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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550453/exchange-of-genetic-sequences-between-viruses-and-hosts
#1
Robin A Weiss
Although genetic transfer between viruses and vertebrate hosts occurs less frequently than gene flow between bacteriophages and prokaryotes, it is extensive and has affected the evolution of both parties. With retroviruses, the integration of proviral DNA into chromosomal DNA can result in the activation of adjacent host gene expression and in the transduction of host transcripts into retroviral genomes as oncogenes. Yet in contrast to lysogenic phage, there is little evidence that viral oncogenes persist in a chain of natural transmission or that retroviral transduction is a significant driver of the horizontal spread of host genes...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549829/impact-of-chlorpyrifos-on-human-villous-trophoblasts-and-chorionic-villi
#2
M E Ridano, A C Racca, J B Flores-Martin, R Fretes, C L Bandeira, L Reyna, E Bevilacqua, S Genti-Raimondi, G M Panzetta-Dutari
Placental barrier regulates maternal-fetal interchange protecting the baby from damage caused by substances found in the uterine environment or circulating in the vascular system. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are a paramount group of environmental pollutants used in intensive agriculture for protection against diseases and pests. While many studies have reported an increased risk of pregnancy alterations in pregnant women exposed to OPs, few have analyzed the effects caused by these pesticides in the placenta...
May 23, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549467/the-prediction-diagnosis-and-management-of-complications-in-monochorionic-twin-pregnancies-the-ommit-optimal-management-of-monochorionic-twins-study
#3
Fiona L Mackie, R Katie Morris, Mark D Kilby
BACKGROUND: Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at increased risk of complications due to sharing a single placenta and potentially developing unbalanced vascular anastomoses. Complications include twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) which affects 10-15% monochorionic twins, and if untreated has a 70-90% perinatal loss rate. We are currently unable to predict which twins will develop complications or to what severity. We have previously shown differences in angiogenic and placental growth factors in maternal blood in pregnancies complicated by TTTS compared to twin pregnancies not complicated by TTTS but matched for gestation...
May 26, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549439/anesthetic-management-of-cesarean-section-in-cases-of-placenta-accreta-with-versus-without-abdominal-aortic-balloon-occlusion-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Qinjun Chu, Dan Shen, Long He, Hongwei Wang, Xianlan Zhao, Zhimin Chen, Yanli Wang, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Placenta accreta (PA), a severe complication during delivery, is closely linked with massive hemorrhage which could endanger the lives of both mother and baby. Moreover, the incidence of PA has increased dramatically with the increasing rate of cesarean deliveries in the past few decades. Therefore, studies evaluating the effects of different perioperative managements based on different modalities in the treatment of PA are necessary. Among the numerous treatment measures, prophylactic abdominal aortic balloon occlusion (AABO) in combination with cesarean section for PA seems to be more advantageous than others...
May 26, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549426/effect-of-iptp-on-plasmodium-falciparum-antibody-levels-among-pregnant-women-and-their-babies-in-a-sub-urban-coastal-area-in-ghana
#5
Judith K Stephens, Eric Kyei-Baafour, Emmanuel K Dickson, Jones K Ofori, Michael F Ofori, Mark L Wilson, Isabella A Quakyi, Bartholomew D Akanmori
BACKGROUND: Women exposed to Plasmodium infection develop antibodies and become semi-immune. This immunity is suppressed during pregnancy making both the pregnant woman and the foetus vulnerable to the adverse effects of malaria, particularly by Plasmodium falciparum. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) tablets is one of the current interventions to mitigate the effects of malaria on both the pregnant woman and the unborn child...
