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vulva cancer immunology

Zheng Quan Toh, Paul V Licciardi, James Fong, Suzanne M Garland, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Fiona M Russell, Edward K Mulholland
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the primary cause of genital warts, some oropharyngeal cancers and anogenital cancers, including cervical, vagina, vulvar, anal and penile cancers. Primary prevention of cervical cancer requires the prevention of high-risk HPV infections, particularly HPV genotypes 16 and 18. Both Gardasil® and Cervarix® vaccines when administered by a three-dose schedule have been demonstrated to be effective against cervical, vulva, and vaginal cancer precursors from vaccine genotypes in phase III clinical trials, and post-marketing studies; Gardasil® vaccine also offers additional protection against anal cancer precursors...
September 22, 2015: Vaccine
Lesley M Butler, Anna H Wu
SCOPE: Observational studies have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and cancers of the ovary and endometrium, but we are not aware of the published studies on green tea intake and risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers of the cervix, vagina, or vulva. METHODS AND RESULTS: A critical review of the published literature on tea intake and risk of ovarian and endometrial cancers was conducted. In meta-analyses, we report inverse associations for green tea intake and risk of ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR]=0...
June 2011: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
J Dillner, M Arbyn, E Unger, L Dillner
Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary causal factor in the development of cervical cancer. Moreover, HPV, predominately type 16 and to a lesser degree type 18, is linked causally to varying proportions of other anogenital cancers (vulva, vagina, penis, anus) as well as cancers elsewhere in the body (oropharynx, larynx, conjunctiva). HPV types 6 and 11 cause most of genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Effective prophylactic vaccines have been developed...
January 2011: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
J Dillner, M Arbyn, L Dillner
Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. Moreover, HPV type 16 (and to a lesser degree HPV type 18) is linked with more rare cancers, namely cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, oropharynx and larynx. Effective prophylactic vaccines have been developed. In this review, we briefly address immunological aspects of HPV infection and the results of HPV vaccination trials. Internationally standardized monitoring and evaluation of prophylactic HPV vaccination programmes will be essential for arriving at the most (cost-)effective strategies for cancer control...
May 2007: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Amy Forman Taub
Mainstream uses for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in dermatology include nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursors, acne vulgaris, photorejuvenation, and hidradenitis suppurativa. Many other dermatologic entities have been treated with PDT, including psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, scleroderma, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, alopecia areata, verruca vulgaris, Darier's disease and tinea infections. Nondermatologic applications include anal and vulva carcinoma, palliation of metastatic breast cancer to skin, Barrett's esophagus, and macular degeneration of the retina...
January 2007: Dermatologic Clinics
Nubia Muñoz, Xavier Castellsagué, Amy Berrington de González, Lutz Gissmann
The causal role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in all cancers of the uterine cervix has been firmly established biologically and epidemiologically. Most cancers of the vagina and anus are likewise caused by HPV, as are a fraction of cancers of the vulva, penis, and oropharynx. HPV-16 and -18 account for about 70% of cancers of the cervix, vagina, and anus and for about 30-40% of cancers of the vulva, penis, and oropharynx. Other cancers causally linked to HPV are non-melanoma skin cancer and cancer of the conjunctiva...
August 31, 2006: Vaccine
E J Davidson, R L Faulkner, P Sehr, M Pawlita, L J C Smyth, D J Burt, A E Tomlinson, J Hickling, H C Kitchener, P L Stern
Heterologous prime-boost vaccination schedules employing TA-HPV, a vaccinia virus encoding HPV 16/18 E6 and E7, in combination with TA-CIN, an HPV 16 L2E6E7 fusion protein, may offer advantages over the use of either agent alone for the immunotherapy of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). In the present study, 10 women with HPV 16-positive high grade VIN, previously primed with TA-HPV, received three booster immunisations with TA-CIN. All but one demonstrated HPV 16-specific proliferative T-cell and/or serological responses following vaccination...
July 29, 2004: Vaccine
J Adami, H Gäbel, B Lindelöf, K Ekström, B Rydh, B Glimelius, A Ekbom, H-O Adami, F Granath
A substantial excess risk of lymphomas and nonmelanoma skin cancer has been demonstrated following organ transplantation. Large sample size and long follow-up time may, however, allow more accurate risk estimates and detailed understanding of long-term cancer risk. The objective of the study was to assess the risk of cancer following organ transplantation. A nationwide cohort study comprising 5931 patients who underwent transplantation of kidney, liver or other organs during 1970-1997 in Sweden was conducted...
October 6, 2003: British Journal of Cancer
Petter Höglund, Klas Kärre, Georg Klein
As a bystander effect, immune responses against infectious organisms can damage normal cells. Immune privilege can protect such endangered tissues from immune destruction. One example is the eye where potentially devastating inflammatory reactions are prevented by active, counter-regulating processes that prevent lymphocyte activation. Recent epidemiological data from transplant patients in Sweden showed, surprisingly, that the frequency of cervical cancers did not increase in organ transplant recipients, in contrast to cancers of the vagina, vulva and anus...
