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David P Blair, Lachlan M McBurney, Wade Blanchard, Sam C Banks, David B Lindenmayer
Understanding the impacts of natural and human disturbances on forest biota is critical for improving forest management. Many studies have examined the separate impacts on fauna and flora of wildfire, conventional logging, and salvage logging, but empirical comparisons across a broad gradient of simultaneous disturbances are lacking. We quantified species richness and frequency of occurrence of vascular plants, and functional group responses, across a gradient of disturbances that occurred concurrently in 2009 in the mountain ash forests of southeastern Australia...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
David B Lindenmayer, Steven G Candy, Christopher I MacGregor, Sam C Banks, Martin Westgate, Karen Ikin, Jennifer Pierson, Ayesha Tulloch, Philip Barton
Fire is a major ecological process in ecosystems globally. Its impacts on fauna can be both direct (e.g., mortality) and indirect (e.g., altered habitat), resulting in population recovery being driven by several possible mechanisms. Separating direct from indirect impacts of fire on faunal population recovery can be valuable in guiding management of biodiversity in fire-prone environments. However, resolving the influence of direct and indirect processes remains a key challenge because many processes affecting fauna can change concomitantly with time since fire...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
John C Z Woinarski, Stephen T Garnett, Sarah M Legge, David B Lindenmayer
Extinctions typically have ecological drivers, such as habitat loss. However, extinction events are also influenced by policy and management settings that may be antithetical to biodiversity conservation, inadequate to prevent extinction, insufficiently resourced, or poorly implemented. Three endemic Australian vertebrate species - the Christmas Island pipistrelle (Pipistrellus murrayi), Bramble Cay melomys (Melomys rubicola), and Christmas Island forest skink (Emoia nativitatis) - became extinct from 2009 to 2014...
October 5, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Jesus Cobo, Lourdes Nieto, Susana Ochoa, Esther Pousa, Judith Usall, Iris Baños, Beatriz González, Isabel Ruiz, Ada I Ruiz
This study aimed to evaluate gender differences in the deficit of insight in psychosis and determine influences of clinical, functional, and sociodemographic variables. A multicenter sample of 401 adult patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders who agreed to participate was evaluated in four centers of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia). Psychopathological assessment was performed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Lindenmayers' Factors. Insight and its dimensions were assessed by means of the Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
David B Lindenmayer, William F Laurance
Large old trees are some of the most iconic biota on earth and are integral parts of many terrestrial ecosystems including those in tropical, temperate and boreal forests, deserts, savannas, agro-ecological areas, and urban environments. In this review, we provide new insights into the ecology, function, evolution and management of large old trees through broad cross-disciplinary perspectives from literatures in plant physiology, growth and development, evolution, habitat value for fauna and flora, and conservation management...
July 7, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Dong-Jing Fu, Ibrahim Turkoz, R Bruce Simonson, David Walling, Nina Schooler, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Carla Canuso, Larry Alphs
The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group)...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Geoffrey M Kay, Alessio Mortelliti, Ayesha Tulloch, Philip Barton, Dan Florance, Saul A Cunningham, David B Lindenmayer
Livestock grazing is the most widespread land-use on Earth, and can have negative effects on biodiversity. Yet, many of the mechanisms by which grazing leads to changes in biodiversity remain unresolved. One reason is that conventional grazing studies often target broad treatments rather than specific parameters of grazing (e.g. intensity, duration and frequency), or fail to account for historical grazing effects. We designed a landscape-scale replicated grazing experiment (15,000 km(2) , 97 sites) to examine the impact of: (i) past grazing management and (ii) present grazing parameters (intensity, duration and frequency) on a community of ground-dependent herpetofauna (39 species)...
June 17, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Amirabbas Davoodi, Ramin Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The human lungs exchange air with the external environment via the conducting airways. The application of an anatomically accurate model of the conducting airways can be helpful for simulating gas exchange and fluid distribution throughout the bronchial tree in the lung. METHODS: In the current study, Lindenmayer system (L-system) has been formulated to generate the bronchial tree structure in a human lung. It has been considered that the structure of the bronchial tree is divided into two main segments: 1) The central airways (from the trachea to segmental bronchi) and 2) the dichotomous structure (from segmental bronchi to terminal bronchioles)...
August 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Georgia E Moore, Amara W Lindenmayer, Grace A McConchie, Monique M Ryan, Zoe E Davidson
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease of variable severity. Progressive muscle wasting and impairment in functional ability in SMA have a profound influence on nutritional outcomes. This systematic review summarises the existing evidence on nutrition in SMA. The search strategy was conducted across five databases in August 2014, and updated in March 2016, using key terms relating to growth, nutrition requirements, dietary intake and nutrition management. Studies were selected for inclusion using a two pass method, and data systematically extracted using standardised forms...
July 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
David B Lindenmayer, Wade Blanchard, Christopher MacGregor, Philip Barton, Sam C Banks, Mason Crane, Damian Michael, Sachiko Okada, Laurence Berry, Daniel Florance, Malcolm Gill
Fire is a major ecological process in many ecosystems worldwide. We sought to identify which attributes of fire regimes affect temporal change in the presence and abundance of Australian native mammals. Our detailed study was underpinned by time series data on 11 mammal species at 97 long-term sites in southeastern Australia between 2003 and 2013. We explored how temporal aspects of fire regimes influenced the presence and conditional abundance of species. The key fire regime components examined were: (1) severity of a major fire in 2003, (2) interval between the last major fire (2003) and the fire prior to that, and (3) number of past fires...
