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Qiang Meng, Xing-Ping Duan, Chang-Yuan Wang, Zhi-Hao Liu, Peng-Yuan Sun, Xiao-Kui Huo, Hui-Jun Sun, Jin-Yong Peng, Ke-Xin Liu
AIM: Alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A) is a natural triterpenoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine rhizoma alismatis, which exhibits a number of pharmacological activities, including anti-hepatitis virus, anti-cancer and antibacterial effects. In this study we examined whether AB23A protected against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice, and the mechanisms underlying the protective effects. METHODS: NASH was induced in mice fed a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks...
October 24, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Javad Safaei Ghomi, Safura Zahedi
A family of novel ionic liquid with l-alanine and choline chloride as environmentally benign materials have been synthesized and grafted on Fe3O4 nanoparticles using easy preparation techniques. The structure of ionic liquid supported on Fe3O4 nanoparticles (IL-Fe3O4 NPs) characterized by various analyses such as FE-SEM, EDX, XRD, NMR, FTIR and VSM. The catalytic activities of this catalyst are examined in the Mannich reaction for synthesis of β-aminocarbonyl compounds under ultrasonic irradiation. The recyclability of catalyst is investigated, and the results have indicated that the catalyst can be recycled six times without obvious activity decreasing...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
K R Sabitha, D Sanjay, B Savita, T R Raju, T R Laxmi
Neurons communicate with each other through intricate network to evolve higher brain functions. The electrical activity of the neurons plays a crucial role in shaping the connectivity. With motor neurons being vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases, understanding the electrophysiological properties of motor neurons is the need of the hour, in order to comprehend the impairment of connectivity in these diseases. NSC-34 cell line serves as an excellent model to study the properties of motor neurons as they express Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Maria Ljungberg, Marie K L Nilsson, Karin Melin, Lars Jönsson, Arvid Carlsson, Åsa Carlsson, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Tord Ivarsson, Maria Carlsson, Göran Starck
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder leading to considerable distress and disability. Therapies are effective in a majority of paediatric patients, however, many only get partial response. It is therefore important to study the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. METHODS: 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study the concentration of brain metabolites in four different locations (cingulate gyrus and sulcus, occipital cortex, thalamus and right caudate nucleus)...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Satadru Jha, Federico Ramadori, Santina Quarta, Alessandra Biasiolo, Enrica Fabris, Paola Baldan, Gaetano Guarino, Mariagrazia Ruvoletto, Gianmarco Villano, Cristian Turato, Angelo Gatta, Fabrizio Mancin, Patrizia Pontisso, Paolo Scrimin
One of the most daunting challenges of nanomedicine is the finding of appropriate targeting agents to deliver suitable payloads precisely to cells affected by malignancies. Even more complex is to achieve the ability to ensure the nanosystems enter those cells. Here we use 2 nm (metal core) gold nanoparticles to target human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells stably transfected with the SERPINB3 (SB3) protein. The nanoparticles were coated with a 85:15 mixture of thiols featuring, respectively, a phosphoryl choline, to ensure water solubility and biocompatibility, and a 28-mer peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence 21-47 of the hepatitis B virus-PreS1 protein (PreS1(21-47))...
October 22, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
M J de Veth, V M Artegoitia, S R Campagna, H Lapierre, F Harte, C L Girard
The metabolites of choline have a central role in many mammalian biological processes, and choline supplementation to the periparturient dairy cow improves hepatic lipid metabolism. However, variability in responses to choline supplementation has highlighted a lack of understanding of choline absorption in the lactating dairy cow. Our objective was to determine net choline absorption by measuring net portal fluxes of choline and choline metabolites in cows receiving either dietary supplements of rumen-protected choline (RPC) or abomasal delivery of choline (ADC)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Jaya R Lakkakula, Thabo Matshaya, Rui Werner Maçedo Krause
Cyclodextrins (CDs) have widely been used as component of drug delivery systems. However unmodified cyclodextrins are associated with cytotoxicity and poor water solubility thus limiting their use in pharmaceutical industry. The cationic-β-cyclodextrin (Cat-β-CD) polymer cores were synthesized using β-CD, epichlorohydrin and choline chloride via a one-step polycondensation process. The main aim of this study was to synthesize hierarchical nanoflowers composed of cationic-β-CD as polymeric core along with alginate and chitosan "petals" (Cat-β-CD/Alg-Chi nanoflowers) as carriers for oral delivery of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) via an ionic-gelation technique...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Wei Wang, Gen-Jin Yang, Ju Zhang, Chen Chen, Zhen-Yu Jia, Jia Li, Wei-Dong Xu
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune rheumatic disease mostly affecting the axial skeleton. Currently, anti-tumour necrosis factor α (anti-TNF-α) represents an effective treatment for AS that may delay the progression of the disease and alleviate the symptoms if the diagnosis can be made early. Unfortunately, effective diagnostic biomarkers for AS are still lacking; therefore, most patients with AS do not receive timely and effective treatment. The intent of this study was to determine several key metabolites as potential biomarkers of AS using metabolomic methods to facilitate the early diagnosis of AS...
