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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213653/perceived-risk-of-avian-influenza-and-urbanization-in-northern-vietnam
#1
Melissa L Finucane, Nghiem Tuyen, Sumeet Saksena, James H Spencer, Jefferson M Fox, Nguyen Lam, Trinh Dinh Thau, Tran Duc Vien, Nancy Davis Lewis
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is an important public health concern because of potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in humans and poultry and associated devastating economic losses. We examined how perceptions of the risk of HPAI in poultry vary across communes/wards in the north of Vietnam at different levels of urbanization (rural, peri-urban, urban). Analyses of questionnaire responses from 1081 poultry raisers suggested that the perceived risk of HPAI in poultry was highest in peri-urban and rural settings...
February 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212654/diversity-and-distribution-of-avian-malaria-and-related-haemosporidian-parasites-in-captive-birds-from-a-brazilian%C3%A2-megalopolis
#2
Carolina Romeiro Fernandes Chagas, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Lilian de Oliveira Guimarães, Eliana Ferreira Monteiro, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz Guida, Roseli França Simões, Priscila Thihara Rodrigues, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, Karin Kirchgatter
BACKGROUND: The role of zoos in conservation programmes has increased significantly in last decades, and the health of captive animals is essential to guarantee success of such programmes. However, zoo birds suffer from parasitic infections, which often are caused by malaria parasites and related haemosporidians. Studies determining the occurrence and diversity of these parasites, aiming better understanding infection influence on fitness of captive birds, are limited. METHODS: In 2011-2015, the prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium spp...
February 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212428/a-novel-hemagglutinin-protein-produced-in-bacteria-protects-chickens-against-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-by-inducing-h5-subtype-specific-neutralizing-antibodies
#3
Violetta Sączyńska, Agnieszka Romanik, Katarzyna Florys, Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska, Małgorzata Kęsik-Brodacka, Krzysztof Śmietanka, Monika Olszewska, Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz, Zenon Minta, Bogusław Szewczyk, Grażyna Płucienniczak, Andrzej Płucienniczak
The highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause a mortality rate of up to 100% in infected chickens and pose a permanent pandemic threat. Attempts to obtain effective vaccines against H5N1 HPAIVs have focused on hemagglutinin (HA), an immunodominant viral antigen capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies. The vast majority of vaccine projects have been performed using eukaryotic expression systems. In contrast, we used a bacterial expression system to produce vaccine HA protein (bacterial HA) according to our own design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211522/structure-and-polymorphisms-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-in-the-oriental-stork-ciconia-boyciana
#4
Hiroki Tsuji, Yukio Taniguchi, Shintaro Ishizuka, Hirokazu Matsuda, Takahisa Yamada, Kazuaki Naito, Hiroaki Iwaisaki
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is highly polymorphic and plays a central role in the vertebrate immune system. Despite its functional consistency, the MHC genomic structure differs substantially among organisms. In birds, the MHCs of Galliformes and the Japanese crested ibis (Pelecaniformes) are well-characterized, but information about other avian MHCs remains scarce. The Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana, order Ciconiiformes) is a large endangered migrant. The current Japanese population of this bird originates from a few founders; thus, understanding the genetic diversity among them is critical for effective population management...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211263/increased-regurgitant-flow-causes-endocardial-cushion-defects-in-an-avian-embryonic-model-of-congenital-heart-disease
#5
Stephanie M Ford, Matthew T McPheeters, Yves T Wang, Pei Ma, Shi Gu, James Strainic, Christopher Snyder, Andrew M Rollins, Michiko Watanabe, Michael W Jenkins
BACKGROUND: The relationship between changes in endocardial cushion and resultant congenital heart diseases (CHD) has yet to be established. It has been shown that increased regurgitant flow early in embryonic heart development leads to endocardial cushion defects, but it remains unclear how abnormal endocardial cushions during the looping stages might affect the fully septated heart. The goal of this study was to reproducibly alter blood flow in vivo and then quantify the resultant effects on morphology of endocardial cushions in the looping heart and on CHDs in the septated heart...
February 17, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209186/identification-of-immune-protective-genes-of-eimeria-maxima-through-cdna-expression-library-screening
#6
XinChao Yang, MengHui Li, JianHua Liu, YiHong Ji, XiangRui Li, LiXin Xu, RuoFeng Yan, XiaoKai Song
BACKGROUND: Eimeria maxima is one of the most prevalent Eimeria species causing avian coccidiosis, and results in huge economic loss to the global poultry industry. Current control strategies, such as anti-coccidial medication and live vaccines have been limited because of their drawbacks. The third generation anticoccidial vaccines including the recombinant vaccines as well as DNA vaccines have been suggested as a promising alternative strategy. To date, only a few protective antigens of E...
