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Yulong Tang, Bie Tan, Guangran Li, Jianjun Li, Peng Ji, Yulong Yin
Amino acid transporters play an important role in cell growth and metabolism. MeAIB, a transporter-selective substrate, often represses the adaptive regulation of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), which may act as a receptor and regulate cellular amino acid contents, therefore modulating cellular downstream signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MeAIB to SNAT2 on cell proliferation, protein turnover, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in porcine enterocytes...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chang Liu, Lei Wang, Jiang Yin, Lipan Qi, Yan Feng
The toxicity of cadmium (Cd) has posed major public health concern in crops grown in the Cd-contaminated soils. The effects of five amendments, nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and it combined with lime, zeolite, bone mill and fly ash on Cd immobilization in soils and uptake in potatoes, were investigated in a contaminated soil by pot experiments. The result showed that the applications of combined amendments significantly decreased the bioavailable Cd concentrations extracted by TCLP, DTPA-TEA and MgCl2 in the contaminated soils, and changed the soluble and exchangeable and specifically sorbed fractions to oxide-bound and organic-bound fractions...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Silas Maciel de Oliveira, Rodrigo Estevam Munhoz de Almeida, Ignacio A Ciampitti, Clovis Pierozan Junior, Bruno Cocco Lago, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin, José Laércio Favarin
Early fertilizer nitrogen (N) application on cover crops or their residues during the off-season is a practice adopted in Brazil subtropical conditions under no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) systems. However, the effect of early N application on yield, plant N content, and N recovery efficiency (NRE) for corn is not yet well documented. Five fertilizer N timings in an oat-corn system were evaluated in two studies utilizing an isotopic-labeled N determination, 15N isotope. The N fertilization timings were: (i) oat tillering, (ii) 15 days before corn planting time, over the oat residues, (iii) at corn planting time, (iv) in-season at the three-leaf growth stage (V3), and (v) in-season split application at V3 and six-leaf (V6) growth stages...
2018: PloS One
Alla N Seleznyova, Jim Hanan
Background and Aims: Transport of carbohydrates and water are essential aspects of plant function. The aim of this study was to develop and test the methods for mechanistic modelling of quasi-stationary coupled phloem/xylem transport in the context of functional-structural plant modelling. Methods: The novelty of this approach is in combining analytical and computational methods. The plant structure is modelled at a metamer level with the internodes represented by conduit elements and the lateral organs represented by sources and sinks...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Haiming Tang, Xiaoping Xiao, Chao Li, Ke Wang, Lijun Guo, Kaikai Cheng, Geng Sun, Xiaochen Pan
Soil organic matter (SOM) content and soil aggregation are essential components of soil structure, which plays an important role in soil quality and fertility. Also, the SOM content, aggregation, and humus substances in paddy field were affected by application of fertilization practices. However, there is still limited information about the effects of long-term different fertilization practices on soil aggregation and carbon content in the humic acid (C-HAF), fulvic acid (C-FAF), and humin (C-HUM) fractions under double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Camila Suemi Inagaki, Marcela Mohallem Oliveira, Aldo José Gorgatti Zarbin
This work demonstrates a simple and one-step synthesis of polythiophene/gold nanoparticles (PT/Au) nanocomposite thin films, through a liquid-liquid (L/L) interfacial polymerization route. Starting from an aqueous solution of tetrachloroauric acid (acting both as metallic gold source and oxidizing agent to start the oxidative polymerization of thiophene), and a solution of thiophene in n-hexane, a biphasic L/L system was originated. In the following, the interface acted as a meeting-point for the reactants, and the polymerization reaction took place, leading to self-assembled PT/Au film between the two immiscible liquids...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar, Marie Ange Ngo Bieng, Luz Marina Melgarejo, Julio A Di Rienzo, Fernando Casanoves
AIM AND BACKGROUND: We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use...
