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Parul Jain, Rahul Kaul, Subrata Saha, Subir Sarkar
Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO), an uncommon form of ectodermal dysplasia is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder which is characterized by inherited defects in tissues arising from epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Genetic studies have revealed that it is caused by mutation in the DLX3 gene. TDO presents with a great phenotypic heterogeneity and studies have suggested that this heterogeneity is the result of environmental factors or other genetic modifiers. In this article, we report a case of TDO in which the child had typical clinical features of hair, teeth and bone defects, as seen in TDO...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Elisabetta Palazzo, Meghan D Kellett, Christophe Cataisson, Paul W Bible, Shreya Bhattacharya, Hong-Wei Sun, Anna C Gormley, Stuart H Yuspa, Maria I Morasso
Epidermal homeostasis relies on a well-defined transcriptional control of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, which is critical to prevent skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis or cancer. We have recently shown that the homeobox transcription factor DLX3 and the tumor suppressor p53 co-regulate cell cycle-related signaling and that this mechanism is functionally involved in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma development. Here we show that DLX3 expression and its downstream signaling depend on protein kinase C α (PKCα) activity in skin...
February 10, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
Li Zeng, Na Zhao, Dong Han, Haochen Liu, Yang Liu, Yixiang Wang, Hailan Feng
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of a novel mutant DLX3 on the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) in tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome. DESIGN: hDPCs were obtained from the healthy premolars, stably-expressing wild-type DLX3 (WT), novel mutant DLX3 (Mu) and control vector (NC) cells were generated using recombinant lentiviruses. The proliferation rates of WT-hDPCs and Mu-hDPCs were measured by CCK8 assay...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
Qiuli Fu, Zhenwei Qin, Xiuming Jin, Lifang Zhang, Zhijian Chen, Jiliang He, Junfeng Ji, Ke Yao
Purpose: The pathological mechanisms underlying cataract formation remain largely unknown on account of the lack of appropriate in vitro cellular models. The aim of this study is to develop a stable in vitro system for human lens regeneration using pluripotent stem cells. Methods: Isolated human urinary cells were infected with four Yamanaka factors to generate urinary human induced pluripotent stem cells (UiPSCs), which were induced to differentiate into lens progenitor cells and lentoid bodies (LBs)...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sha Li, Mark S Roberson
Placental growth factor (PGF) is abundantly expressed by trophoblast cells within human placentae and is important for trophoblast development and placental vascularization. Circulating maternal serum levels of PGF are dynamically upregulated across gestation in normal pregnancies, whereas low circulating levels and placental production of PGF have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and other gestational diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of regulating PGF expression in the human placenta remains poorly understood...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Na Zhao, Dong Han, Haochen Liu, Yue Li, Sing-Wai Wong, Zhengyi Cao, Jian Xu, Xiaowei Zhang, Tao Cai, Yixiang Wang, Hailan Feng
The homeodomain transcription factor distal-less homeobox 3 gene (DLX3) is required for hair, tooth and skeletal development. DLX3 mutations have been found to be responsible for Tricho-Dento-Osseous (TDO) syndrome, characterized by kinky hair, thin-pitted enamel and increased bone density. Here we show that the DLX3 mutation (c.533 A>G; Q178R) attenuates osteogenic potential and senescence of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) isolated from a TDO patient, providing a molecular explanation for abnormal increased bone density...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
June Ho Shin, Mikel D Haggadone, John B Sunwoo
The Distal-less (Dlx) homeobox transcription factors (TFs) play a prominent role in regulating multiple facets of vertebrate biology. Though widely studied as mediators of tissue development, recent work has uncovered a role for this TF family in modulating the vertebrate hematopoietic compartment. Pertinent to our study, murine Dlx1-3 are expressed in an innate lymphocyte population known as natural killer (NK) cells, and they are implicated to assume a functional role in the NK cell maturation pathway. However, Dlx target genes are poorly understood...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Olivier Duverger, Takahiro Ohara, Paul W Bible, Angela Zah, Maria I Morasso
Patients with tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome, an ectodermal dysplasia caused by mutations in the homeodomain transcription factor DLX3, exhibit enamel hypoplasia and hypomineralization. Here we used a conditional knockout mouse model to investigate the developmental and molecular consequences of Dlx3 deletion in the dental epithelium in vivo. Dlx3 deletion in the dental epithelium resulted in the formation of chalky hypomineralized enamel in all teeth. Interestingly, transcriptomic analysis revealed that major enamel matrix proteins and proteases known to be involved in enamel secretion and maturation were not affected significantly by Dlx3 deletion in the enamel organ...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Hao Hu, Hilary Coon, Man Li, Mark Yandell, Chad D Huff
BACKGROUND: Patients with certain genetic diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, have increased rates of de novo mutations within some protein-coding genes. RESULTS: We introduce the VARiant PRIoritization SuM (VARPRISM), a software package which incorporates functional variant prioritization information to improve the power to detect de novo mutations influencing disease risk. VARPRISM evaluates the consequence of any given exonic mutation on the protein sequence to estimate the likelihood that the mutation is benign or damaging and conducts a likelihood ratio test on the gene level...
