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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346650/persistence-of-zika-virus-after-birth-clinical-virological-neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-documentation-in-a-5-month-infant-with-congenital-zika-syndrome
#1
Leila Chimelli, Sheila Moura Pone, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Zilton Farias Meira Vasconcelos, Andrea Araújo Zin, Daniela Prado Cunha, Nathalia Raposo Thompson, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira, Clayton A Wiley, Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone
During the Zika epidemic in Brazil, a baby was born at term with microcephaly and arthrogryposis. The mother had Zika symptoms at 10 weeks of gestation. At 17 weeks, ultrasound showed cerebral malformation and ventriculomegaly. At 24 weeks, the amniotic fluid contained ZIKV RNA and at birth, placenta and maternal blood were also positive using RT-qPCR. At birth the baby urine contained ZIKV RNA, whereas CSF at birth and urine at 17 days did not. Seizures started at 6 days. EEG was abnormal and CT scan showed cerebral atrophy, calcifications, lissencephaly, ventriculomegaly, and cerebellar hypoplasia...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346438/colonization-of-the-cervicovaginal-space-with-gardnerella-vaginalis-leads-to-local-inflammation-and-cervical-remodeling-in-pregnant-mice
#2
Luz-Jeannette Sierra, Amy G Brown, Guillermo O Barilá, Lauren Anton, Carrie E Barnum, Snehal S Shetye, Louis J Soslowsky, Michal A Elovitz
The role of the cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome in regulating cervical function during pregnancy is poorly understood. Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) is the most common bacteria associated with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). While BV has been associated with preterm birth (PTB), clinical trials targeting BV do not decrease PTB rates. It remains unknown if G. vaginalis is capable of triggering molecular, biomechanical and cellular events that could lead to PTB. The objective of this study was to determine if cervicovaginal colonization with G...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346266/the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-melatonin-during-fetal-development
#3
REVIEW
Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Jinyoung Won, Yonggeun Hong
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345032/mirna-320a-inhibits-trophoblast-cell-invasion-by-targeting-estrogen-related-receptor-gamma
#4
Tian Gao, Mou Deng, Qian Wang
AIM: MicroRNAs (miRs) play an essential role in the modulation of trophoblast function. We explored miR-320a expression in the human placenta. In addition, we report the promising effect and target functional loop of miR-320a in trophoblasts. METHODS: MiR-320a expression was investigated in both pre-eclamptic and healthy placenta tissues by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction to determine how miR-320a affected invasion, proliferation and migration in trophoblasts...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343868/galectin-13-a-different-prototype-galectin-does-not-bind-%C3%AE-galacto-sides-and-forms-dimers-via-intermolecular-disulfide-bridges-between-cys-136-and-cys-138
#5
Jiyong Su, Yue Wang, Yunlong Si, Jin Gao, Chenyang Song, Linlin Cui, Runjie Wu, Guihua Tai, Yifa Zhou
During pregnancy, placental protein-13 (galectin-13) is highly expressed in the placenta and fetal tissue, and less so in maternal serum that is related to pre-eclampsia. To understand galectin-13 function at the molecular level, we solved its crystal structure and discovered that its dimer is stabilized by two disulfide bridges between Cys136 and Cys138 and six hydrogen bonds involving Val135, Val137, and Gln139. Native PAGE and gel filtration demonstrate that this is not a crystallization artifact because dimers also form in solution...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343712/zika-virus-infection-in-pregnant-rhesus-macaques-causes-placental-dysfunction-and-immunopathology