2018: PloS One
L Binda, D Fernández, C El Hasi, A Zalts, A D'Onofrio
Lateral movements of the fingers in Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface between two fluids are studied. We show that transverse movements appear when a physical boundary is present; these phenomena have not been explained until now. The boundary prevents one of the fluids from crossing it. Such frontiers can be buoyancy driven as, for example, the frontier to the passage of a less dense solution through a denser solution or when different aggregation states coexist (liquid and gaseous phases)...
January 2018: Chaos
Jeffrey M Young, Athanassios Z Panagiotopoulos
A systematic study of the dependence of electrolyte activity coefficients on simulation system size has been undertaken. Using implicit-solvent simulations for which calculations with low statistical uncertainty are feasible, it was found that the chemical potential for a NaCl model depends strongly on simulation system size at concentrations up to about 0.3 mol/L; system-size effects at higher concentrations are much smaller. Similar trends were confirmed in systems with an explicit solvent. System-size effects on the chemical potential, when uncorrected, can lead to systematic errors in the activity coefficient greater than 10%...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Perla X Viveros-Méndez, Alejandro Gil-Villegas, Said Aranda Espinoza
The phase behavior of hard spherocylinders (HSCs) confined in cylindrical cavities is studied using Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble. Results are presented for different values of the particles' aspect ratio l/σ, where l and σ are the length and diameter of the cylinder and hemispherical caps, respectively. Finite cavities with periodic boundary conditions along the principal axis of the cavities have been considered, where the cavity's principal axis is along the z-direction. We first focus our study in the structure induced by varying the degree of confinement, determining the HSC phase diagram for aspect ratios l/σ = 3, 5, 7, and 9, at a fixed packing fraction η = 0...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Chen Ming, Hongxiao Zhu, Rolf Müller
Foliage echoes could play an important role in the sensory ecology of echolocating bats, but many aspects of their sensory information content remain to be explored. A realistic numerical model for these echoes could support the development of hypotheses for the relationship between foliage properties and echo parameters. In prior work by the authors, a simple foliage model based on circular disks distributed uniformly in space has been developed. In the current work, three key simplifications used in this model have been examined: (i) representing leaves as circular disks, (ii) neglecting shading effects between leaves, and (iii) the uniform spatial distribution of the leaves...
2017: PloS One
Sarah Kobayashi, Anthony Peduto, Milena Simic, Marlene Fransen, Kathryn Refshauge, Jean Mah, Evangelos Pappas
This work aimed to assess inter-rater reliability and agreement of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) grading for patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (OA) and to validate it against the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS). MRI scans from people aged 45 to 75 years with chronic knee pain participating in a randomised clinical trial evaluating dietary supplements were utilised. Fifty participants were randomly selected and scored using the MRI-based K&L grading using axial and sagittal MRI scans...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
Chao Xu, Hao-Xiang Chen, Qian Xiang, Han-Hua Zhu, Shuai Wang, Qi-Hong Zhu, Dao-You Huang, Yang-Zhu Zhang
Soil amendments, such as biochar, have been used to enhance the immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil. A pot experiment was conducted to immobilize the available cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil using peanut shell biochar (PBC) and wheat straw biochar (WBC), and to observe the accumulation of these heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The application of PBC and WBC led to significantly higher pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in paddy soil, while the content of MgCl2 -extractable Cd and Pb was lower than that of untreated soil...