August 25, 2016: Genome Medicine
Isabelle Chang, Marta Parrilla
Homeodomain proteins are encoded by homeobox genes and regulate development and differentiation in many neuronal systems. The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) generates in situ mature chemosensory neurons from stem cells. The roles of homeodomain proteins in neuronal differentiation in the VNO are poorly understood. Here we have characterized the expression patterns of 28 homeobox genes in the VNO of C57BL/6 mice at postnatal stages using multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization. We identified 11 homeobox genes (Dlx3, Dlx4, Emx2, Lhx2, Meis1, Pbx3, Pknox2, Pou6f1, Tshz2, Zhx1, Zhx3) that were expressed exclusively in neurons; 4 homeobox genes (Pax6, Six1, Tgif1, Zfhx3) that were expressed in all non-neuronal cell populations, with Pax6, Six1 and Tgif1 also expressed in some neuronal progenitors and precursors; 12 homeobox genes (Adnp, Cux1, Dlx5, Dlx6, Meis2, Pbx2, Pknox1, Pou2f1, Satb1, Tshz1, Tshz3, Zhx2) with expression in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations; and one homeobox gene (Hopx) that was exclusively expressed in the non-sensory epithelium...
July 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
C Klingelhöffer, A Reck, T Ettl, C Morsczeck
The dental follicle is involved in tooth eruption and it expresses a great amount of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). PTHrP as an extracellular protein is required for a multitude of different regulations of enchondral bone development and differentiation of bone precursor cells and of the development of craniofacial tissues. The dental follicle contains also precursor cells (DFCs) of the periodontium. Isolated DFCs differentiate into periodontal ligament cells, alveolar osteoblast and cementoblasts...
August 2016: Tissue & Cell
Marta Parrilla, Isabelle Chang, Andrea Degl'Innocenti, Masayo Omura
Homeobox genes constitute a large family of genes widely studied because of their role in the establishment of the body pattern. However, they are also involved in many other events during development and adulthood. The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) is an excellent model to study neurogenesis in the adult nervous system. Analyses of homeobox genes during development show that some of these genes are involved in the formation and establishment of cell diversity in the MOE. Moreover, the mechanisms of expression of odorant receptors (ORs) constitute one of the biggest enigmas in the field...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Fabiano Jeremias, Ricardo A G Pierri, Juliana F Souza, Camila Maria B Fragelli, Manuel Restrepo, Livia S Finoti, Diego G Bussaneli, Rita C L Cordeiro, Rodrigo Secolin, Claudia V Maurer-Morelli, Raquel M Scarel-Caminaga, Lourdes Santos-Pinto
Despite some evidence of genetic and environmental factors on molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), its aetiology remains unclear. This family-based genetic association study aimed more comprehensively to investigate the genetic carriage potentially involved in MIH development. DNA was obtained from buccal cells of 391 individuals who were birth family members of 101 Brazilian nuclear families. Sixty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in 21 candidate genes related to amelogenesis using the TaqMan™ OpenArray™ Genotyping platform...
