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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719959/pcr-identification-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-trichomonas-gallinae-from-domestic-pigeons-in-guangzhou-china
#1
Shen-Ben Qiu, Meng-Na Lv, Xi He, Ya-Biao Weng, Shang-Shu Zou, Xin-Qiu Wang, Rui-Qing Lin
Avian trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas gallinae is a serious protozoan disease worldwide. The domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is the main host for T. gallinae and plays an important role in the spread of the disease. Based on the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA of this parasite, a pair of primers (TgF2/TgR2) was designed and used to develop a PCR assay for the diagnosis of T. gallinae infection in domestic pigeons. This approach allowed the identification of T. gallinae, and no amplicons were produced when using DNA from other common avian pathogens...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718817/time-to-spread-your-wings-a-review-of-the-avian-ancient-dna-field
#2
REVIEW
Alicia Grealy, Nicolas J Rawlence, Michael Bunce
Ancient DNA (aDNA) has the ability to inform the evolutionary history of both extant and extinct taxa; however, the use of aDNA in the study of avian evolution is lacking in comparison to other vertebrates, despite birds being one of the most species-rich vertebrate classes. Here, we review the field of "avian ancient DNA" by summarising the past three decades of literature on this topic. Most studies over this time have used avian aDNA to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and clarify taxonomy based on the sequencing of a few mitochondrial loci, but recent studies are moving toward using a comparative genomics approach to address developmental and functional questions...
July 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718801/from-variation-of-influenza-viral-proteins-to-vaccine-development
#3
REVIEW
Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics are one of the most important global public health concerns and are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Influenza viruses can evolve through antigen drift and shift to overcome the barriers of human immunity, leading to host adaption and transmission. Mechanisms underlying this viral evolution are gradually being elucidated. Vaccination is an effective method for the prevention of influenza virus infection. However, the emergence of novel viruses, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), the avian influenza A virus (H7N9), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI H5N1), that have infected human populations frequently in recent years reveals the tremendous challenges to the current influenza vaccine strategy...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718786/egg-independent-influenza-vaccines-and-vaccine-candidates
#4
REVIEW
Ilaria Manini, Claudia Maria Trombetta, Giacomo Lazzeri, Teresa Pozzi, Stefania Rossi, Emanuele Montomoli
Vaccination remains the principal way to control seasonal infections and is the most effective method of reducing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Since the 1940s, the main method of producing influenza vaccines has been an egg-based production process. However, in the event of a pandemic, this method has a significant limitation, as the time lag from strain isolation to final dose formulation and validation is six months. Indeed, production in eggs is a relatively slow process and production yields are both unpredictable and highly variable from strain to strain...
July 18, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718046/complete-genome-sequencing-and-characterization-revealed-a-recombinant-subgroup-b-isolate-of-avian-leukosis-virus-with-a-subgroup-j-like-u3-region
#5
Peikun Wang, Yongli Yang, Lulu Lin, Haijuan Li, Ping Wei
One natural recombinant subgroup B avian leukosis virus (ALV) with a subgroup J-like U3 region was isolated from commercial native chickens that experienced disease in 2014 and named GX14FF03. GX14FF03 was isolated by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of avian leukosis virus p27 group-specific antigen, the detection of subtype specific PCR, and indirect immunofluorescence assay with ALV-B-specific monoclonal antibody. Its complete proviral genome was sequenced and compared with the reference strains of ALVs and found that the gag and pol were relatively conservative...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718045/full-length-genome-sequence-analysis-of-four-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-strains-isolated-from-chickens-with-clinical-hemangioma
#6
Lulu Lin, Peikun Wang, Yongli Yang, Haijuan Li, Teng Huang, Ping Wei
Since 2014, cases of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have been emerging in commercial chickens in Guangxi. In this study, four strains of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), named GX14HG01, GX14HG04, GX14LT07, and GX14ZS14, were isolated from chickens with clinical hemangioma in 2014 by DF-1 cell culture and then identified with ELISA detection of ALV group specific antigen p27, the detection of subtype specific PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with ALV-J specific monoclonal antibody...