July 7, 2003: Cancer Immunity
S Martinenghi, G Dell'Antonio, A Secchi, V Di Carlo, G Pozza
OBJECTIVE: Recipients of solid organ transplants have an increased risk of developing certain types of malignancies as compared with the general population. The majority of the literature has reported on neoplasms in kidney and heart transplant recipients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We describe 9 neoplasms occurring in 7 out of 73 IDDM patients after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. No cases were recorded among 26 IDDM recipients of kidney transplantation...
March 1997: Diabetes Care
I Penn
Various disorders of immune competence are associated with increases in uncommon tumors, particularly non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs), which often exhibit unusual features: they are frequently extranodal, show a broad spectrum of lesions, ranging from benign polyclonal hyperplasia to frankly malignant monoclonal lymphomas, and are frequently localized to the brain. Of 7136 tumors in organ transplant recipients, the predominant lesions are NHLs, carcinomas of the skin and lips, carcinomas of the vulva/perineum, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), and renal carcinomas...
1994: Cancer Detection and Prevention
S B Gusberg
Malignant tumors of the female reproductive tract may be divided into the accessible and the inaccessible. Cancer of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium fall into the accessible group and they are characterized by knowledge of their precursor lesions and efficient screening or detection methods. Although we have not achieved total surveillance of our adult female population, we can expect to achieve prevention or early diagnosis of these tumors as we educate the public to the possibility of prevention and control...
June 15, 1983: Cancer
J D Woodruff, L Braun, R Cavalieri, P Gupta, F Pass, K V Shah
Paraffin sections of condylomata acuminata removed from the lower genital canal were stained for papillomavirus antigen by th peroxidase-antiperoxidase test using a broadly cross-reactive antiserum. The antiserum was prepared by immunization of a rabbit with disrupted capsids of papillomavirus purified from a pool of plantar warts. Specific staining was seen as a brown granular reaction in the nuclei of the epithelial cells; this reaction occurred most consistently in the more superficial cells. Papillomavirus antigen was demonstrable in about half of the 50 specimens examined...
December 1980: Obstetrics and Gynecology
V Guérin, M C Bene, P Judlin, P Landes, G Faure
The prognosis of cancers is conditioned by tumoral extension. We report a case of a squamous carcinoma of the vulva where pathological examination had been at fault. An immunohistological study performed with monoclonal antibodies revealed a lymph node micro-metastasis. This case emphasizes the importance of estimating the tumoral extension by simultaneous pathological and immunological examinations.
1988: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
C P Crum, B J Burkett
Cumulative evidence strongly implicates human papillomavirus (HPV) in the genesis of squamous neoplasia of the lower female genital tract, including the vulva. The association of HPV with neoplasms at that site includes the relationship of specific HPV types with neoplasms and evidence that those HPV DNA types can transform epithelial cells in vitro. The capacity for in vitro transformation has been isolated to specific regions of the HPV genome. That may be unique in cancer-associated viruses. Nevertheless, epidemiologic evidence points to additional factors, including immunologic, habitual and environmental, that may play an important role in the development of lower genital tract carcinomas...
August 1989: Journal of Reproductive Medicine
B Desablens, A Lesoin, A Bourret, F Peltier, H Sevestre, P Closset
We report a case history of a woman of 66 years of age who had a granulocytic sarcoma of the cervix which presented as metrorrhagia and which at first was thought to be an anaplastic cancer. The poor general state of the patient made it impossible to start any anti-leukaemic treatment and the patient died two months after the diagnosis was made. A review of the literature shows that 62 cases of granulocytic sarcoma have been reported of which 22 were in the breast, 19 in the ovary, 13 in the cervix or the uterus, 6 in the vagina and 2 in the vulva...
1990: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
J W Alexander, M R First, S Hariharan, I Penn, T Schroeder, F Ryckman, R Munda, G Bhat, R Bolce
1. Clinical investigations at the University of Cincinnati have focused primarily on infection control, methods to increase donor-specific unresponsiveness, improvement in immunosuppression, donor maintenance and evaluation, posttransplant monitoring, and reduced-size livers for children. 2. Donor specific unresponsiveness (DSU) can be achieved frequently in recipients of both cadaver donor and living related donor kidneys by giving a single donor specific transfusion and CsA only 24 hours preoperatively with continuing triple immunosuppressive therapy...
1991: Clinical Transplants
P J Krupp, J W Bohm
Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has proven effective in epidermoid cancers of the head and neck. Its effectiveness has been correlated with the ability of the patient's immunologic system to recognize new antigens. In this study, 8 patients with carcinoma in situ of the vulva were evaluated and treated with topical 5-FU. Evaluation and followup has been completed and the literature reviewed. The overall treatment response rate was 75%. Followup to date has been 3-39 months. Thirty-five cases were reviewed from this series and the literature with a similar outcome...
June 1978: Obstetrics and Gynecology
P J DiSaia, B J Haverback, B J Dyce, C P Morrow
The determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in plasma has been of much interest currently concomitant with the search for an immunologic diagnosis test. Recent reports have shed some doubt on the specificity of carcinoembryonic antigens for gastrointestinal tract malignancies. This report details the plasma CEA values in 341 patients with varying gynecologic malignancies. These studies have demonstrated that plasma CEA is elevated in close to 50 per cent of patients with invasive gynecologic cancer...
January 15, 1975: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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