March 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Renato Crouzeilles, Michael Curran, Mariana S Ferreira, David B Lindenmayer, Carlos E V Grelle, José M Rey Benayas
Two billion ha have been identified globally for forest restoration. Our meta-analysis encompassing 221 study landscapes worldwide reveals forest restoration enhances biodiversity by 15-84% and vegetation structure by 36-77%, compared with degraded ecosystems. For the first time, we identify the main ecological drivers of forest restoration success (defined as a return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) at both the local and landscape scale. These are as follows: the time elapsed since restoration began, disturbance type and landscape context...
2016: Nature Communications
David B Lindenmayer, William F Laurance
Large old trees play numerous critical ecological roles. They are susceptible to a plethora of interacting threats, in part because the attributes that confer a competitive advantage in intact ecosystems make them maladapted to rapidly changing, human-modified environments. Conserving large old trees will require surmounting a number of unresolved challenges.
June 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Karen Ikin, Ayesha Tulloch, Philip Gibbons, Dean Ansell, Julian Seddon, David Lindenmayer
Multibillion dollar investments in land restoration make it critical that conservation goals are achieved cost-effectively. Approaches developed for systematic conservation planning offer opportunities to evaluate landscape-scale, temporally dynamic biodiversity outcomes from restoration and improve on traditional approaches that focus on the most species-rich plantings. We investigated whether it is possible to apply a complementarity-based approach to evaluate the extent to which an existing network of restoration plantings meets representation targets...
October 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Christian G Widschwendter, Maria A Rettenbacher, Georg Kemmler, Monika Edlinger, Susanne Baumgartner, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Alex Hofer
OBJECTIVE: Besides its toxic effects, bilirubin has been demonstrated to have antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress, which has been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. METHODS: This study investigated the potential association between changes in psychopathology measured by the Lindenmayer model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and changes in total plasma bilirubin concentrations. Data of patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10) starting monotherapy with a new-generation antipsychotic were analyzed at baseline (N = 52) and 2 (n = 40), 4 (n = 46), and 12 weeks (n = 30) after the initiation of treatment...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Gordana Mitrović, Marina Nešković
The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of two-section baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structures, playing a prominent role in the development of health culture...
November 2015: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Amandeep Kaur
Schizoaffective disorder (SAD) is an incapacitating illness that presents clinicians with challenges in terms of both its diagnosis and its psychopharmacological management. Most studies conducted on the psychopharmacological treatment of SAD also include patients with schizophrenia or other psychotic illnesses, thereby providing an unspecific view to the clinician as to the best way of treating patients with SAD. The objective of this article is to review studies on evidence-based treatment of patients with SAD...
April 2016: Drugs
Laurence E Berry, Don A Driscoll, John A Stein, Wade Blanchard, Sam C Banks, Ross A Bradstock, David B Lindenmayer
The increasing frequency of large, high-severity fires threatens the survival of old-growth specialist fauna in fire-prone forests. Within topographically diverse montane forests, areas that experience less severe or fewer fires compared with those prevailing in the landscape may present unique resource opportunities enabling old-growth specialist fauna to survive. Statistical landscape models that identify the extent and distribution of potential fire refuges may assist land managers to incorporate these areas into relevant biodiversity conservation strategies...
December 2015: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Ian D Davies, Geoffrey J Cary, Erin L Landguth, David B Lindenmayer, Sam C Banks
Exploring interactions between ecological disturbance, species' abundances and community composition provides critical insights for ecological dynamics. While disturbance is also potentially an important driver of landscape genetic patterns, the mechanisms by which these patterns may arise by selective and neutral processes are not well-understood. We used simulation to evaluate the relative importance of disturbance regime components, and their interaction with demographic and dispersal processes, on the distribution of genetic diversity across landscapes...
February 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Ayesha I T Tulloch, Alessio Mortelliti, Geoffrey M Kay, Daniel Florance, David Lindenmayer
Approaches to prioritize conservation actions are gaining popularity. However, limited empirical evidence exists on which species might benefit most from threat mitigation and on what combination of threats, if mitigated simultaneously, would result in the best outcomes for biodiversity. We devised a way to prioritize threat mitigation at a regional scale with empirical evidence based on predicted changes to population dynamics-information that is lacking in most threat-management prioritization frameworks that rely on expert elicitation...
August 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Claire N Foster, Chloe F Sato, David B Lindenmayer, Philip S Barton
Managing multiple, interacting disturbances is a key challenge to biodiversity conservation, and one that will only increase as global change drivers continue to alter disturbance regimes. Theoretical studies have highlighted the importance of a mechanistic understanding of stressor interactions for improving the prediction and management of interactive effects. However, many conservation studies are not designed or interpreted in the context of theory and instead focus on case-specific management questions...
April 2016: Global Change Biology
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