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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098178/lithium-accumulates-in-neurogenic-brain-regions-as-revealed-by-high-resolution-ion-imaging
#1
Giulia Zanni, Wojciech Michno, Elena Di Martino, Anna Tjärnlund-Wolf, Jean Pettersson, Charlotte Elizabeth Mason, Gustaf Hellspong, Klas Blomgren, Jörg Hanrieder
Lithium (Li) is a potent mood stabilizer and displays neuroprotective and neurogenic properties. Despite extensive investigations, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, especially in the juvenile, developing brain. Here we characterized lithium distribution in the juvenile mouse brain during 28 days of continuous treatment that result in clinically relevant serum concentrations. By using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry- (ToF-SIMS) based imaging we were able to delineate temporospatial lithium profile throughout the brain and concurrent distribution of endogenous lipids with high chemical specificity and spatial resolution...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096604/ocimum-sanctum-linn-stimulate-the-expression-of-choline-acetyltransferase-on-the-human-cerebral-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#2
Dwi Liliek Kusindarta, Hevi Wihadmadyatami, Aris Haryanto
AIM: This research was conducted to identify the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) and to clarify the capability of Ocimum sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract to stimulate the presence of ChAT in the aging HCMECs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we perform an in vitro analysis some in the presence of an ethanolic extract of O. sanctum Linn. as a stimulator for the ChAT expression. HCMECs are divided become two groups, the first is in low passage cells as a model of young aged and the second is in a high passage as a model of aging...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#3
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095507/choline-deficiency-causes-colonic-type-ii-natural-killer-t-nkt-cell-loss-and-alleviates-murine-colitis-under-type-i-nkt-cell-deficiency
#4
Shintaro Sagami, Yoshitaka Ueno, Shinji Tanaka, Akira Fujita, Hiroaki Niitsu, Ryohei Hayashi, Hideyuki Hyogo, Takao Hinoi, Yasuhiko Kitadai, Kazuaki Chayama
Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of choline deficiency on the severity of colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of choline deficiency in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet lowered the levels of type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in the colonic lamina propria, peritoneal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and increased the levels of type II NKT cells in the livers of wild-type B6 mice compared with that in mice fed a control (CTR) diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095320/lethal-dysregulation-of-energy-metabolism-during-embryonic-vitamin-e-deficiency
#5
Melissa McDougall, Jaewoo Choi, Hye-Kyeong Kim, Gerd Bobe, J Frederik Stevens, Enrique Cadenas, Robert Tanguay, Maret G Traber
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol, VitE) was discovered in 1922 for its role in preventing embryonic mortality. We investigated the underlying mechanisms causing lethality using targeted metabolomics analyses of zebrafish VitE-deficient embryos over five days of development, which coincided with their increased morbidity and mortality. VitE deficiency resulted in peroxidation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), depleting DHA-containing phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine, which also caused choline depletion. This increased lipid peroxidation also increased NADPH oxidation, which depleted glucose by shunting it to the pentose phosphate pathway...
January 14, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093888/synthesis-of-butyl-levulinate-based-on-%C3%AE-angelica-lactone-in-the-presence-of-easily-separable-heteropoly-acid-catalysts
#6
Xiaohu Yi, Ghith Al Shaal Mohammad, Ciptonugroho Wirawan, Irina Delidovich, Xiaohong Wang, Regina Palkovits
A series of choline exchanged heteropoly acids (HOCH2CH2N(CH3)3)XH(6-X)P2W18O62 [abbreviated as ChxH(6-X)P2W18O62 (x=1-6), Choline cation abbreviated as Ch+] was synthesized and used as catalysts for the reaction of α-angelica lactone (abbreviated as alpha-AL) with n-butanol forming butyl levulinate. The solubility of ChxH(6-X)P2W18O62 in the reaction mixture is temperature-dependent: The catalysts are soluble under the reaction conditions and precipitate upon cooling the reaction mixture. This facilitates recovery of the catalysts out of the liquid phase...