July 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717324/investigation-of-avian-influenza-infection-in-wild-birds-in-ismailia-and-damietta-cities-egypt
#7
Hanaa Mohamed Fadel, Rabab Afifi
AIM: This study was carried out to monitor avian influenza (AI) infection in wild birds in Egypt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 135 wild birds were examined for the presence of H5, H7, and H9 hemagglutination inhibition antibodies. Organs and swab samples of 75 birds were screened by multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) to detect AI subtypes H5, H7, and H9 matrix genes. RESULTS: The highest seropositive result was recorded in cattle egrets (90...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717047/annotated-draft-genome-assemblies-for-the-northern-bobwhite-colinus-virginianus-and-the-scaled-quail-callipepla-squamata-reveal-disparate-estimates-of-modern-genome-diversity-and-historic-effective-population-size
#8
David L Oldeschulte, Yvette A Halley, Miranda L Wilson, Eric K Bhattarai, Wesley Brashear, Joshua Hill, Richard P Metz, Charles D Johnson, Dale Rollins, Markus J Peterson, Derek M Bickhart, Jared E Decker, John F Sewell, Christopher M Seabury
Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) populations have suffered precipitous declines across most of their U.S. ranges. Illumina-based first- (v1.0) and second-generation (v2.0) draft genome assemblies for the scaled quail and the bobwhite produced N50 scaffold sizes of 1.035 Mb and 2.042 Mb, thereby producing a 45-fold improvement in contiguity over the existing bobwhite assembly, and ≥ 90% of the assembled genomes were captured within 1,313 and 8,990 scaffolds, respectively...
July 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715468/heterosubtypic-cross-reactivity-of-ha1-antibodies-to-influenza-a-with-emphasis-on-nonhuman-subtypes-h5n1-h7n7-h9n2
#9
Dennis E Te Beest, Erwin de Bruin, Sandra Imholz, Marion Koopmans, Michiel van Boven
Epidemics of influenza A vary greatly in size and age distribution of cases, and this variation is attributed to varying levels of pre-existing immunity. Recent studies have shown that antibody-mediated immune responses are more cross-reactive than previously believed, and shape patterns of humoral immunity to influenza A viruses over long periods. Here we quantify antibody responses to the hemagglutinin subunit 1 (HA1) across a range of subtypes using protein microarray analysis of cross-sectional serological surveys carried out in the Netherlands before and after the A/2009 (H1N1) pandemic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715294/avian-pox-discovered-in-the-critically-endangered-waved-albatross-phoebastria-irrorata-from-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-islands-ecuador
#10
Emily M Tompkins, David J Anderson, Kristy L Pabilonia, Kathryn P Huyvaert
The Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata) is a critically endangered seabird in a rapidly shrinking population in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The introduction of novel pathogens and parasites poses a threat to population persistence. Monitoring disease prevalence and guarding against the spread of such agents in endemic taxa are conservation priorities for the Galápagos, where recent increases in the prevalence of avian pox may have contributed to population declines and range contractions in other bird species...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715152/demographic-and-ecological-risk-factors-for-human-influenza-a-virus-infections-in-rural-indonesia
#11
Elisabeth Dowling Root, Dwi Agustian, Cissy Kartasasmita, Timothy M Uyeki, Eric A F Simões
BACKGROUND: Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally-driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. OBJECTIVES: To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang sub-districts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011...
July 17, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715148/lineage-specific-epitope-profiles-for-hpai-h5-pre-pandemic-vaccine-selection-and-evaluation
#12
Xueting Qiu, Venkata R Duvvuri, Jonathan B Gubbay, Richard Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Justin Bahl
BACKGROUND: Multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses continue to co-circulate. This has complicated pandemic preparedness and confounded effective vaccine candidate selection and evaluation. OBJECTIVES: In this study we aim to predict and map the diversity of CD8+ T-cell epitopes among H5 Hemagglutinin (HA) gene lineages to estimate CD8+ T-cell immunity in humans induced by vaccine candidates. METHODS: A dataset consisting of 1125 H5 HA sequences collected between 1996 and 2017 from avian and humans was assembled for phylogenetic and lineage-specific epitope analyses...
