11
Jesus Cobo, Lourdes Nieto, Susana Ochoa, Esther Pousa, Judith Usall, Iris Baños, Beatriz González, Isabel Ruiz, Ada I Ruiz
This study aimed to evaluate gender differences in the deficit of insight in psychosis and determine influences of clinical, functional, and sociodemographic variables. A multicenter sample of 401 adult patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders who agreed to participate was evaluated in four centers of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia). Psychopathological assessment was performed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Lindenmayers' Factors. Insight and its dimensions were assessed by means of the Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383287/the-ecology-distribution-conservation-and-management-of-large-old-trees
#12
David B Lindenmayer, William F Laurance
Large old trees are some of the most iconic biota on earth and are integral parts of many terrestrial ecosystems including those in tropical, temperate and boreal forests, deserts, savannas, agro-ecological areas, and urban environments. In this review, we provide new insights into the ecology, function, evolution and management of large old trees through broad cross-disciplinary perspectives from literatures in plant physiology, growth and development, evolution, habitat value for fauna and flora, and conservation management...
July 7, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322760/paliperidone-palmitate-once-monthly-injectable-treatment-for-acute-exacerbations-of-schizoaffective-disorder
#13
Dong-Jing Fu, Ibrahim Turkoz, R Bruce Simonson, David Walling, Nina Schooler, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Carla Canuso, Larry Alphs
The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group)...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314208/effects-of-past-and-present-livestock-grazing-on-herpetofauna-in-a-landscape-scale-experiment
#14
Geoffrey M Kay, Alessio Mortelliti, Ayesha Tulloch, Philip Barton, Daniel Florance, Saul A Cunningham, David B Lindenmayer
Livestock grazing is the most widespread land use on Earth and can have negative effects on biodiversity. Yet, many of the mechanisms by which grazing leads to changes in biodiversity remain unresolved. One reason is that conventional grazing studies often target broad treatments rather than specific parameters of grazing (e.g., intensity, duration, and frequency) or fail to account for historical grazing effects. We conducted a landscape-scale replicated grazing experiment (15,000 km(2) , 97 sites) to examine the impact of past grazing management and current grazing regimes (intensity, duration, and frequency) on a community of ground-dwelling herpetofauna (39 species)...
April 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282222/developmental-model-of-an-automatic-production-of-the-human-bronchial-tree-based-on-l-system
#15
Amirabbas Davoodi, Ramin Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The human lungs exchange air with the external environment via the conducting airways. The application of an anatomically accurate model of the conducting airways can be helpful for simulating gas exchange and fluid distribution throughout the bronchial tree in the lung. METHODS: In the current study, Lindenmayer system (L-system) has been formulated to generate the bronchial tree structure in a human lung. It has been considered that the structure of the bronchial tree is divided into two main segments: 1) The central airways (from the trachea to segmental bronchi) and 2) the dichotomous structure (from segmental bronchi to terminal bronchioles)...
August 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241822/describing-nutrition-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Georgia E Moore, Amara W Lindenmayer, Grace A McConchie, Monique M Ryan, Zoe E Davidson
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease of variable severity. Progressive muscle wasting and impairment in functional ability in SMA have a profound influence on nutritional outcomes. This systematic review summarises the existing evidence on nutrition in SMA. The search strategy was conducted across five databases in August 2014, and updated in March 2016, using key terms relating to growth, nutrition requirements, dietary intake and nutrition management. Studies were selected for inclusion using a two pass method, and data systematically extracted using standardised forms...
July 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209795/temporal-trends-in-mammal-responses-to-fire-reveals-the-complex-effects-of-fire-regime-attributes
#17
David B Lindenmayer, Wade Blanchard, Christopher MacGregor, Philip Barton, Sam C Banks, Mason Crane, Damian Michael, Sachiko Okada, Laurence Berry, Daniel Florance, Malcolm Gill
Fire is a major ecological process in many ecosystems worldwide. We sought to identify which attributes of fire regimes affect temporal change in the presence and abundance of Australian native mammals. Our detailed study was underpinned by time series data on 11 mammal species at 97 long-term sites in southeastern Australia between 2003 and 2013. We explored how temporal aspects of fire regimes influenced the presence and conditional abundance of species. The key fire regime components examined were: (1) severity of a major fire in 2003, (2) interval between the last major fire (2003) and the fire prior to that, and (3) number of past fires...
March 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193756/a-global-meta-analysis-on-the-ecological-drivers-of-forest-restoration-success
#18
Renato Crouzeilles, Michael Curran, Mariana S Ferreira, David B Lindenmayer, Carlos E V Grelle, José M Rey Benayas
Two billion ha have been identified globally for forest restoration. Our meta-analysis encompassing 221 study landscapes worldwide reveals forest restoration enhances biodiversity by 15-84% and vegetation structure by 36-77%, compared with degraded ecosystems. For the first time, we identify the main ecological drivers of forest restoration success (defined as a return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) at both the local and landscape scale. These are as follows: the time elapsed since restoration began, disturbance type and landscape context...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117523/the-unique-challenges-of-conserving-large-old-trees
#19
David B Lindenmayer, William F Laurance
Large old trees play numerous critical ecological roles. They are susceptible to a plethora of interacting threats, in part because the attributes that confer a competitive advantage in intact ecosystems make them maladapted to rapidly changing, human-modified environments. Conserving large old trees will require surmounting a number of unresolved challenges.
June 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040452/evaluating-complementary-networks-of-restoration-plantings-for-landscape-scale-occurrence-of-temporally-dynamic-species
#20
Karen Ikin, Ayesha Tulloch, Philip Gibbons, Dean Ansell, Julian Seddon, David Lindenmayer
Multibillion dollar investments in land restoration make it critical that conservation goals are achieved cost-effectively. Approaches developed for systematic conservation planning offer opportunities to evaluate landscape-scale, temporally dynamic biodiversity outcomes from restoration and improve on traditional approaches that focus on the most species-rich plantings. We investigated whether it is possible to apply a complementarity-based approach to evaluate the extent to which an existing network of restoration plantings meets representation targets...
October 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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