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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911483/effects-of-dietary-heme-iron-and-exercise-training-on-abdominal-fat-accumulation-and-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#1
Masanori Katsumura, Shoko Takagi, Hana Oya, Shohei Tamura, Takaoki Saneyasu, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911317/alzheimer-s-disease-histological-and%C3%A2-behavioral-manifestations-in%C3%A2-transgenic-mice-correlate-with%C3%A2-specific%C3%A2-gut-microbiome-state
#2
Liang Shen, Lu Liu, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disease and is the most common form of dementia. In recent years, many studies indicated the association of gut microbiota changes with metabolic diseases. However, the gut microbiota of AD has not been investigated. The present study aims to compare the gut microbiota in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of AD and C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) mice by pyrosequencing the V3 and V4 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The 3-, 6-, and 8-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice were used to explore the effects of age on the gut microbiota...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911087/%C3%AE-amyrin-attenuates-high-fructose-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#3
Pankaj Prabhakar, K H Reeta, Subir Kumar Maulik, Amit Kumar Dinda, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
This study investigated the effect of α-amyrin (a pentacyclic triterpene) on high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into different groups. The control group was fed normal rat chow diet. The HFD group was fed HFD (60%; w/w) for 42 days. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, orally, once daily) was used as a standard drug. α-Amyrin was administered in 3 doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, orally, once daily along with HFD). Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were estimated...
September 2, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910002/the-rice-pentatricopeptide-repeat-gene-tcd10-is-needed-for-chloroplast-development-under-cold-stress
#4
Lanlan Wu, Jun Wu, Yanxia Liu, Xiaodi Gong, Jianlong Xu, Dongzhi Lin, Yanjun Dong
BACKGROUND: Chloroplast plays a vital role in plant development and growth. The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene family is one of the largest gene families in plants. In addition, cold stress affects a broad spectrum of cellular components, e.g. chloroplast, and metabolism in plants. However, the regulatory mechanism for rice PPR genes on chloroplast development still remains elusive under cold stress. RESULT: In this paper, we characterized a new rice PPR gene mutant tcd10 (thermo-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient mutant 10) that exhibits the albino phenotype, malformed chloroplast and could not survive after the 5-leaf stage when grown at 20 °C, but does the normal phenotype at 32 °C...
December 2016: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909049/control-of-secreted-protein-gene-expression-and-the-mammalian-secretome-by-the-metabolic-regulator-pgc-1%C3%AE
#5
Neri Minsky, Robert G Roeder
Secreted proteins serve pivotal roles in the development of multicellular organisms, acting as structural matrix, extracellular enzymes and signal molecules. However, how the secretome is regulated remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate, unexpectedly, that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), a critical transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, functions to down-regulate expression of diverse genes encoding secreted molecules and extracellular matrix (ECM) components to modulate the secretome...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907090/forkhead-box-c1-regulates-human-primary-keratinocyte-terminal-differentiation
#6
Lianghua Bin, Liehua Deng, Hengwen Yang, Leqing Zhu, Xiao Wang, Michael G Edwards, Brittany Richers, Donald Y M Leung
The epidermis serves as a critical protective barrier between the internal and external environment of the human body. Its remarkable barrier function is established through the keratinocyte (KC) terminal differentiation program. The transcription factors specifically regulating terminal differentiation remain largely unknown. Using a RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling approach, we found that forkhead box c 1 (FOXC1) was significantly up-regulated in human normal primary KC during the course of differentiation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907077/transcriptome-and-multivariable-data-analysis-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-under-different-dissolved-oxygen-conditions-in-bioreactors
#7
Yang Sun, Wenwen Guo, Fen Wang, Feng Peng, Yankun Yang, Xiaofeng Dai, Xiuxia Liu, Zhonghu Bai
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important factor in the fermentation process of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a widely used aerobic microbe in bio-industry. Herein, we described RNA-seq for C. glutamicum under different DO levels (50%, 30% and 0%) in 5 L bioreactors. Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) models were used to analyze the RNA-seq and metabolism data to investigate the global effect of DO on the transcriptional distinction of the substance and energy metabolism of C. glutamicum. The results showed that there were 39 and 236 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under the 50% and 0% DO conditions, respectively, compared to the 30% DO condition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906710/who-s-your-daddy-paternal-inheritance-of-metabolic-disease-risk
#8
Elvira Isganaitis, Harumi Suehiro, Connie Cardona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906584/effects-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-beta-signaling-pathway-on-the-differentiation-of-chicken-embryonic-stem-cells-into-male-germ-cells
#9
Yani Zhang, Yingjie Wang, Qisheng Zuo, Dong Li, Wenhui Zhang, Chao Lian, Beibei Tang, Tianrong Xiao, Man Wang, Kehua Wang, Bichun Li
The objectives of the present study were to screen for key gene and signaling pathways involved in the production of male germ cells in poultry and to investigate the effects of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway on the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into male germ cells. The ESCs, primordial germ cells, and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) were sorted using flow cytometry for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. Male chicken ESCs were induced using 40 ng/mL of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905947/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-potentially-inhibits-microrna-33-expression-to-affect-macrophage-actions
#10
EDITORIAL
Yuan Guo, Fei Luo, Yuhong Yi, Danyan Xu
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with complex pathological processes. MicroRNA-33 (miR-33), a novel non-coding RNA that coexpresses with sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), affects macrophage actions to prevent atherosclerosis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator of lipid metabolism, especially for macrophage-related cholesterol export, but the mechanism is not fully studied. Interestingly, FGF21 has been evidenced to prevent atherosclerosis via inhibiting SREBP-2 expression...