May 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549190/newborn-care-practices-and-health-seeking-behavior-in-rural-eastern-ethiopia-a-community-based-study
#6
Betemariam Gebre, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Zinaw Taddese, Kebede Deribe, Tsigereda Legesse, Meftuh Omar
Background: Most of the newborn deaths in developing countries occur at home. Up to two-thirds of these deaths would have been prevented if mothers and newborns had received known and effective interventions. The objective of this study is to determine newborn-care practices and health-seeking behavior in rural Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Adadle district, Ethiopian Somali Regional State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was applied...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549057/both-antenatal-and-postnatal-inflammation-contribute-information-about-the-risk-of-brain-damage-in-extremely-preterm-newborns
#7
Diana Yanni, Steven Korzeniewski, Elizabeth N Allred, Raina N Fichorova, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban, Olaf Dammann, Alan Leviton
BACKGROUNDPreterm newborns exposed to intrauterine inflammation are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. We hypothesized that adverse outcomes are more strongly associated with a combination of antenatal and postnatal inflammation than with either of them alone.METHODSWe defined antenatal inflammation as histologic inflammation in the placenta. We measured the concentrations of seven inflammation-related proteins in blood obtained on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14 from 763 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548952/bisphenol-a-exposure-promotes-htr-8-svneo-cell-migration-and-impairs-mouse-placentation-involving-upregulation-of-integrin-%C3%AE-1-and-mmp-9-and-stimulation-of-mapk-and-pi3k-signaling-pathways
#8
Xi Lan, Li-Juan Fu, Jun Zhang, Xue-Qing Liu, Hui-Jie Zhang, Xue Zhang, Ming-Fu Ma, Xue-Mei Chen, Jun-Lin He, Lian-Bing Li, Ying-Xiong Wang, Yu-Bin Ding
In this study, we investigated the effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, on the migration of human trophoblasts and mouse placentation by using the primary extravillous trophoblast (EVT) and its cell line HTR-8/SVneo, villous explant cultures, and pregnant mice. BPA increased EVT motility and the outgrowth of villous explants in a dose-dependent manner. BPA also increased the protein levels of integrin-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in human EVTs. Low-dose BPA (≤50 mg) increased the protein levels of MMP-9 and MMP-2 as well as integrin-β1 and integrin-α5 in mouse placenta and decreased the proportion of the labyrinth and spongiotrophoblast layers...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547981/placental-infectious-villitis-versus-villitis-of-unknown-etiology
#9
Jerzy Stanek
To assess the incidence, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and clinical and placental associations of congenital cytomegalovirus infection, 34 cases thereof diagnosed by placental/fetal or neonatal workup (group 1), and 494 placentas with villitis of unknown etiology (group 2) were extracted from a 6083-case placental database. 28 clinical and 47 placental phenotypes were compared between the two groups by Yates 2 or ANOVA using the Bonferroni correction. 26 group 1 cases did and 8 did not feature placental villitis, but all cases were positive as shown by immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization...
2017: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547098/obstetrical-and-perinatal-morbidity-and-mortality-among-in-vitro-fertilization-pregnancies-a-population-based-study
#10
Hussein Sabban, Andrew Zakhari, Valerie Patenaude, Togas Tulandi, Haim A Abenhaim
PURPOSE: To compare patient characteristics and obstetrical/neonatal outcomes of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and spontaneously conceived pregnancies. METHODS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2011 comparing IVF conceptions to spontaneous ones. Patient characteristics were descriptively compared, and after adjusting for baseline characteristics with logistic regression, obstetrical/neonatal outcomes were also compared...
May 25, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546672/chorioangioma-of-placenta-a-rare-case-of-near-miss-mortality
#11
Manju Yadav, Manju Maheshwari, Seema Sharma, Zeepee Godha, Priyanka Garg, Garima Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545651/the-dichotomy-of-placenta-derived-cells-in-cancer-growth
#12
Antonietta R Silini, Sara Cancelli, Patrizia Bonassi Signoroni, Anna Cargnoni, Marta Magatti, Ornella Parolini
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have often been considered to linger behind their equivalents from other tissues, such as MSC from bone marrow, in many aspects including their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. Nowadays however, it is clear that certain aspects make placental MSC attractive as a cellular therapy, such as their lack of ethical concerns and ease of isolation from human term placenta, a material long regarded as biological waste. Moreover, placental MSC virtually lack expression of human leukocyte antigens and co-stimulatory molecules, making them very attractive for transplantation in allogeneic settings...
May 18, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545271/-effect-of-microrna-106b-on-the-invasion-and-proliferation-of-trophoblasts-through-targeting-mmp-2
#13
J Li, J M Wang, Y H Liu, Z Zhang, N Han, J Y Wang, S H Xue, P Wang
Objective: To investigate the expression of microRNA-106b (miR-106b) in the placentas of patients with pre-eclampsia and its relationship with matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) -2, and its effect on the invasion and proliferation of trophoblasts. Methods: (1) Placental tissues were collected from patients with mild pre-eclampsia (mPE, n=30), severe pre-eclampsia (sPE, n=30) and normal pregnant women (n=40). Human choriocarcinoma cell lines JAR and JEG3 were assigned to the miR-106b mimics group, the mimics negative control group, the miR-106b inhibitor group and the inhibitor negative control group, respectively...