January 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hannah Waterhouse, Jordon Wade, William R Horwath, Martin Burger
Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer formulations vary in their effects as substrates on nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Mitigation of NO emissions can potentially be achieved through appropriate choice of N fertilizer sources combined with stabilizers. The effects of three N fertilizers and urease and nitrification inhibitors on NO emissions, crop N uptake, and yields were determined in a furrow-irrigated corn ( L.) system in Reiff loam soil in the Sacramento Valley of California for one growing season. Aqua ammonia (Aq...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Kazem Zibara, Nabil El Zein, Mirna Sabra, Mohammad Hneino, Hayat Harati, Wael Mohamed, Firas H Kobeissy, Nouhad Kassem
Thyroxine (T4) enters the brain either directly across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or indirectly via the choroid plexus (CP), which forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B). In this study, using isolated perfused CP of the sheep by single-circulation paired tracer and steady-state techniques, T4 transport mechanisms from blood into lateral ventricle CP has been characterized as the first step in the transfer across the B-CSF-B. After removal of sheep brain, the CPs were perfused with (125)I-T4 and (14)C-mannitol...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Xufang Deng, Matthew Hackbart, Robert C Mettelman, Amornrat O'Brien, Anna M Mielech, Guanghui Yi, C Cheng Kao, Susan C Baker
Coronaviruses are positive-sense RNA viruses that generate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) intermediates during replication, yet evade detection by host innate immune sensors. Here we report that coronavirus nonstructural protein 15 (nsp15), an endoribonuclease, is required for evasion of dsRNA sensors. We evaluated two independent nsp15 mutant mouse coronaviruses, designated N15m1 and N15m3, and found that these viruses replicated poorly and induced rapid cell death in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Infection of macrophages with N15m1, which expresses an unstable nsp15, or N15m3, which expresses a catalysis-deficient nsp15, activated MDA5, PKR, and the OAS/RNase L system, resulting in an early, robust induction of type I IFN, PKR-mediated apoptosis, and RNA degradation...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yun Yang, Shaoquan Xiong, Bei Cai, Hui Luo, E Dong, Qiqi Li, Gaili Ji, Chengjian Zhao, Yanjun Wen, Yuquan Wei, Hanshuo Yang
Mitochondria have a central position in innate immune response via the adaptor protein MAVS in mitochondrial outer membrane to limit viral replication by inducing interferon production. Here, we reported that C11orf83, a component of complex III of electronic transfer chain in mitochondrial inner membrane, was a potent antiviral protein independent of interferon production. C11orf83 expression significantly increased in response to viral infection, and endows cells with stronger capability of inhibiting viral replication...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yize Li, Shuvojit Banerjee, Stephen A Goldstein, Beihua Dong, Christina Gaughan, Sneha Rath, Jesse Donovan, Alexei Korennykh, Robert H Silverman, Susan R Weiss
ADAR1 isoforms are adenosine deaminases that edit and destabilize double-stranded RNA reducing its immunostimulatory activities. Mutation of ADAR1 leads to a severe neurodevelopmental and inflammatory disease of children, Aicardi-Goutiéres syndrome. In mice, Adar1 mutations are embryonic lethal but are rescued by mutation of the Mda5 or Mavs genes, which function in IFN induction. However, the specific IFN regulated proteins responsible for the pathogenic effects of ADAR1 mutation are unknown. We show that the cell-lethal phenotype of ADAR1 deletion in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells is rescued by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis of the RNASEL gene or by expression of the RNase L antagonist, murine coronavirus NS2 accessory protein...
March 31, 2017: ELife
Shinya Kagawa, Ryuichi Nishii, Tatsuya Higashi, Hiroshi Yamauchi, Emi Ogawa, Hiroyuki Okudaira, Masato Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi Yoshimoto, Naoto Shikano, Keiichi Kawai
INTRODUCTION: To clarify the difference between system A and L amino acid transport imaging in PET clinical imaging, we focused on the use of α-[N-methyl-11 C]-methylaminoisobutyric acid ([11 C]MeAIB), and compared it with [S-methyl-11 C]-L-methionine ([11 C]MET). The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of accumulation of these two radioactive amino acid analogs with expression of amino acid transporters and cell proliferative activity in carcinoma cells. METHODS: Amino acid uptake inhibitor studies were performed in four human carcinoma cells (epidermal carcinoma A431, colorectal carcinoma LS180, and lung carcinomas PC14/GL and H441/GL) using the radioisotope analogs [3 H]MET and [14 C]MeAIB...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Uilyong Lee, Young-Jun Choi, Geun Joo Choi, Hyun Kang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine on postoperative pain in bimaxillary surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2015 and November 2015, 52 consecutive patients that underwent bimaxillary surgery were recruited to the present study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: group L (1.5 mg/kg bolus and 2 mg/kg/h continuous infusion during the operation) and group C (normal saline)...
December 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
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