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Ayesha I T Tulloch, Jane McDonald, Peter Cosier, Carla Sbrocchi, John Stein, David Lindenmayer, Hugh P Possingham
Developing a standardized approach to measuring the state of biodiversity in landscapes undergoing disturbance is crucial for evaluating and comparing change across different systems, assessing ecosystem vulnerability and the impacts of destructive activities, and helping direct species recovery actions. Existing ecosystem metrics of condition fail to acknowledge that a particular community could be in multiple states, and the distribution of states could worsen or improve when impacted by a disturbance process, depending on how far the current landscape distribution of states diverges from pre-anthropogenic impact baseline conditions...
February 28, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
James E M Watson, Tom Evans, Oscar Venter, Brooke Williams, Ayesha Tulloch, Claire Stewart, Ian Thompson, Justina C Ray, Kris Murray, Alvaro Salazar, Clive McAlpine, Peter Potapov, Joe Walston, John G Robinson, Michael Painter, David Wilkie, Christopher Filardi, William F Laurance, Richard A Houghton, Sean Maxwell, Hedley Grantham, Cristián Samper, Stephanie Wang, Lars Laestadius, Rebecca K Runting, Gustavo A Silva-Chávez, Jamison Ervin, David Lindenmayer
As the terrestrial human footprint continues to expand, the amount of native forest that is free from significant damaging human activities is in precipitous decline. There is emerging evidence that the remaining intact forest supports an exceptional confluence of globally significant environmental values relative to degraded forests, including imperilled biodiversity, carbon sequestration and storage, water provision, indigenous culture and the maintenance of human health. Here we argue that maintaining and, where possible, restoring the integrity of dwindling intact forests is an urgent priority for current global efforts to halt the ongoing biodiversity crisis, slow rapid climate change and achieve sustainability goals...
February 26, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
David B Lindenmayer, Wade Blanchard, David Blair, Lachlan McBurney, John Stein, Sam C Banks
Large old trees are critically important keystone structures in forest ecosystems globally. Populations of these trees are also in rapid decline in many forest ecosystems, making it important to quantify the factors that influence their dynamics at different spatial scales. Large old trees often occur in forest landscapes also subject to fire and logging. However, the effects on the risk of collapse of large old trees of the amount of logging and fire in the surrounding landscape are not well understood. Using an 18-year study in the Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria, we quantify relationships between the probability of collapse of large old hollow-bearing trees at a site and the amount of logging and the amount of fire in the surrounding landscape...
2018: PloS One
Elle J Bowd, David B Lindenmayer, Sam C Banks, David P Blair
Disturbances are key drivers of plant community composition, structure and function. Plant functional traits, including life forms and reproductive strategies are critical to the resilience and resistance of plant communities in the event of disturbance. Climate change and increasing anthropogenic disturbance are altering natural disturbance regimes, globally. When these regimes shift beyond the adaptive resilience of plant functional traits, local populations and ecosystem functions can become compromised...
February 7, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a well-established assessment tool for measuring symptom severity in schizophrenia. Researchers and clinicians have been interested in the development of a short version of the PANSS that could reduce the burden of its administration for patients and raters. The author presents a comprehensive overview of existing brief PANSS measures, including their strengths and limitations, and discusses some possible next steps. There are two available scales that offer a reduced number of original PANSS items: PANSS-14 and PANSS-19; and two shorter versions that include six items: Brief PANSS and PANSS-6...
December 1, 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Ayesha I T Tulloch, Iadine Chadès, David B Lindenmayer
Mitigating the impacts of global anthropogenic change on species is conservation's greatest challenge. Forecasting the effects of actions to mitigate threats is hampered by incomplete information on species' responses. We develop an approach to predict community restructuring under threat management, which combines models of responses to threats with network analyses of species co-occurrence. We discover that contributions by species to network co-occurrence predict their recovery under reduction of multiple threats...