January 17, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092182/an-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-selective-agonist-inhibits-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-preclinical-models-by-regulating-bile-acid-and-xenobiotic-receptors
#7
Suriyan Ponnusamy, Quynh T Tran, Thirumagal Thiyagarajan, Duane D Miller, Dave Bridges, Ramesh Narayanan
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) affects 8-10 million people in the US and up to 75% of obese individuals. Despite this, there are no approved oral therapeutics to treat NASH and therefore the need for novel approaches exists. The estrogen receptor β (ER-β)-selective agonist, β-LGND2, inhibits body weight and white adipose tissue, and increases metabolism, resulting in higher energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Due to favorable effects of β-LGND2 on obesity, we hypothesized that β-LGND2 will prevent NASH directly by reducing lipid accumulation in the liver or indirectly by favorably changing body composition...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092160/discovery-of-metabolite-biomarkers-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-progression
#8
Peifang Liu, Ruiting Li, Anton A Antonov, Lihua Wang, Wei Li, Yunfei Hua, Huimin Guo, Lijuan Wang, Peijia Liu, Lixia Chen, Yuan Tian, Fengguo Xu, Zunjian Zhang, Yulan Zhu, Yin Huang
Stroke remains a major public health problem worldwide; it causes severe disability and is associated with high mortality rates. However, early diagnosis of stroke is difficult, and no reliable biomarkers are currently established. In this study, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was utilized to characterize the metabolic features of the serum of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) to identify novel sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis and progression. First, global metabolic profiling was performed on a training set of 80 human serum samples (40 cases and 40 controls)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091925/changes-in-the-neurochemical-composition-of-motor-neurons-of-the-spinal-cord-in-mice-under-conditions-of-space-flight
#9
V V Porseva, V V Shilkin, A A Strelkov, I B Krasnov, P M Masliukov
Expression of choline acetyltransferase, 200-kDa neurofilament protein, 28-kDa calbindin, neuronal NO synthase, caspase 3, and Ki-67 in the motor neurons of spinal cord segments T3-T5 in male C57Bl/6 mice after 30-day space flight in the Bion-M1 biosatellite was studied by immunohistochemical methods. Under conditions space flight, the size of motoneurons increased, the number of neurons containing choline acetyltransferase and neurofilaments, decreased, and the number of calbindin-positive neurons increased; motoneurons, expressing neuronal NO synthase and caspase 3 appeared, while Ki-67 was not detected...
January 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091798/intake-of-up-to-3-eggs-day-increases-hdl-cholesterol-and-plasma-choline-while-plasma-trimethylamine-n-oxide-is-unchanged-in-a-healthy-population
#10
Diana M DiMarco, Amanda Missimer, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Bruno S Lemos, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Christopher N Blesso, Maria Luz Fernandez
Eggs are a source of cholesterol and choline and may impact plasma lipids and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentrations, which are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, the effects of increasing egg intake (0, 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day) on these and other CVD risk biomarkers were evaluated in a young, healthy population. Thirty-eight subjects [19 men/19 women, 24.1 ± 2.2 years, body mass index (BMI) 24.3 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)] participated in this 14-week crossover intervention. Participants underwent a 2-week washout with no egg consumption, followed by intake of 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day for 4 weeks each...
January 13, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090804/choline-acetyltransferase-may-contribute-to-the-risk-of-tourette-syndrome-combination-of-family-based-analysis-and-case-control-study
#11
Xiuling Yang, Wenmiao Liu, Mingji Yi, Ru Zhang, Yinglei Xu, Zuzhou Huang, Shiguo Liu, Tang Li
OBJECTIVES: Twin and family analyses have revealed a genetic contribution to Tourette syndrome and postmortem studies have raised the intriguing possibility of a reduction in cholinergic interneuronsin TS patients. METHODS: We selected five tag SNPs (rs100824791, rs12264845, rs1880676, rs3793790 and rs3793798) of Choline Acetyltransferase (CHAT) from the Han Chinese population Hapmap database. Genotyping was conducted on 401 TS nuclear family trios and 405 control subjects...
January 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090564/hepatocyte-toll-like-receptor-5-promotes-bacterial-clearance-and-protects-mice-against-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-disease
#12
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Innate immune dysfunction can promote chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. For example, mice lacking the flagellin receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) show microbial dysbiosis and predisposition to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. The extent to which hepatocytes play a direct role in detecting bacterial products in general, or flagellin in particular, is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of hepatocyte TLR5 in recognizing flagellin, policing bacteria, and protecting against liver disease...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087883/defining-genetic-and-chemical-diversity-in-wheat-grain-by-1h-nmr-spectroscopy-of-polar-metabolites
#13
Peter R Shewry, Delia I Corol, Huw D Jones, Michael H Beale, Jane L Ward
SCOPE: The application of high throughput 1H-NMR of unpurified extracts to determine to determine genetic diversity and the contents of polar components in grain of wheat. METHODS AND RESULTS: milled whole wheat grain was extracted with 80:20 D2O:CD3OD containing 0.05% d4- trimethylsilylpropionate (TSP). 1H-NMR spectra were acquired under automation at 300 °K using an Avance Spectrometer operating at 600.0528 MHz. Regions for individual metabolites were identified by comparison to a library of known standards run under identical conditions...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087695/novel-interconnections-in-lipid-metabolism-revealed-by-overexpression-of-sphingomyelin-synthase-1