May 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545138/sumo-4-a-novel-functional-candidate-in-the-human-placental-protein-sumoylation-machinery
#14
Dora Baczyk, Melanie C Audette, Sascha Drewlo, Khrystyna Levytska, John C Kingdom
BACKGROUND: Small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) conjugate to proteins post-translationally, thereby affecting target localization, activity and stability. Functional SUMO family members identified in the human placenta include SUMO-1 to SUMO-3, which are elevated in pre-eclampsia. Whether the fourth isoform, SUMO-4, plays a role in placental development and function remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that SUMO-4 is expressed in the human placenta and demonstrates altered SUMOylation in pre-eclamptic pregnancies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544129/deregulation-of-c-src-tyrosine-kinase-and-its-downstream-targets-in-pre-eclamptic-placenta
#15
Sevgi Irtegun, Dilara Akcora-Yıldız, Gulsum Pektanc, Cagla Karabulut
AIM: Pre-eclampsia is a serious pregnancy disorder characterized by the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria in the second trimester of pregnancy. The determination of a key signaling regulatory mechanism involved in placental functions is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of c-Src and its downstream targets, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase, as well as nuclear factor (NF)-ĸB in placental tissues collected from women with pre-eclampsia...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542608/increase-in-complement-ic3b-is-associated-with-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-during-late-pregnancy-in-mice
#16
Keigo Nakamura, Kazuya Kusama, Rulan Bai, Sadamasa Ishikawa, Sayuri Fukushima, Yoshihito Suda, Kazuhiko Imakawa
Immunological tolerance between fetal allograft and mother is crucial for pregnancy establishment and maintenance; however, these mechanisms particularly those during the latter part of pregnancy have not been definitively elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and potential function of innate immunity characteristic to the middle to late pregnancy. We first characterized up-regulated proteins in decidua from day 11 pregnant (P11) mice using 2D-PAGE, followed by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542585/highly-efficient-maternal-fetal-zika-virus-transmission-in-pregnant-rhesus-macaques
#17
Sydney M Nguyen, Kathleen M Antony, Dawn M Dudley, Sarah Kohn, Heather A Simmons, Bryce Wolfe, M Shahriar Salamat, Leandro B C Teixeira, Gregory J Wiepz, Troy H Thoong, Matthew T Aliota, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Kim L Weisgrau, Logan J Vosler, Mariel S Mohns, Meghan E Breitbach, Laurel M Stewart, Mustafa N Rasheed, Christina M Newman, Michael E Graham, Oliver E Wieben, Patrick A Turski, Kevin M Johnson, Jennifer Post, Jennifer M Hayes, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Michele L Schotzko, Josh A Eudailey, Sallie R Permar, Eva G Rakasz, Emma L Mohr, Saverio Capuano, Alice F Tarantal, Jorge E Osorio, Shelby L O'Connor, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with human congenital fetal anomalies. To model fetal outcomes in nonhuman primates, we administered Asian-lineage ZIKV subcutaneously to four pregnant rhesus macaques. While non-pregnant animals in a previous study contemporary with the current report clear viremia within 10-12 days, maternal viremia was prolonged in 3 of 4 pregnancies. Fetal head growth velocity in the last month of gestation determined by ultrasound assessment of head circumference was decreased in comparison with biparietal diameter and femur length within each fetus, both within normal range...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542561/impaired-functional-capacity-of-fetal-endothelial-cells-in-preeclampsia
#18
Lars Brodowski, Jennifer Burlakov, Sarah Hass, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Frauke von Versen-Höynck
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is one of the main contributers to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. A history of preeclampsia puts mother and offspring at an increased cardiovascular risk in later life. We hypothesized that at the time of birth functional impairments of fetal endothelial cells can be detected in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and that a therapeutic intervention using 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 can reverse the adverse effects of preeclampsia on cell function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542501/a-rho-associated-coiled-coil-containing-kinases-rock-inhibitor-y-27632-enhances-adhesion-viability-and-differentiation-of-human-term-placenta-derived-trophoblasts-in-vitro
#19
Kenichiro Motomura, Naoko Okada, Hideaki Morita, Mariko Hara, Masato Tamari, Keisuke Orimo, Go Matsuda, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Akio Matsuda, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Mikiya Fujieda, Haruhiko Sago, Hirohisa Saito, Kenji Matsumoto
Although human term placenta-derived primary cytotrophoblasts (pCTBs) represent a good human syncytiotrophoblast (STB) model, in vitro culture of pCTBs is not always easily accomplished. Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK), reportedly prevented apoptosis and improved cell-to-substrate adhesion and culture stability of dissociated cultured human embryonic stem cells and human corneal endothelial cells. The Rho kinase pathway regulates various kinds of cell behavior, some of which are involved in pCTB adhesion and differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542142/deletion-of-pdcd5-in-mice-led-to-the-deficiency-of-placenta-development-and-embryonic-lethality
#20
Ge Li, Chentong Xu, Xin Lin, Liujing Qu, Dan Xia, Beiqi Hongdu, Yan Xia, Xiaokun Wang, Yaxin Lou, Qihua He, Dalong Ma, Yingyu Chen
Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) is an apoptosis promoter molecule that displays multiple biological activities. However, the function of PDCD5 in vivo has not yet been investigated. Here, we generated a Pdcd5 knockout mouse model to study the physiological role of PDCD5 in vivo. Knockout of the Pdcd5 gene resulted in embryonic lethality at mid-gestation. Histopathological analysis revealed dysplasia in both the LZs and JZs in Pdcd5(-/-) placentas with defects in spongiotrophoblasts and trophoblast giant cells...
May 25, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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