February 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Cristina Domenech, Carlo Altamura, Corrado Bernasconi, Ricardo Corral, Helio Elkis, Jonathan Evans, Ashok Malla, Marie-Odile Krebs, Anna-Lena Nordstroem, Mathias Zink, Josep Maria Haro
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical factors associated with changes in HRQoL in outpatients with schizophrenia using both generic and condition-specific HRQoL scales. METHODS: Adult outpatients with schizophrenia at least 18 years of age who did not have an acute psychotic exacerbation in the 3 months prior to baseline were recruited. PANSS dimensions were calculated based on Lindenmayer et al.'s five factors. HRQoL data were assessed by patients using the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), the Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires...
January 16, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Simon Thorn, Claus Bässler, Roland Brandl, Philip J Burton, Rebecca Cahall, John L Campbell, Jorge Castro, Chang-Yong Choi, Tyler Cobb, Daniel C Donato, Ewa Durska, Joseph B Fontaine, Sylvie Gauthier, Christian Hebert, Torsten Hothorn, Richard L Hutto, Eun-Jae Lee, Alexandro B Leverkus, David B Lindenmayer, Martin K Obrist, Josep Rost, Sebastian Seibold, Rupert Seidl, Dominik Thom, Kaysandra Waldron, Beat Wermelinger, Maria-Barbara Winter, Michal Zmihorski, Jörg Müller
Logging to "salvage" economic returns from forests affected by natural disturbances has become increasingly prevalent globally. Despite potential negative effects on biodiversity, salvage logging is often conducted, even in areas otherwise excluded from logging and reserved for nature conservation, inter alia because strategic priorities for post-disturbance management are widely lacking.A review of the existing literature revealed that most studies investigating the effects of salvage logging on biodiversity have been conducted less than 5 years following natural disturbances, and focused on non-saproxylic organisms...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
Renato Crouzeilles, Mariana S Ferreira, Robin L Chazdon, David B Lindenmayer, Jerônimo B B Sansevero, Lara Monteiro, Alvaro Iribarrem, Agnieszka E Latawiec, Bernardo B N Strassburg
Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested...
November 2017: Science Advances
Anthony O Ahmed, Jenae Richardson, Alex Buckner, Sabrina Romanoff, Michelle Feder, Njideka Oragunye, Andriana Ilnicki, Ishrat Bhat, Matthew J Hoptman, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
Schizophrenia is associated with an elevated risk of aggression. Cognitive deficits have been associated with inpatient aggression and future violence. The relationship between cognitive deficits and violent behavior has however been inconsistent across studies. In addition, studies have failed to inform how cognitive deficits may contribute to aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined the association of cognitive deficits with schizophrenia-related aggression and violent offending. It also explored the putative mediating role of negative emotionality on the impact of cognitive deficits on aggression...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
David B Lindenmayer, Gene E Likens, Jerry F Franklin
Earth observation networks (EONs) are an emerging, surveillance-based approach to environmental monitoring and research that are fundamentally different than traditional question-driven, experimentally designed approaches. There is an urgent need to find an optimal balance between these approaches and to develop new integrated initiatives that take advantage of key features of them both.
November 2, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Ryan Wallace, Melissa Etheart, Fleurinord Ludder, Pierre Augustin, Natael Fenelon, Richard Franka, Kelly Crowdis, Patrick Dely, Paul Adrien, J Pierre-Louis, Modupe Osinubi, Lillian Orciari, Marco Vigilato, Jesse Blanton, Roopal Patel, David Lowrance, Andrecy Liverdieu, Andre Coetzer, John Boone, Joanne Lindenmayer, M Millien
Haiti, a Caribbean country of 10.5 million people, is estimated to have the highest burden of canine-mediated human rabies deaths in the Western Hemisphere, and one of the highest rates of human rabies deaths in the world. Haiti is also the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and has numerous economic and health priorities that compete for rabies-control resources. As a result, primary rabies-control actions, including canine vaccination programs, surveillance systems for human and animal rabies, and appropriate postbite treatment, have not been fully implemented at a national scale...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Haiyan Tian, David B Lindenmayer, Gabriel T W Wong, Zhu Mao, Yi Huang, Xiongzhi Xue
Decision-makers often have to make trade-offs between economic growth and environmental conservation when developing and managing coastal environments. Coastal development and management need to be subject to rigorous assessments to determine if they are sustainable over time. We propose a methodological framework - the Coastal Development Index (CDI) for the assessment of the changes in sustainability of coastal development over time. CDI is a modified version of the Ocean Health Index (OHI) but with two new indicators - ecological and environmental indicators (EEI), and social and economic indicators (SEI), both of which comprise three sub-indicators (coastal protection, clean waters and species protection for EEI, and food provision, coastal livelihoods and economies and tourism and recreation for SEI)...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Heather Keith, Michael Vardon, John A Stein, Janet L Stein, David Lindenmayer
Decisions about natural resource management are frequently complex and vexed, often leading to public policy compromises. Discord between environmental and economic metrics creates problems in assessing trade-offs between different current or potential resource uses. Ecosystem accounts, which quantify ecosystems and their benefits for human well-being consistent with national economic accounts, provide exciting opportunities to contribute significantly to the policy process. We advanced the application of ecosystem accounts in a regional case study by explicitly and spatially linking impacts of human and natural activities on ecosystem assets and services to their associated industries...