2016: Caries Research
Mizuo Ando, Masahito Kawazu, Toshihide Ueno, Daizo Koinuma, Koji Ando, Junji Koya, Keisuke Kataoka, Takahiko Yasuda, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Fukumura, Azusa Yamato, Manabu Soda, Eirin Sai, Yoshihiro Yamashita, Takahiro Asakage, Yasushi Miyazaki, Mineo Kurokawa, Kohei Miyazono, Stephen D Nimer, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Hiroyuki Mano
ELF4 (also known as MEF) is a member of the ETS family of transcription factors. An oncogenic role for ELF4 has been demonstrated in hematopoietic malignancies, but its function in epithelial tumors remains unclear. Here, we show that ELF4 can function as a tumor suppressor and is somatically inactivated in a wide range of human tumors. We identified a missense mutation affecting the transactivation potential of ELF4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Restoration of the transactivation activity through introduction of wild-type ELF4 significantly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and tumor xenograft growth...
April 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Anjali A Sarkar, Julia A Sabatino, Kelsey F Sugrue, Irene E Zohn
INTRODUCTION: The labyrinthine zone of the placenta is where exchange of nutrients and waste occurs between maternal and fetal circulations. Proper development of the placental labyrinth is essential for successful growth of the developing fetus and abnormalities in placental development are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preeclampsia and fetal demise. Our previous studies demonstrate that Hectd1 is essential for development of the junctional and labyrinthine zones of the placenta...
February 2016: Placenta
Na Zhao, Dong Han, Yang Liu, Yue Li, Li Zeng, Yixiang Wang, Hailan Feng
Homeodomain gene Distal-less-3 (DLX3) plays an essential role in the development of bones. Mutations of DLX3 are closely associated with Tricho-Dento-Osseous (TDO) syndrome featured with increased bone formation. However, the mechanism regarding whether DLX3 regulates osteoclastogenesis remains largely unknown. In this study, we firstly examined the expression of DLX3 mounting during osteoclastic differentiation process, and then established stably expressing wild type DLX3 (WT-DLX3), a novel mutant DLX3 (Q178R) found in our laboratory recently (MT-DLX3) and Dlx3 knockdown cell lines (Dlx3-shRNA) in Raw 264...
February 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Eric A Lewallen, Dakota L Jones, Amel Dudakovic, Roman Thaler, Christopher R Paradise, Hilal M Kremers, Matthew P Abdel, Sanjeev Kakar, Allan B Dietz, Robert C Cohen, David G Lewallen, Andre J van Wijnen
Integration of porous metal prosthetics, which restore form and function of irreversibly damaged joints, into remaining healthy bone is critical for implant success. We investigated the biological properties of adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) and addressed their potential to alter the in vitro microenvironment of implants. We employed human AMSCs as a practical source for musculoskeletal applications because these cells can be obtained in large quantities, are multipotent, and have trophic paracrine functions...
May 1, 2016: Gene
Y-J Kim, F Seymen, M Koruyucu, Y Kasimoglu, K Gencay, T J Shin, H-K Hyun, Z H Lee, J-W Kim
OBJECTIVE: To identify the molecular genetic aetiology of a family with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: DNA samples were collected from a six-generation family, and the candidate gene approach was used to screen for the enamelin (ENAM) gene. Whole-exome sequencing and linkage analysis with SNP array data identified linked regions, and candidate gene screening was performed. RESULTS: Mutational analysis revealed a mutation (c...
May 2016: Oral Diseases
Sung Ho Lee, Kyo-Nyeo Oh, Younho Han, You Hee Choi, Kwang-Youl Lee
Estrogen receptor α (ER-α), which is involved in bone metabolism and breast cancer, has been shown to have transcriptional targets. Dlx3 is essential for the skeletal development and plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation. Various osteogenic stimulators and transcription factors can induce the protein expression of Dlx3. However, the regulatory function of ER-α in the Dlx3 mediated osteogenic process remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of Dlx3 and found that ER-α is a positive regulator of Dlx3 transcription in BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation...
February 2016: Molecules and Cells
Rosa A Uribe, Ailín L Buzzi, Marianne E Bronner, Pablo H Strobl-Mazzulla
In vertebrates, the inner ear arises from the otic placode, a thickened swathe of ectoderm that invaginates to form the otic vesicle. We report that histone demethylase KDM4B is dynamically expressed during early stages of chick inner ear formation. A loss of KDM4B results in defective invagination and striking morphological changes in the otic epithelium, characterized by abnormal localization of adhesion and cytoskeletal molecules and reduced expression of several inner ear markers, including Dlx3. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals direct and dynamic occupancy of KDM4B and its target, H3K9me3, at regulatory regions of the Dlx3 locus...
November 23, 2015: Journal of Cell Biology
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