#6
Alec J Hirsch, Victoria H J Roberts, Peta L Grigsby, Nicole Haese, Matthias C Schabel, Xiaojie Wang, Jamie O Lo, Zheng Liu, Christopher D Kroenke, Jessica L Smith, Meredith Kelleher, Rebecca Broeckel, Craig N Kreklywich, Christopher J Parkins, Michael Denton, Patricia Smith, Victor DeFilippis, William Messer, Jay A Nelson, Jon D Hennebold, Marjorie Grafe, Lois Colgin, Anne Lewis, Rebecca Ducore, Tonya Swanson, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Rhonda MacAllister, Ashlee V Moses, Terry K Morgan, Antonio E Frias, Daniel N Streblow
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy leads to an increased risk of fetal growth restriction and fetal central nervous system malformations, which are outcomes broadly referred to as the Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Here we infect pregnant rhesus macaques and investigate the impact of persistent ZIKV infection on uteroplacental pathology, blood flow, and fetal growth and development. Despite seemingly normal fetal growth and persistent fetal-placenta-maternal infection, advanced non-invasive in vivo imaging studies reveal dramatic effects on placental oxygen reserve accompanied by significantly decreased oxygen permeability of the placental villi...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342401/matched-placental-and-circulating-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites-are-genetically-homologous-at-the-var2csa-id1-dbl2x-locus-by-deep-sequencing
#7
Andreea Waltmann, Jaymin C Patel, Kyaw L Thwai, Nicholas J Hathaway, Christian M Parobek, Achille Massougbodji, Nadine Fievet, Jeffery A Bailey, Philippe Deloron, Jonathan J Juliano, Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Steven R Meshnick
In pregnancy-associated malaria, infected erythrocytes accumulate in the placenta. It is unclear if in polyclonal infections this results in distinct peripheral and placental parasite populations. We used long amplicon deep sequencing of Plasmodium falciparum var2csa ID1-DBL2X from 15 matched peripheral and placental samples collected at delivery from a high transmission area to determine genetic homology. Despite substantial sequence variation and detecting 23 haplotypes, the matched pairs mostly contained the same genetic variants, with 11 pairs sharing 100% of their variants, whereas others showed some heterogeneity...
January 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341106/the-effect-of-surgery-on-subsequent-pregnancy-outcomes-among-patients-with-cesarean-scar-diverticulum
#8
Xian-Ying Cheng, Li Cheng, Wen-Juan Li, Ling-Hua Qian, Yong-Qin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether surgical treatment of cesarean scar diverticulum (CSD) reduced adverse outcomes during the subsequent pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted using the medical records of pregnant women with CSD who attended a single hospital in Hangzhou, China, between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016. Baseline characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were compared between the surgery group and the no surgery group...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339719/mir-181a-5p-suppresses-invasion-and-migration-of-htr-8-svneo-cells-by-directly-targeting-igf2bp2
#9
Liang Wu, Wen-Yan Song, Ya Xie, Lin-Li Hu, Xiao-Man Hou, Rui Wang, Yang Gao, Jing-Na Zhang, Le Zhang, Wei-Wei Li, Cheng Zhu, Zhi-Ying Gao, Ying-Pu Sun
Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disease that may cause maternal, neonatal and fetal morbidity and mortality and exists in 3-5% of pregnancies worldwide. The discovery of dysregulated microRNAs and their roles in placental development has provided a new avenue for elucidating the mechanism involved in this pregnancy-specific disorder. Here, the roles of human miR-181a-5p, a microRNA that is increased in both the plasma and placenta of severe pre-eclamptic patients, in invasion and migration of trophoblasts were investigated...
