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Irina Tammenmaa-Aho, Rosie Asher, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a troublesome adverse effect of conventional antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication. It has been proposed that TD could have a component of central cholinergic deficiency. Cholinergic drugs have been used to treat TD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cholinergic drugs (arecoline, choline, deanol, lecithin, meclofenoxate, physostigmine, RS 86, tacrine, metoxytacrine, galantamine, ipidacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, eptastigmine, metrifonate, xanomeline, cevimeline) for treating antipsychotic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Adriana Ferreira Lopes Vilela, Cláudia Seidl, Juliana Maria de Lima, Carmen Lúcia Cardoso
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are key cholinesterase enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid, an essential process for the restoration of the cholinergic neuron. The loss of cholinergic function in the central nervous system contributes to the cognitive decline associated with advanced age and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inhibitions assays represent a significant role in the drug discovery process. Herein, we describe an improved label free method to screen and characterize new BChE ligands...
March 14, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Saki Yamaura, Shin-Ichi Sakasegawa, Emisa Koguma, Shigeru Ueda, Yuzo Kayamori, Daisuke Sugimori, Ken Karasawa
BACKGROUND: Measurement of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) can be used as an adjunct to traditional cardiovascular risk factors for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular events. This can be performed by quantification of the protein concentration using an ELISA platform or by measuring Lp-PLA2 activity using platelet-activating factor (PAF) analog as substrate. Here, an enzymatic Lp-PLA2 activity assay method using 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (rac C16 PAF) was developed...
March 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Asti Jackson, Roger L Papke, M Imad Damaj
RATIONALE: Recent preclinical data has implicated the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) as a target in modulating nicotine reward. However, the role of the channel properties of the α7 nAChR in nicotine withdrawal is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the impact of α7 nAChR pharmacological modulation on mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal behaviors in mice by using positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). METHODS: The effect of the orthosteric α7 nAChR full agonist PNU282987 (1, 3, 9 mg/kg, s...
March 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Makoto Kurano, Noboru Sakai, Tatsuya Kishimoto, Takahiro Nojiri, Koji Igarashi, Shigemi Hosogaya, Yukio Ozaki, Tomotaka Dohi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Daida, Junken Aoki, Shigeo Okubo, Hitoshi Ikeda, Minoru Tozuka, Yutaka Yatomi
Blood choline has been proposed as a predictor of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), however different testing procedures might affect the choline concentration because the lysophospholipase D activity of autotaxin (ATX) can convert lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and choline in human blood. Although the influences of ATX on LPA levels are well known in vivo and in vitro, those on choline have not been elucidated. Therefore, we established suitable sampling conditions and evaluated the usefulness of plasma choline concentrations as a biomarker for ACS...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shelley HuaLei Zhang, Stephan E Maier, Lawrence P Panych
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), under low-spatial resolution settings, often suffers signal contamination from neighboring voxels due to ringing artifacts. Spatial localization can be improved by constraining the point-spread-function (PSF). Here the effectiveness of the two-dimensional PSF-Choice technique in providing improved spatial localization for MRSI is demonstrated. THEORY AND METHODS: The PSF-Choice technique constrains the PSF to a desired shape by manipulating the weighting of RF excitation pulse throughout phase-encode steps...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Fariba Tayyari, G A Nagana Gowda, Olufunmilayo F Olopade, Richard Berg, Howard H Yang, Maxwell P Lee, Wilfred F Ngwa, Suresh K Mittal, Daniel Raftery, Sulma I Mohammed
Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease with variable pathophysiology and biology, is classified into four major subtypes. While hormonal- and antibody-targeted therapies are effective in the patients with luminal and HER-2 subtypes, the patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype do not benefit from these therapies. The incidence rates of TNBC subtype are higher in African-American women, and the evidence indicates that these women have worse prognosis compared to women of European descent. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear but are often attributed to TNBC biology...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
G Oriolo, E Egmond, Z Mariño, M Cavero, R Navines, L Zamarrenho, R Solà, J Pujol, N Bargallo, X Forns, R Martin-Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is considered a systemic disease because of extra-hepatic manifestations. Neuroimaging has been employed in hepatitis C virus-infected patients to find in vivo evidence of central nervous system alterations. AIMS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging research in chronic hepatitis C treatment naive patients, or patients previously treated without sustained viral response, to study structural and functional brain impact of hepatitis C...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mariko Nishibe, Yu Katsuyama, Toshihide Yamashita
The motor deficit of the reeler mutants has largely been considered cerebellum related, and the developmental consequences of the cortex on reeler motor behavior have not been examined. We herein showed that there is a behavioral consequence to reeler mutation in models examined at cortex-dependent bimanual tasks that require forepaw dexterity. Using intracortical microstimulation, we found the forelimb representation in the motor cortex was significantly reduced in the reeler. The reeler cortex required a significantly higher current to evoke skeletal muscle movements, suggesting the cortical trans-synaptic propagation is disrupted...
March 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Zhao Lv, Zhi Zhou, Weilin Wang, Meijia Li, Qilin Yi, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
It is becoming increasingly clear that neurotransmitters impose direct influence on regulation of the immune process. Recently, a simple but sophisticated neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) system was identified in oyster, which modulated neural immune response via a "nervous-hemocyte"-mediated neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis (NIA)-like pathway. In the present study, the de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters and their immunomodulation in the hemocytes of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to understand the autocrine/paracrine pathway independent of the nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Badrinath Jagannath, Sriram Muthukumar, Shalini Prasad
We have investigated the role of kosmotropic anionic moieties and chaotropic cationic moieties of room temperature hydrophilic ionic liquids in enhancing the biosensing performance of affinity based immunochemical biosensors in human sweat. Two ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM[BF4 ]) and choline dihydrogen phosphate (Choline[DHP]) were investigated in this study with Choline[DHP] being more kosmotropic in nature having a more protein stabilizing effect based on the hofmeister series...