December 1, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905870/transcriptomic-and-proteomic-approach-to-identify-differentially-expressed-genes-and-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-mutants-lacking-chloroplastic-1-and-cytosolic-fbpases-reveals-several-levels-of-metabolic-regulation
#11
Mauricio Soto-Suárez, Antonio J Serrato, José A Rojas-González, Rocío Bautista, Mariam Sahrawy
BACKGROUND: During the photosynthesis, two isoforms of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), the chloroplastidial (cFBP1) and the cytosolic (cyFBP), catalyse the first irreversible step during the conversion of triose phosphates (TP) to starch or sucrose, respectively. Deficiency in cyFBP and cFBP1 isoforms provokes an imbalance of the starch/sucrose ratio, causing a dramatic effect on plant development when the plastidial enzyme is lacking. RESULTS: We study the correlation between the transcriptome and proteome profile in rosettes and roots when cFBP1 or cyFBP genes are disrupted in Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutants...
December 1, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905546/transcriptome-analysis-confers-a-complex-disease-resistance-network-in-wild-rice-oryza-meyeriana-against-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#12
Xiao-Jie Cheng, Bin He, Lin Chen, Su-Qin Xiao, Jian Fu, Yue Chen, Teng-Qiong Yu, Zai-Quan Cheng, Hong Feng
Rice bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the devastating diseases of rice. It is well established that the wild rice Oryza meyeriana is immune to BB. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis was carried out by RNA sequencing of O. meyeriana leaves, inoculated with Xoo to understand the transcriptional responses and interaction between the host and pathogen. Totally, 57,313 unitranscripts were de novo assembled from 58.7 Gb clean reads and 14,143 unitranscripts were identified after Xoo inoculation...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903900/autoregulation-of-mbnl1-function-by-exon-1-exclusion-from-mbnl1-transcript
#13
Patryk Konieczny, Ewa Stepniak-Konieczna, Katarzyna Taylor, Łukasz J Sznajder, Krzysztof Sobczak
Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNLs) are regulators of RNA metabolism. During tissue differentiation the level of MBNLs increases, while their functional insufficiency plays a crucial role in myotonic dystrophy (DM). Deep sequencing of RNA molecules cross-linked to immunoprecipitated protein particles (CLIP-seq) revealed that MBNL1 binds to MBNL1 exon 1 (e1) encoding both the major part of 5'UTR and an amino-terminal region of MBNL1 protein. We tested several hypotheses regarding the possible autoregulatory function of MBNL1 binding to its own transcript...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903888/sirna-carrying-an-e-vinylphosphonate-moiety-at-the-5-end-of-the-guide-strand-augments-gene-silencing-by-enhanced-binding-to-human-argonaute-2
#14
Elad Elkayam, Rubina Parmar, Christopher R Brown, Jennifer L Willoughby, Christopher S Theile, Muthiah Manoharan, Leemor Joshua-Tor
Efficient gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in vivo requires the recognition and binding of the 5'- phosphate of the guide strand of an siRNA by the Argonaute protein. However, for exogenous siRNAs it is limited by the rapid removal of the 5'- phosphate of the guide strand by metabolic enzymes. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of human Argonaute-2 in complex with the metabolically stable 5'-(E)-vinylphosphonate (5'-E-VP) guide RNA at 2.5-Å resolution. The structure demonstrates how the 5' binding site in the Mid domain of human Argonaute-2 is able to adjust the key residues in the 5'-nucleotide binding pocket to compensate for the change introduced by the modified nucleotide...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903830/early-life-sugar-consumption-affects-the-rat-microbiome-independently-of-obesity
#15
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Roshonda B Jones, Anthony A Fodor, Michael I Goran, Scott E Kanoski
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has been implicated in various metabolic and neurocognitive disorders and is heavily influenced by dietary factors, but there is a paucity of research on the effects of added sugars on the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVE: With the use of a rodent model, our goal was to determine how added-sugar consumption during the juvenile and adolescent phase of development affects the gut microbiome. METHODS: Forty-two juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats [postnatal day (PND) 26; 50-70 g] were given access to 1 of 3 different 11%-carbohydrate solutions designed to model a range of monosaccharide ratios commonly consumed in sugar-sweetened beverages: 1) 35% fructose:65% glucose, 2) 50% fructose:50% glucose, 3) 65% fructose:35% glucose, and 4) control (no sugar)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902747/joint-profiling-of-mirnas-and-mrnas-reveals-mirna-mediated-gene-regulation-in-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-obesity-model