January 16, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339463/cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-induced-by-porphyromonas-gingivalis-requires-jnk-and-p53-mediated-p38-activation-in-human-trophoblasts
#10
Hiroaki Inaba, Atsuo Amano, Richard J Lamont, Yukitaka Murakami, Michiyo Matsumoto-Nakano
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, has been implicated as a causative agent of preterm delivery of low-birth-weight infants. We previously reported that P. gingivalis activated cellular DNA damage signaling pathways and ERK1/2 that lead to G1 arrest and apoptosis in extravillous trophoblast cells (HTR-8 cells) derived from the human placenta. In the present study, we further examined alternative signaling pathways mediating cellular damage caused by P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis infection of HTR-8 cells induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, while their inhibitors diminished both G1 arrest and apoptosis...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339451/inhibition-of-5%C3%AE-reductase-alters-pregnane-metabolism-in-the-late-pregnant-mare
#11
Michelle Wynn, Barry A Ball, Erin Lea Legacki, Alan Conley, Shavahn Loux, John May, Alejandro Esteller-Vico, Scott D Stanley, Kirsten Scoggin, Edward L Squires, Mats Ht Troedsson
In the latter half of gestation in the mare, progesterone concentrations decline to near undetectable levels while other 5α-reduced pregnanes are elevated. Of these, 5α-dihydroprogesterone and allopregnanolone have been reported to have important roles in either pregnancy maintenance or fetal quiescence. During this time, the placenta is necessary for pregnane metabolism, with the enzyme 5α-reductase being required for the conversion of progesterone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of a 5α-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride, on pregnane metabolism (pregnenolone, progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone, 20α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-3-one, 5α-pregnane-3β,20α-diol, and allopregnanolone), to determine circulating dutasteride concentrations, and to assess effects of dutasteride treatment on gestational parameters...
January 16, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337272/circulating-adipokines-and-mrna-expression-in-adipose-tissue-and-the-placenta-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Panayoula C Tsiotra, Panagiotis Halvatsiotis, Konstantinos Patsouras, Eirini Maratou, George Salamalekis, Sotirios A Raptis, George Dimitriadis, Eleni Boutati
Maternal adipose tissue and the placenta secrete various molecules commonly called adipokines such as chemerin, omentin-1, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin that are important players in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a state of glucose intolerance characterized by β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To examine whether circulating adipokines and their mRNA expression in the adipose tissue and the placenta are altered in GDM pregnancy, we compared 15 GDM women [obese (BMI > 30) and non-obese (BMI < 30)] to 23 NGT (normal glucose tolerance) women [obese and non-obese], at the time of the Cesarean section...
January 11, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336106/best-practice-perioperative-strategies-and-surgical-techniques-for-preventing-caesarean-section-surgical-site-infections-a-systematic-review-of-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#13
Elizabeth K Martin, Michael M Beckmann, Louise N Barnsbee, Kate A Halton, Katharina M D Merollini, Nicholas Graves
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) following caesarean section is a problem for women and health services. Caesarean section is a high volume procedure and the estimated incidence of SSI may be as high as 9%. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify a suite of perioperative strategies and surgical techniques that reduce the risk of SSI following caesarean section. SEARCH STRATEGY: Six electronic databases were searched to systematically review literature reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analyses published from 2006 to 2016...
January 16, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335435/placental-morphology-is-associated-with-maternal-depressive-symptoms-during-pregnancy-and-toddler-psychiatric-problems
#14
Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Melissa Jane Cudmore, Eva Haeussner, Christoph Schmitz, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Esa Hämäläinen, Pia M Villa, Susanna Mehtälä, Eero Kajantie, Hannele Laivuori, Rebecca M Reynolds, Hans-Georg Frank, Katri Räikkönen
Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy predict increased psychiatric problems in children. The underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. Hence, we examined whether alterations in the morphology of 88 term placentas were associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and psychiatric problems in 1.9-3.1-years old (Mean = 2.1 years) toddlers. Maternal depressive symptoms were rated biweekly during pregnancy with the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (n = 86)...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335024/sex-differences-in-the-late-first-trimester-human-placenta-transcriptome
#15
Tania L Gonzalez, Tianyanxin Sun, Alexander F Koeppel, Bora Lee, Erica T Wang, Charles R Farber, Stephen S Rich, Lauren W Sundheimer, Rae A Buttle, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Stephen D Turner, John Williams, Mark O Goodarzi, Margareta D Pisarska
BACKGROUND: Development of the placenta during the late first trimester is critical to ensure normal growth and development of the fetus. Developmental differences in this window such as sex-specific variation are implicated in later placental disease states, yet gene expression at this time is poorly understood. METHODS: RNA-sequencing was performed to characterize the transcriptome of 39 first trimester human placentas using chorionic villi following genetic testing (17 females, 22 males)...