August 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Pengzhou Hang, Jing Zhao, Zhenli Su, Hanqi Sun, Tingting Chen, Lihui Zhao, Zhimin Du
Backgroud/Aims: Growing evidence suggests that both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and excessive autophagy exacerbates cardiac dysfunction during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR). As a precursor of acetylcholine, choline has been found to protect the heart by repressing ischemic cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the relationship between choline and cardiomyocyte autophagy is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether autophagy was involved in the cardioprotection of choline during IR. METHODS: Rats were subjected to 30 min reversible ischemia by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion for 2 h...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Naeem Khan, Asghari Bano, Mohammad Atikur Rahman, Bala Rathinasabapathi, Md Ali Babar
Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in chickpea requires a solid understanding of biochemical processes involved with different physiological mechanisms. The objective of this study is to demonstrate genetic variations in altered metabolic levels in chickpea varieties (tolerant and sensitive) grown under contrasting water regimes through UPLC-HRMS based untargeted metabolomic profiling. Chickpea plants were exposed to drought stress at the three-leaf stage for 25 days and the leaves were harvested at 14 days and 25 days after the imposition of drought stress...
March 13, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Seunghyeon Kim, Michael F Fenech, Pan-Jun Kim
Diet design for vegetarian health is challenging due to the limited food repertoire of vegetarians. This challenge can be partially overcome by quantitative, data-driven approaches that utilise massive nutritional information collected for many different foods. Based on large-scale data of foods' nutrient compositions, the recent concept of nutritional fitness helps quantify a nutrient balance within each food with regard to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. Nutritional fitness offers prioritisation of recommended foods using the foods' occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Giglio, Lucie Podmolikova, Gunnar Tobin
Currently, we have assessed the neuronal control of the urinary bladder in radiation cystitis and whether interstitial cells contribute to the condition. Fourteen days following bladder irradiation (20 Gy) rats were sedated and the urinary bladder was cut in two sagittal halves where electrical field stimulation (EFS; 5-20 Hz) was applied on the pelvic nerve afferents or stretch (80 mN) on one half of the urinary bladder, while contractions were registered on the contralateral half of the urinary bladder in the absence and presence of increasing doses of imatinib (1-10 mg/kg; inhibitor of c-kit+ interstitial cells), atropine (1 mg/kg; to block muscarinic M3 receptors) or PPADS (2 mg/kg; to block P2X1 purinoceptors)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Chi-Hyeon Yoo, Song-I Lim, Kyu-Ho Song, Dong-Cheol Woo, Bo-Young Choe
Although recent investigations of major depressive disorder (MDD) have focused on the monoaminergic system, accumulating evidences suggest that alternative pathophysiological models of MDD and treatment options for patients with MDD are needed. Animals subjected to chronic forced swim stress (CFSS) develop behavioral despair. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of CFSS on systems other than the monoamine system in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) with 7T and short-echo-time (16.3 ms) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Victoria M Pak, Feng Dai, Brendan T Keenan, Nalaka S Gooneratne, Allan I Pack
Sleepiness and cardiovascular disease share common molecular pathways; thus, metabolic risk factors for sleepiness may also predict cardiovascular disease risk. Daytime sleepiness predicts mortality and cardiovascular disease, although the mechanism is unidentified. This study explored the associations between subjective sleepiness and metabolite concentrations in human blood plasma within the oxidative and inflammatory pathways, in order to identify mechanisms that may contribute to sleepiness and cardiovascular disease risk...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Joshua A Hammons, Fan Zhang, Jan Ilavsky
HYPOTHESIS: Many applications of deep eutectic solvents (DES) rely on exploitation of their unique yet complex liquid structures. Due to the ionic nature of the DES components, their diffuse structures are perturbed in the presence of a charged surface. We hypothesize that it is possible to perturb the bulk DES structure far (>100 nm) from a curved, charged surface with mesoscopic dimensions. EXPERIMENTS: We performed in situ, synchrotron-based ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) experiments to study the solvent distribution near the surface of charged mesoporous silica particles (MPS) (≈0...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Meghan McGee, Shannon Bainbridge, Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
The fetal origins of health and disease framework has identified extremes in fetal growth and birth weight as factors associated with the lifelong generation of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal and placental development, in part by providing the methyl groups required to establish the fetus's genome structure and function, notably through DNA methylation. The goal of this narrative review is to describe the role of maternal dietary methyl donor (methionine, folate, and choline) and cofactor (zinc and vitamins B2, B6, and B12) intake in one-carbon metabolism and DNA methylation in the fetus and placenta, as well as their impacts on fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes, with specific examples in animals and humans...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Atsushi Kurabayashi, Chiharu Tanaka, Waka Matsumoto, Seiji Naganuma, Mutsuo Furihata, Keiji Inoue, Yoshihiko Kakinuma
AIMS: Our previous study revealed that cyclic hindlimb ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) activates cardiac acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis through the cholinergic nervous system and cell-derived ACh accelerates glucose uptake. However, the mechanisms regulating glucose metabolism in vivo remain unknown. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of IR in mice under pathophysiological conditions. METHODS: Using IR-subjected male C57BL/6J mice, the effects of IR on blood sugar (BS), glucose uptake, central parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity, hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression and those of ACh on hepatocellular glucose uptake were assessed...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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