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Yun Yang, Shaoquan Xiong, Bei Cai, Hui Luo, E Dong, Qiqi Li, Gaili Ji, Chengjian Zhao, Yanjun Wen, Yuquan Wei, Hanshuo Yang
Mitochondria have a central position in innate immune response via the adaptor protein MAVS in mitochondrial outer membrane to limit viral replication by inducing interferon production. Here, we reported that C11orf83, a component of complex III of electronic transfer chain in mitochondrial inner membrane, was a potent antiviral protein independent of interferon production. C11orf83 expression significantly increased in response to viral infection, and endows cells with stronger capability of inhibiting viral replication...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yize Li, Shuvojit Banerjee, Stephen A Goldstein, Beihua Dong, Christina Gaughan, Sneha Rath, Jesse Donovan, Alexei Korennykh, Robert H Silverman, Susan R Weiss
ADAR1 isoforms are adenosine deaminases that edit and destabilize double-stranded RNA reducing its immunostimulatory activities. Mutation of ADAR1 leads to a severe neurodevelopmental and inflammatory disease of children, Aicardi-Goutiéres syndrome. In mice, Adar1 mutations are embryonic lethal but are rescued by mutation of the Mda5 or Mavs genes, which function in IFN induction. However, the specific IFN regulated proteins responsible for the pathogenic effects of ADAR1 mutation are unknown. We show that the cell-lethal phenotype of ADAR1 deletion in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells is rescued by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis of the RNASEL gene or by expression of the RNase L antagonist, murine coronavirus NS2 accessory protein...
March 31, 2017: ELife
Shinya Kagawa, Ryuichi Nishii, Tatsuya Higashi, Hiroshi Yamauchi, Emi Ogawa, Hiroyuki Okudaira, Masato Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi Yoshimoto, Naoto Shikano, Keiichi Kawai
INTRODUCTION: To clarify the difference between system A and L amino acid transport imaging in PET clinical imaging, we focused on the use of α-[N-methyl-(11)C]-methylaminoisobutyric acid ([(11)C]MeAIB), and compared it with [S-methyl-(11)C]-L-methionine ([(11)C]MET). The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of accumulation of these two radioactive amino acid analogs with expression of amino acid transporters and cell proliferative activity in carcinoma cells. METHODS: Amino acid uptake inhibitor studies were performed in four human carcinoma cells (epidermal carcinoma A431, colorectal carcinoma LS180, and lung carcinomas PC14/GL and H441/GL) using the radioisotope analogs [(3)H]MET and [(14)C]MeAIB...
January 26, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Uilyong Lee, Young-Jun Choi, Geun Joo Choi, Hyun Kang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine on postoperative pain in bimaxillary surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2015 and November 2015, 52 consecutive patients that underwent bimaxillary surgery were recruited to the present study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: group L (1.5 mg/kg bolus and 2 mg/kg/h continuous infusion during the operation) and group C (normal saline)...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
Virginia L Jin, Marty R Schmer, Catherine E Stewart, Aaron J Sindelar, Gary E Varvel, Brian J Wienhold
Over the last 50 years, the most increase in cultivated land area globally has been due to a doubling of irrigated land. Long-term agronomic management impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and global warming potential (GWP) in irrigated systems, however, remain relatively unknown. Here, residue and tillage management effects were quantified by measuring soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) fluxes and SOC changes (ΔSOC) at a long-term, irrigated continuous corn (Zea mays L...