September 18, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Rick Zentelis, Sam Banks, J Dale Roberts, Stephen Dovers, David Lindenmayer
Military Training Areas (MTAs) cover at least 2 percent of the Earth's terrestrial surface and occur in all major biomes. These areas are potentially important for biodiversity conservation. The greatest challenge in managing MTAs is balancing the disturbance associated with military training and environmental values. These challenges are unique as no other land use is managed for these types of anthropogenic disturbances in a natural setting. We investigated how military training-related disturbance is best managed on MTAs...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Badrul Azhar, Norzanalia Saadun, Margi Prideaux, David B Lindenmayer
Most palm oil currently available in global markets is sourced from certified large-scale plantations. Comparatively little is sourced from (typically uncertified) smallholders. We argue that sourcing sustainable palm oil should not be determined by commercial certification alone and that the certification process should be revisited. There are so-far unrecognized benefits of sourcing palm oil from smallholders that should be considered if genuine biodiversity conservation is to be a foundation of 'environmentally sustainable' palm oil production...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
David Lindenmayer, Simon Thorn, Sam Banks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Louise H Taylor, Ryan M Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M Lindenmayer, Douglas C Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, Louis H Nel
Free-roaming dogs and rabies transmission are integrally linked across many low-income countries, and large unmanaged dog populations can be daunting to rabies control program planners. Dog population management (DPM) is a multifaceted concept that aims to improve the health and well-being of free-roaming dogs, reduce problems they may cause, and may also aim to reduce dog population size. In theory, DPM can facilitate more effective rabies control. Community engagement focused on promoting responsible dog ownership and better veterinary care could improve the health of individual animals and dog vaccination coverage, thus reducing rabies transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
David Lindenmayer, Simon Thorn, Reed Noss
The establishment of protected areas is a critical strategy for conserving biodiversity. Key policy directives like the Aichi targets seek to expand protected areas to 17% of the earth's land surface, with calls by some conservation biologists for much more. However, in places such as the USA, Germany and Australia, attempts to increase protected areas are meeting strong resistance from communities, industry groups, and governments. Here we provide case studies of such resistance and suggest four ways to tackle this problem: (1) Broaden the case for protected areas beyond just nature conservation, to include the economic, human health, and other benefits, and translate these into a persuasive business case for protected areas...
July 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Jason Shafrin, Suepattra G May, Anshu Shrestha, Charles Ruetsch, Nicole Gerlanc, Felicia Forma, Ainslie Hatch, Darius N Lakdawalla, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
OBJECTIVE: Overestimating patients' medication adherence diminishes the ability of psychiatric care providers to prescribe the most effective treatment and to identify the root causes of treatment resistance in schizophrenia. This study was conducted to determine how credible patient drug adherence information (PDAI) might change prescribers' treatment decisions. METHODS: In an online survey containing 8 clinical case vignettes describing patients with schizophrenia, health care practitioners who prescribe antipsychotics to patients with schizophrenia were instructed to choose a preferred treatment recommendation from a set of predefined pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
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