October 22, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Hiroko Kubo, Masahito Nakataki, Satsuki Sumitani, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shusuke Numata, Naomi Kameoka, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Hidehiro Umehara, Makoto Kinoshita, Masatoshi Inoshita, Mai Tamaru, Masashi Ohta, Chiaki Nakayama-Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Funakoshi, Masafumi Harada, Tetsuro Ohmori
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown neurophysiological abnormalities related to the glutamate (Glu)-glutamine (Gln) cycle, membrane turnover, and neuronal integrity, although the results were neither consistent nor conclusive. Recently it has been reported the Gln/Glu ratio is the most useful index, quantifying neuronal-glial interactions and the balance of glutamatergic metabolites In this MRS study, we elucidated the abnormalities of metabolites in a larger sample of patients with BD with a high-field MRI system...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Xi Chen, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Yu Yuan, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
Choline, a hydrophilic cation, has versatile physiological roles throughout the body, including cholinergic neurotransmission, memory consolidation and membrane biosynthesis and metabolism. Choline kinases possess enzyme activity that catalyses the conversion of choline to phosphocholine, which is further converted to cytidine diphosphate-coline (CDP-choline) in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC is a major constituent of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the eukaryotic cell membrane, and regulates cell signal transduction...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Rui Hu, Zhiwei Wang, Zongli Ren, Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies reported that diabetic patients had a lower incidence of aortic dissection (AD), but the definite mechanism is unknown. We aim to investigate the possible protective effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on AD formation with an emphasis on autonomic remodeling. METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection was applied to induce diabetes, unilateral renal artery stenosis (URAS) together with β-amino propionitrile (BAPN) oral treatment was used to induce AD...
October 21, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Joan B Broderick, James D Moody
The human gut microbiome is the source of not only microbial diversity, but also of interesting chemical reactions and enzymology. An excellent example of this is CutC, an enzyme that makes trimethylamine (TMA). In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Bodea et al. (2016) show how CutC uses a glycyl radical to perform C-N bond cleavage needed for TMA production.
October 20, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Robinson L Contiero, Denis F Biffe, Jamil Constantin, Rubem S de Oliveira, Guilherme B P Braz, Felipe R Lucio, Jerome J Schleier
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nozzle types and 2,4-D formulations on spray deposition on different targets. Two field experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design, and treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme. Species in experiment 1 were Sumatran fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis) and Brazil pusley (Richardia brasiliensis) and in experiment 2 were soybeans (Glycine max) and Benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis). For both experiments, the first factor corresponded to spray nozzles with different settings (AD 110...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Jeffrey Cummings, Philip Scheltens, Ian McKeith, Rafael Blesa, John E Harrison, Paulo H F Bertolucci, Kenneth Rockwood, David Wilkinson, Wouter Wijker, David A Bennett, Raj C Shah
BACKGROUND: Souvenaid® (uridine monophosphate, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium), was developed to support the formation and function of neuronal membranes. OBJECTIVE: To determine effect sizes observed in clinical trials of Souvenaid and to calculate the number needed to treat to show benefit or harm. METHODS: Data from all three reported randomized controlled trials of Souvenaid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia (Souvenir I, Souvenir II, and S-Connect) and an open-label extension study were included in analyses of effect size for cognitive, functional, and behavioral outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Han-Sol Park, Jung Eun Jang, Myoung Seok Ko, Sung Hoon Woo, Bum Joong Kim, Hyun Sik Kim, Hye Sun Park, In-Sun Park, Eun Hee Koh, Ki-Up Lee
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Caitlin G Howe, Xinhua Liu, Megan N Hall, Vesna Ilievski, Marie A Caudill, Olga Malysheva, Angela M Lomax-Luu, Faruque Parvez, Abu B Siddique, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammad N Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Joseph H Graziano, Max Costa, Mary V Gamble
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational histone modifications (PTHMs) are altered by arsenic, an environmental carcinogen. PTHMs are also influenced by nutritional methyl donors involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM), which may protect against epigenetic dysregulation. METHODS: We measured global levels of three PTHMs, which are dysregulated in cancers (H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 324 participants enrolled in the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Song Hee Lee, Bo Young Choi, Jin Hee Kim, A Ra Kho, Min Sohn, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) is a common choline compound and acetylcholine precursor in the brain, which has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. α-GPC has been shown to enhance memory and cognitive function in stroke and Alzheimer's patients but currently remains untested in patients suffering from epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate whether α-GPC treatment after seizure can ameliorate seizure-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal injury. The potential therapeutic effects of α-GPC on seizure-induced cognitive impairment were tested in an animal model of pilocarpine-induced seizure...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
Min-Soo Kim, Ji Hye Bang, Jun Lee, Jung-Soo Han, Tae Gon Baik, Won Kyung Jeon
BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE)-a widely used nutraceutical-is reported to have diverse functions, including positive effects on memory and vasodilatory properties. Although numerous studies have assessed the neuroprotective properties of GBE in ischemia, only a few studies have investigated the neuro-pharmacological mechanisms of action of GBE in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). PURPOSE: In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of GBE on CCH-induced neuroinflammation and cholinergic dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo)...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Su Jin Lee, Jeong Han Kang, Da Eun Lee, Min Jeong Nam, Hyun-Shik Lee, Oh-Shin Kwon
Chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic steatosis, which is characterized by a considerable increase in free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride levels. To identify the possible proteins involved in the progression to alcoholic hepatosteatosis, we performed proteomic analysis on livers of mice exposed to alcohol. 2D-based proteomic analysis revealed that EtOH exposure in mice changed the expression of 43 proteins compared with that in mice fed a normal diet (ND). The most notable protein changes were proteins involved in Met metabolism and oxidative stress, most of which were significantly downregulated in alcohol-exposed animals...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Kostas Delaunay, Florence Le Jeune, Etienne Garin, Anne Devillers, Xavier Palard-Novello
A 75-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer was referred to our department to perform F-choline (FCH) PET/CT. FCH PET/CT showed a markedly increased uptake in the right temporoparietal junction brain. Three weeks earlier, acute ischemic stroke was diagnosed in the right temporoparietal junction brain on diffusion-weighted sequence and thrombosis in a distal branch of the right middle cerebral artery on MR angiography. Choline precursors promote repair and growth of cell membranes in neurologic diseases, so FCH PET/CT uptake could be explained by repair processes during early outcome of acute ischemic stroke...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
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