January 30, 2017: Global Change Biology
Ashok Nair, Sitara Khan, Sami Omar, Xiao-Qing Pei, Karen McNeill, Phil Chowienczyk, Andrew James Webb
AIM: The aim of this article is to test the hypothesis that remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) increases circulating endogenous local and systemic plasma (nitrite) during RIPC and ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) as a potential protective mechanism against ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Six healthy male volunteers (mean age 29.5 ± 7.6 years) were randomized in a crossover study to initially receive either RIPC (4 × 5 min cycles) to the left arm, or no RIPC (control), both followed by an ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) sequence (20 min cuff inflation to 200 mmHg, 20 min reperfusion) to the right arm...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Peter A Turner, John M Baker, Timothy J Griffis, Rodney T Venterea
Nitrous oxide (NO), produced primarily in agricultural soils, is a potent greenhouse gas and is the dominant ozone-depleting substance. Efforts to reduce NO emissions are underway, but mitigation results have been inconsistent. The leguminous perennial kura clover ( M. Bieb.) (KC) can grow side-by-side with cash crops in rotational corn ( L.)-soybean ( L.) systems. With biological nitrogen fixation, KC provides land managers an opportunity to reduce external fertilizer inputs, which may diminish problematic NO emissions...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Shuyan Zhao, Lingyan Zhu
The behavior of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (10:2 FTOH) in the systems of soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida), soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil-earthworm-wheat, including degradation in soil, uptake and metabolism in wheat and earthworms were investigated. Several perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) as degradation products of 10:2 FTOH were identified in the soil, plant and earthworms. 10:2 FTOH could be biodegraded to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in soil in the absence or presence of wheat/earthworms, and PFDA was the predominant metabolite...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Hiroyasu Ogawa, Kazu Matsumoto, Nobuo Terabayashi, Kenji Kawashima, Kentaro Takeuchi, Haruhiko Akiyama
OBJECTIVES: Although lubricin plays a role in controlling inflammation and pain as well as being a mechanical lubricant, clinical relevance of lubricin concentration in synovial fluid (SF) is unknown. The purpose was to determine whether lubricin concentration in SF is associated with the clinical status of the knee. METHODS: SF was obtained from 61 knee joints from patients who underwent any knee surgery with several stages of knee osteoarthritis. Lubricin/PRG4 concentration in SF was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
July 20, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
Amirabbas Davoodi, Ramin Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The human lungs exchange air with the external environment via the conducting airways. The application of an anatomically accurate model of the conducting airways can be helpful for simulating gas exchange and fluid distribution throughout the bronchial tree in the lung. METHODS: In the current study, Lindenmayer system (L-system) has been formulated to generate the bronchial tree structure in a human lung. It has been considered that the structure of the bronchial tree is divided into two main segments: 1) The central airways (from the trachea to segmental bronchi) and 2) the dichotomous structure (from segmental bronchi to terminal bronchioles)...
August 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Weilong Ding, Lifeng Xu, Yang Wei, Fuli Wu, Defeng Zhu, Yuping Zhang, Nelson Max
How to select and combine good traits of rice to get high-production individuals is one of the key points in developing crop ideotype cultivation technologies. Existing cultivation methods for producing ideal plants, such as field trials and crop modeling, have some limits. In this paper, we propose a method based on a genetic algorithm (GA) and a functional-structural plant model (FSPM) to optimize plant types of virtual rice by dynamically adjusting phenotypical traits. In this algorithm, phenotypical traits such as leaf angles, plant heights, the maximum number of tiller, and the angle of tiller are considered as input parameters of our virtual rice model...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
I Sneessens, P Veysset, M Benoit, A Lamadon, G Brunschwig
Crop-livestock production is claimed more sustainable than specialized production systems. However, the presence of controversial studies suggests that there must be conditions of mixing crop and livestock productions to allow for higher sustainable performances. Whereas previous studies focused on the impact of crop-livestock interactions on performances, we posit here that crop-livestock organization is a key determinant of farming system sustainability. Crop-livestock organization refers to the percentage of the agricultural area that is dedicated to each production...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
A Schnepf, D Leitner, P F Schweiger, P Scholl, J Jansa
Development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization of roots and the surrounding soil is the central process of mycorrhizal symbiosis, important for ecosystem functioning and commercial inoculum applications. To improve mechanistic understanding of this highly spatially and temporarily dynamic process, we developed a three-dimensional model taking into account growth of the roots and hyphae. It is for the first time that infection within the root system is simulated dynamically and in a spatially resolved way...