February 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208602/a-review-of-the-strain-diversity-and-pathogenesis-of-chicken-astrovirus
#7
REVIEW
Victoria J Smyth
Although a relatively recently emerged virus, identified only in 2004 as a separate species of avian astrovirus, chicken astrovirus (CAstV) has been associated with poor growth of broiler flocks, enteritis and diarrhea and is a candidate pathogen in cases of runting stunting syndrome. More recently CAstV has been implicated in cases of two other diseases of broilers as the sole etiological agent, namely severe kidney disease of young broilers with visceral gout and the "White Chicks" hatchery disease. Examination of the strains of CAstV associated with the two latter diseases reveals they are closely related genetically...
February 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206909/a-highly-pathogenic-avian-derived-influenza-virus-h5n1-with-2009-pandemic-h1n1-internal-genes-demonstrates-increased-replication-and-transmission-in-pigs
#8
Eugenio J Abente, Pravina Kitikoon, Kelly M Lager, Phillip C Gauger, Tavis K Anderson, Amy L Vincent
This study investigated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reverse-genetics-derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 lineage influenza A virus that was isolated from a human, A/Iraq/755/06. We also examined surface gene reassortant viruses composed of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase from A/Iraq/755/06 and the internal genes of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, A/New York/18/2009 (2Iraq/06 : 6NY/09 H5N1), and haemagglutinin and neuraminidase from A/New York/18/2009 with the internal genes of A/Iraq/755/06 (2NY/09 : 6Iraq/06 H1N1)...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202815/covariation-in-levels-of-nucleotide-diversity-in-homologous-regions-of-the-avian-genome-long-after-completion-of-lineage-sorting
#9
Ludovic Dutoit, Nagarjun Vijay, Carina F Mugal, Christen M Bossu, Reto Burri, Jochen Wolf, Hans Ellegren
Closely related species may show similar levels of genetic diversity in homologous regions of the genome owing to shared ancestral variation still segregating in the extant species. However, after completion of lineage sorting, such covariation is not necessarily expected. On the other hand, if the processes that govern genetic diversity are conserved, diversity may potentially covary even among distantly related species. We mapped regions of conserved synteny between the genomes of two divergent bird species-collared flycatcher and hooded crow-and identified more than 600 Mb of homologous regions (66% of the genome)...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202755/low-pathogenic-influenza-a-viruses-in-north-american-diving-ducks-contribute-to-the-emergence-of-a-novel-highly-pathogenic-influenza-a-h7n8-virus
#10
Yifei Xu, Andrew M Ramey, Andrew S Bowman, Thomas J DeLiberto, Mary L Killian, Scott Krauss, Jacqueline M Nolting, Mia Kim Torchetti, Andrew B Reeves, Richard J Webby, David E Stallknecht, Xiu-Feng Wan
Introductions of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 into poultry from wild birds have the potential to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), but such viruses' origins are often unclear. In January 2016, a novel H7N8 HPAI virus caused an outbreak in turkeys in Indiana, USA. To determine the virus's origin, we sequenced genomes of 441 wild bird-origin influenza A viruses (IAVs) from North America and subjected them to evolutionary analyses. Results showed that the H7N8 LPAI virus most likely circulated among diving ducks in the Mississippi flyway during autumn 2015 and was subsequently introduced to Indiana turkeys, in which it evolved high pathogenicity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202753/mutation-of-the-2-nd-sialic-acid-binding-site-resulting-in-reduced-neuraminidase-activity-preceded-emergence-of-h7n9-influenza-a-virus
#11
Meiling Dai, Ryan McBride, Jos C F M Dortmans, Wenjie Peng, Mark J G Bakkers, Raoul J de Groot, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, James C Paulson, Erik de Vries, Cornelis A M de Haan
The emergence of novel influenza A virus (IAV) H7N9 since 2013 has caused concerns about the ability of this virus to spread between humans. Analysis of the receptor-binding properties of the H7 protein of a human isolate revealed modestly increased binding to α2,6 sialosides and reduced, but still dominant, binding to α2,3-linked sialic acids (SIAs) compared to a closely related avian H7N9 virus from 2008. Here we show that the corresponding N9 neuraminidases display equal enzymatic activity on a soluble monovalent substrate and similar substrate specificity on a glycan array...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201714/stability-mediated-epistasis-restricts-accessible-mutational-pathways-in-the-functional-evolution-of-avian-hemoglobin
#12
Amit Kumar, Chandrasekhar Natarajan, Hideaki Moriyama, Christopher C Witt, Roy E Weber, Angela Fago, Jay F Storz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199899/role-of-outer-membrane-protein-t-in-pathogenicity-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#13
Hassan M A Hejair, Jiale Ma, Yingchu Zhu, Min Sun, Wenyang Dong, Yue Zhang, Zihao Pan, Wei Zhang, Huochun Yao
An outer membrane protein T (OmpT) could play a vital role in the pathogenesis of the neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC) in human and animals. However, whether ompT plays a role in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) infection remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the potential of ompT in APEC pathogenesis. An ompT gene was deleted from APEC mutant strain (TW-XM) was constructed and characterized. The inactivation of ompT reduced significantly the adherence and invasion capabilities of APEC to mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) bEnd...