#16
Caroline M Junker Mentzel, Ferhat Alkan, Helle Keinicke, Mette J Jacobsen, Jan Gorodkin, Merete Fredholm, Susanna Cirera
Obesity and its comorbidities are an increasing challenge for both affected individuals and health care systems, worldwide. In obese individuals, perturbation of expression of both protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNA) are seen in obesity-relevant tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle). miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have important regulatory roles in a wide range of biological processes, including obesity. Rodents are widely used animal models for human diseases including obesity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901120/complete-genome-sequence-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-a-novel-marine-strain-bacillus-weihaiensis-reveals-the-mechanism-of-brown-algae-degradation
#17
Yueming Zhu, Peng Chen, Yunjuan Bao, Yan Men, Yan Zeng, Jiangang Yang, Jibin Sun, Yuanxia Sun
A novel marine strain representing efficient degradation ability toward brown algae was isolated, identified, and assigned to Bacillus weihaiensis Alg07. The alga-associated marine bacteria promote the nutrient cycle and perform important functions in the marine ecosystem. The de novo sequencing of the B. weihaiensis Alg07 genome was carried out. Results of gene annotation and carbohydrate-active enzyme analysis showed that the strain harbored enzymes that can completely degrade alginate and laminarin, which are the specific polysaccharides of brown algae...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900684/dna-rna-and-protein-based-stable-isotope-probing-for-high-throughput-biomarker-analysis-of-active-microorganisms
#18
Eleanor Jameson, Martin Taubert, Sara Coyotzi, Yin Chen, Özge Eyice, Hendrik Schäfer, J Colin Murrell, Josh D Neufeld, Marc G Dumont
Stable-isotope probing (SIP) enables researchers to target active populations within complex microbial communities, which is achieved by providing growth substrates enriched in heavy isotopes, usually in the form of (13)C, (18)O, or (15)N. After growth on the substrate and subsequent extraction of microbial biomarkers, typically nucleic acids or proteins, the SIP technique is used for the recovery and analysis of isotope-labeled biomarkers from active microbial populations. In the years following the initial development of DNA- and RNA-based SIP, it was common practice to characterize labeled populations by targeted gene analysis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900551/transcriptional-regulation-of-snrnas-and-its-significance-for-plant-development
#19
Misato Ohtani
Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) represents a distinct class of non-coding RNA molecules. As these molecules have fundamental roles in RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing and ribosomal RNA processing, it is essential that their transcription be tightly regulated in eukaryotic cells. The genome of each organism contains hundreds of snRNA genes. Although the structures of these genes are highly diverse among organisms, the trans-acting factors that regulate snRNA transcription are evolutionarily conserved. Recent studies of the Arabidopsis thaliana srd2-1 mutant, which is defective in the snRNA transcription factor, provide insight into the physiological significance of snRNA regulation in plant development...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900262/impaired-histone-deacetylases-5-and-6-expression-mimics-the-effects-of-obesity-and-hypoxia-on-adipocyte-function
#20
Julien Bricambert, Dimitri Favre, Saška Brajkovic, Amélie Bonnefond, Raphael Boutry, Roberto Salvi, Valérie Plaisance, Mohamed Chikri, Giulia Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Bart Staels, Vittorio Giusti, Robert Caiazzo, François Pattou, Gérard Waeber, Philippe Froguel, Amar Abderrahmani
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to investigate the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in adipocyte function associated with obesity and hypoxia. METHODS: Total proteins and RNA were prepared from human visceral adipose tissues (VAT) of human obese and normal weight subjects and from white adipose tissue (WAT) of C57Bl6-Rj mice fed a normal or high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. HDAC activity was measured by colorimetric assay whereas the gene and protein expression were monitored by real-time PCR and by western blotting, respectively...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
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