April 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Sarah M Collier, Andrew P Dean, Lawrence G Oates, Matthew D Ruark, Randall D Jackson
One of the most widespread approaches for measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from soils involves the use of static chambers. This method is relatively inexpensive, is easily replicated, and is ideally suited to plot-based experimental systems. Among its limitations is the loss of detection sensitivity with increasing chamber height, which creates challenges for deployment in systems including tall vegetation. It is not always possible to avoid inclusion of plants within chambers or to extend chamber height to fully accommodate plant growth...
March 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Theresa K Johnston, Edward Perkins, Duncan C Ferguson, Donald M Cropek
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) can impact the reproductive system by interfering with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. While in vitro testing methods have been developed to screen chemicals for endocrine disruption, extrapolation of in vitro response to in vivo action shows inconsistent accuracy. We describe here our tissue co-culture of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) HPG axis and liver (HPG-L) as a tissue explant model that mimics in vivo results. Brain (hypothalamus), pituitary, gonad, and liver tissue explants from adult fish were examined for function both individually and in co-culture to determine combinations and conditions that could replicate in vivo behavior...
March 2, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Yize Li, Shuvojit Banerjee, Yuyan Wang, Stephen A Goldstein, Beihua Dong, Christina Gaughan, Robert H Silverman, Susan R Weiss
The 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase (OAS)-RNase L system is an IFN-induced antiviral pathway. RNase L activity depends on 2-5A, synthesized by OAS. Although all three enzymatically active OAS proteins in humans--OAS1, OAS2, and OAS3--synthesize 2-5A upon binding dsRNA, it is unclear which are responsible for RNase L activation during viral infection. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) technology to engineer human A549-derived cell lines in which each of the OAS genes or RNase L is knocked out...
February 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Min Hyung Kang, Hyun Joon Yoo, Yie Hyuk Kwon, Ho Yub Yoon, Sang Gon Lee, Sung Rae Kim, Dong Woo Yeom, Myung Joo Kang, Young Wook Choi
As a novel carrier for folate receptor (FR)-targeted intracellular delivery, we designed two types of targetable liposomal systems using Pep-1 peptide (Pep1) and folic acid as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and target molecule, respectively. Folate-linked Pep1 (Fol-Pep1) was synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and verified using (1)H NMR and far-ultraviolet (UV) circular dichroism (CD). The chimeric ligand (Fol-Pep1)-modified liposome (cF-P-L) was prepared by coupling Fol-Pep1 to maleimide-derivatized liposomes at various ratios...
December 7, 2015: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Kazem Zibara, Ali El-Zein, Wissam Joumaa, Mohammad El-Sayyad, Stefania Mondello, Nouhad Kassem
BACKGROUND: Thyroxine (T4) hormone is synthesized by the thyroid gland and then released into the systemic circulation where it binds to a number of proteins. Dysfunction in T4 transport mechanisms has been demonstrated in multiple central nervous system (CNS) diseases including Alzheimer's disease. In the presence of different compounds that inhibit potential T4 transport mechanisms, this study investigated the transfer of T4 from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into Choroid Plexus (CP) and other brain tissues...
2015: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Maria Arlene Adviento-Borbe, Gay Necita Padilla, Cameron M Pittelkow, Maegen Simmonds, Chris van Kessel, Bruce Linquist
Large CH and NO fluxes can occur from flooded rice ( L.) systems following end-of-season drainage, which contribute significantly to the total growing-season greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine under what soil water conditions these emissions occur. In three field studies, GHG fluxes and dissolved CH in the soil pore water were measured before and after drainage. Across all fields, approximately 10% of the total seasonal CH emissions and 27% of the total seasonal NO emissions occurred following the final drain, confirming the importance of quantifying postdrainage CH and NO emissions...
July 2015: Journal of Environmental Quality
Sanjaya Dhakal, Sherry L Burrer, Carla A Winston, Achintya Dey, Umed Ajani, Samuel L Groseclose
Objective Electronic laboratory reporting has been promoted as a public health priority. The Office of the U.S. National Coordinator for Health Information Technology has endorsed two coding systems: Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) for laboratory test orders and Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) for test results. Materials and Methods We examined LOINC and SNOMED CT code use in electronic laboratory data reported in 2011 by 63 non-federal hospitals to BioSense electronic syndromic surveillance system...
2015: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
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