January 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199419/early-immune-responses-and-development-of-pathogenesis-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis-viruses-with-different-virulence-profiles
#14
Cintia Hiromi Okino, Marcos Antônio Zanella Mores, Iara Maria Trevisol, Arlei Coldebella, Hélio José Montassier, Liana Brentano
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) primarily replicates in epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract of chickens, inducing both morphological and immune modulatory changes. However, the association between the local immune responses induced by IBV and the mechanisms of pathogenesis has not yet been completely elucidated. This study compared the expression profile of genes related to immune responses in tracheal samples after challenge with two Brazilian field isolates (A and B) of IBV from the same genotype, associating these responses with viral replication and with pathological changes in trachea and kidney...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199325/breast-cancer-subtype-of-french-women-is-not-influenced-by-socioeconomic-status-a-population-based-study
#15
Aviane Auguste, Marion Cortet, Tienhan Sandrine Dabakuyo-Yonli, Ludivine Launay, Laurent Arnould, Isabelle Desmoulins, Patrick Roignot, Ariane Darut-Jouve, Marie-Laure Poillot, Aurélie Bertaut, Patrick Arveux
CONTEXT: The molecular subtype of breast tumours plays a major role in cancer prognosis and treatment options. Triple negative tumours (TN) carry the worst prognosis and affects most frequently women of low socioeconomic status (SES). Studies have shown that non-biologic factors, such as the socioeconomic status could have an influence on tumour biology. To this date no study has been done investigating this association in French women. The objective is to study the association between the SES and the molecular tumour subtype of breast cancer patients in the French county of Côte d'Or...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198372/novel-characteristics-of-the-avian-gyrovirus-2-genome
#16
Shuai Yao, Xiang Gao, Tianbei Tuo, Chunyan Han, Yulong Gao, Xiaole Qi, Yanping Zhang, Changjun Liu, Honglei Gao, Yongqiang Wang, Xiaomei Wang
Avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2) was the second member of the viral genus Cyclovirus to be discovered. This virus poses a significant potential threat to humans and poultry due to its global dissemination and infectiousness. We used three overlapping polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to map the whole genome of AGV2. We then modelled the evolutionary history of these novel sequence data in the context of related sequences from GenBank. We analysed the viral protein characteristics of the different phylogenetic groups and explored differences in evolutionary trends between Chinese strains and strains from other countries...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197322/discovery-of-novel-orally-bioavailable-%C3%AE-amino-acid-azaindole-inhibitors-of-influenza-pb2
#17
Luc J Farmer, Michael P Clark, Michael J Boyd, Emanuele Perola, Steven M Jones, Alice Tsai, Marc D Jacobs, Upul K Bandarage, Mark W Ledeboer, Tiansheng Wang, Hongbo Deng, Brian Ledford, Wenxin Gu, John P Duffy, Randy S Bethiel, Dean Shannon, Randal A Byrn, Joshua R Leeman, Rene Rijnbrand, Hamilton B Bennett, Colleen O'Brien, Christine Memmott, Kwame Nti-Addae, Youssef L Bennani, Paul S Charifson
In our efforts to develop novel small-molecule inhibitors for the treatment of influenza, we utilized molecular modeling and the X-ray crystal structure of the PB2 subunit of the influenza polymerase to optimize a series of acyclic β-amino acid inhibitors, highlighted by compound 4. Compound 4 showed good oral exposure in both rat and mouse. More importantly, it showed strong potency versus multiple influenza-A strains, including pandemic 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 strains and showed a strong efficacy profile in a mouse influenza model even when treatment was initiated 48 h after infection...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197148/avian-interferons-and-their-antiviral-effectors
#18
REVIEW
Diwakar Santhakumar, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Muhammad Munir
Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of IFNs have been genetically characterized in most avian species with available annotated genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196971/multilocus-sequence-typing-identifies-an-avian-like-chlamydia-psittaci-strain-involved-in-equine-placentitis-and-associated-with-subsequent-human-psittacosis
#19
Martina Jelocnik, James Branley, Jane Heller, Shane Raidal, Susan Alderson, Francesca Galea, Melinda Gabor, Adam Polkinghorne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196963/genetic-predisposition-to-acquire-a-polybasic-cleavage-site-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin
#20
Naganori Nao, Junya Yamagishi, Hiroko Miyamoto, Manabu Igarashi, Rashid Manzoor, Aiko Ohnuma, Yoshimi Tsuda, Wakako Furuyama, Asako Shigeno, Masahiro Kajihara, Noriko Kishida, Reiko Yoshida, Ayato Takada
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes evolve from low-pathogenic precursors through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been observed to occur naturally only in these HA subtypes, little is known about the genetic basis for the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site. Here we show that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure, which are frequently found in the viral RNA region encoding amino acids around the cleavage site of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses isolated from waterfowl reservoirs, are important for nucleotide insertions into this RNA region...
February 14, 2017: MBio
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