January 15, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334319/effect-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-in-the-placenta-and-umbilical-cord-in-pregnant-mice-with-low-birth-weight
#16
Sayuri Udagawa, Sayaka Katagiri, Shogo Maekawa, Yasuo Takeuchi, Rina Komazaki, Anri Ohtsu, Naoki Sasaki, Takahiko Shiba, Kazuki Watanabe, Kazuyuki Ishihara, Noriko Sato, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Yuichi Izumi
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence indicates an association between periodontitis and delivery outcome; however, the mechanism is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) infection on delivery outcome in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacteremia was induced in pregnant Slc:ICR mice (8 weeks old) by intravenous injection of Pg. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (CO), and those receiving Pg injection at gestational day 1 (GD1), gestational day 15 (GD15) or every day (ED)...
January 15, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334310/dendritic-polyglycerol-nanoparticles-show-charge-dependent-bio-distribution-in-early-human-placental-explants-and-reduce-hcg-secretion
#17
Herbert Juch, Liudmila Nikitina, Sabine Reimann, Martin Gauster, Gottfried Dohr, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Denise Hoch, Karin Kornmueller, Rainer Haag
A thorough understanding of nanoparticle bio-distribution at the feto-maternal interface will be a prerequisite for their diagnostic or therapeutic application in women of childbearing age and for teratologic risk assessment. Therefore, the tissue interaction of biocompatible dendritic polyglycerol nanoparticles (dPG-NPs) with first- trimester human placental explants were analyzed and compared to less sophisticated trophoblast-cell based models. First-trimester human placental explants, BeWo cells and primary trophoblast cells from human term placenta were exposed to fluorescence labeled, ∼5 nm dPG-NPs, with differently charged surfaces, at concentrations of 1 µM and 10 nM, for 6 and 24 h...
January 15, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332623/gene-expression-and-lymphocyte-population-at-the-fetal-maternal-interface-in-sheep-pregnancies-established-by-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#18
Jason A Koroghli, Elizabeth Floyd, Misha Regouski, Kerry Rood, Kirsten Gash, Kip Panter, Rusty Stott, Christopher J Davies, Irina A Polejaeva, Heloisa M Rutigliano
The hypothesis of this study was that the leukocyte populations and expression levels of genes related to immune response, growth factors and apoptosis would be altered at the fetal-maternal interface in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-generated sheep pregnancies. Placental and endometrial samples from sheep pregnancies established by SCNT and natural breeding (control) were collected at 45 days and at term. Expression of genes related to growth factors, apoptosis and immune response was examined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
January 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332067/incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-residual-anastomoses-in-twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome-treated-with-laser-surgery-a-15-year-single-center-experience
#19
P J C Knijnenburg, F Slaghekke, L S A Tollenaar, J M van Klink, D P Zhao, J M Middeldorp, M C Haak, F J Klumper, D Oepkes, E Lopriore
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of residual anastomoses (RA) after laser therapy for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTS) and investigate risk factors for incomplete laser surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All available TTS placentas treated with laser at our center between 2002 and 2016 were injected with color dye to assess the presence of RA. We evaluated the incidence of RA over the past 15 years by dividing the cohort into three time periods, and studied the association with risk factors and neonatal outcome...
January 12, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331935/disruption-of-thyroid-hormone-sulfotransferase-activity-by-brominated-flame-retardant-chemicals-in-the-human-choriocarcinoma-placenta-cell-line-bewo
#20
Christopher P Leonetti, Craig M Butt, Heather M Stapleton
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis through multiple mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymes that regulate intracellular levels of THs, such as sulfotransferases (SULTs). The placenta plays a critical role in helping to maintain TH levels during fetal development and expresses SULTs. This is concerning given that disruption of TH regulation within the placenta could potentially harm the developing fetus. In this study, we investigated the effects of two polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), two hydroxylated PBDEs, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) on TH SULT activity in a choriocarcinoma placenta cell line (BeWo)...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
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