#14
Gergana M Deevska, Patrick P Dotson, Alexander A Karakashian, Giorgis Isaac, Mark Wrona, Samuel B Kelly, Alfred H Merrill, Mariana N Nikolova-Karakashian
This study investigates the consequences of elevating sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) activity, which generates the main mammalian sphingolipid, sphingomyelin. HepG2 cells stably transfected with SMS1 (HepG2-SMS1), exhibit elevated enzyme activity in vitro and increased sphingomyelin content (mainly C22:0- and C24:0-sphingomyelin), but lower hexosylceramide (Hex-Cer) levels. HepG2-SMS1 cells have less triacylglycerols than controls but similar diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity, triacylglycerol secretion, and mitochondrial function...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078611/hyperbaric-oxygen-prevents-cognitive-impairments-in-mice-induced-by-d-galactose-by-improving-cholinergic-and-anti-apoptotic-functions
#15
Chunxia Chen, Luying Huang, Zhihuan Nong, Yaoxuan Li, Wan Chen, Jianping Huang, Xiaorong Pan, Guangwei Wu, Yingzhong Lin
Our previous study demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) improved cognitive impairments mainly by regulating oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and aging-related gene expression. However, a method for preventing cognitive dysfunction has yet to be developed. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of HBO on the cholinergic system and apoptosis in D-galactose (D-gal)-treated mice. A model of aging was established via systemic intraperitoneal injection of D-gal daily for 8 weeks. HBO was administered during the last 2 weeks of D-gal injection...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077467/gut-microbiota-dependent-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-prognostic-marker-for-incident-cardiovascular-events-beyond-traditional-risk-factors
#16
Xinmin S Li, Slayman Obeid, Roland Klingenberg, Baris Gencer, François Mach, Lorenz Räber, Stephan Windecker, Nicolas Rodondi, David Nanchen, Olivier Muller, Melroy X Miranda, Christian M Matter, Yuping Wu, Lin Li, Zeneng Wang, Hassan S Alamri, Valentin Gogonea, Yoon-Mi Chung, W H Wilson Tang, Stanley L Hazen, Thomas F Lüscher
AIMS: Systemic levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a pro-atherogenic and pro-thrombotic metabolite produced from gut microbiota metabolism of dietary trimethylamine (TMA)-containing nutrients such as choline or carnitine, predict incident cardiovascular event risks in stable primary and secondary prevention subjects. However, the prognostic value of TMAO in the setting of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the relationship of TMAO levels with incident cardiovascular risks among sequential patients presenting with ACS in two independent cohorts...
January 11, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077427/serum-trimethylamine-n-oxide-carnitine-choline-and-betaine-in-relation-to-colorectal-cancer-risk-in-the-alpha-tocopherol-and-beta-carotene-study
#17
Kristin A Guertin, Xinmin S Li, Barry I Graubard, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, James J Goedert, Zeneng Wang, Stanley L Hazen, Rashmi Sinha
BACKGROUND: TMAO, a choline-derived metabolite produced by gut microbiota, and its biomarker precursors have not been adequately evaluated in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of TMAO and its biomarker precursors (choline, carnitine and betaine) and incident colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study of male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study...
January 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071721/assessment-of-phospholipid-synthesis-related-biomarkers-for-perinatal-asphyxia-a-piglet-study
#18
Ángel Sánchez-Illana, Rønnaug Solberg, Isabel Lliso, Leonid Pankratov, Guillermo Quintás, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Máximo Vento, Julia Kuligowski
The prompt and reliable identification of infants at risk of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy secondary to perinatal asphyxia in the first critical hours is important for clinical decision-making and yet still remains a challenge. This work strives for the evaluation of a panel of metabolic biomarkers that have been associated with the hypoxic-ischemic insult in the perinatal period. Plasma and urine samples from a consolidated newborn piglet model of hypoxia and withdrawn before and at different time points after a hypoxic insult were analyzed and compared to a control group...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070703/nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-brain-region-specific-metabolic-alterations-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-with-cognitive-dysfunction
#19
Hong Zheng, Qiuting Lin, Dan Wang, Pengtao Xu, Liangcai Zhao, Wenyi Hu, Guanghui Bai, Zhihan Yan, Hongchang Gao
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in cognitive dysfunction, but its potential metabolic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the metabolite profiling in eight different brain regions of the normal rats and the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats accompanied by cognitive dysfunction using a (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach. A mixed linear model analysis was performed to assess the effects of DM, brain region and their interaction on metabolic changes. We found that different brain regions in rats displayed significant metabolic differences...
January 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069796/high-dietary-folate-in-pregnant-mice-leads-to-pseudo-mthfr-deficiency-and-altered-methyl-metabolism-with-embryonic-growth-delay-and-short-term-memory-impairment-in-offspring
#20
Renata H Bahous, Nafisa M Jadavji, Liyuan Deng, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Jessica Lu, Olga Malysheva, Kit-Yi Leung, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Nicholas DE Greene, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C>T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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