July 17, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714923/heterologous-humoral-response-against-h5n1-h7n3-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-after-seasonal-vaccination-in-a-european-elderly-population
#13
Ivan Sanz, Silvia Rojo, Sonia Tamames, José María Eiros, Raúl Ortiz de Lejarazu
Avian influenza viruses are currently one of the main threats to human health in the world. Although there are some screening reports of antibodies against these viruses in humans from Western countries, most of these types of studies are conducted in poultry and market workers of Asian populations. The presence of antibodies against avian influenza viruses was evaluated in an elderly European population. An experimental study was conducted, including pre- and post-vaccine serum samples obtained from 174 elderly people vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccines of 2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 Northern Hemisphere vaccine campaigns...
July 17, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714909/the-interplay-between-the-host-receptor-and-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-and-neuraminidase
#14
REVIEW
Lauren Byrd-Leotis, Richard D Cummings, David A Steinhauer
The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins of influenza A virus are responsible for the surface interactions of the virion with the host. Entry of the virus is mediated by functions of the HA: binding to cellular receptors and facilitating fusion of the virion membrane with the endosomal membrane. The HA structure contains receptor binding sites in the globular membrane distal head domains of the trimer, and the fusion machinery resides in the stem region. These sites have specific characteristics associated with subtype and host, and the differences often define species barriers...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713995/bioinformatic-analysis-of-computational-identified-differentially-expressed-genes-in-tumor-stoma-of-pregnancy%C3%A2-associated-breast-cancer
#15
Qian Zhou, Erhu Sun, Lijun Ling, Xiaofeng Liu, Min Zhang, Hong Yin, Cheng Lu
The present study aimed to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in tumor‑associated stroma of pregnancy‑associated breast cancer (PABC). By analyzing Affymetrix microarray data (GSE31192) from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, DEGs between tumor asso-ciated stromal cells and normal stromal cells in PABC were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) function and pathway enrichment analyses for the DEGs were then performed, followed by construction of a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network. A total of 94 upregulated and 386 downregulated DEGs were identified between tumor associated stromal cells and normal stromal cells in patients with PABC...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713898/identification-of-potential-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-human-iga-nephropathy-and-hypertensive-nephropathy-by-bioinformatics-analysis
#16
Yingchun Cui, Shengmao Liu, Wenpeng Cui, Dan Gao, Wenhua Zhou, Ping Luo
In order to further elucidate the potential correlations and treatments of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and hypertensive nephropathy (HT), bioinformatics analysis of IgAN and HT was performed. The mRNA expression profiles of human renal biopsy samples from patients with IgAN, patients with HT and pre‑transplant healthy living controls (LD) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Then, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and functions of DEGs were analyzed. Finally, the regulatory networks containing DEGs and related‑transcription factors (TFs) were constructed using Cytoscape software...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713654/predator-prey-interactions-between-native-brine-shrimp-artemia-parthenogenetica-and-the-alien-boatman-trichocorixa-verticalis-influence-of-salinity-predator-sex-and-size-abundance-and-parasitic-status-of-prey
#17
Vanessa Céspedes, Marta I Sánchez, Andy J Green
Trichocorixa verticalis (T. verticalis), native to North America and the Caribbean islands, is an invasive waterboatman species (Corixidae) in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous studies in the native range have suggested that predation by T. verticalis can regulate the abundance of Anostracan and Cladoceran zooplankton in saline ecosystems, causing increases in phytoplankton through a trophic cascade. In this experimental study, we tested the predator-prey relationship between the native brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica, and T...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712469/subcortical-contributions-to-motor-speech-phylogenetic-developmental-clinical
#18
REVIEW
W Ziegler, H Ackermann
Vocal learning is an exclusively human trait among primates. However, songbirds demonstrate behavioral features resembling human speech learning. Two circuits have a preeminent role in this human behavior; namely, the corticostriatal and the cerebrocerebellar motor loops. While the striatal contribution can be traced back to the avian anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), the sensorimotor adaptation functions of the cerebellum appear to be human specific in acoustic communication. This review contributes to an ongoing discussion on how birdsong translates into human speech...
July 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712138/hematologic-reference-intervals-and-age-effect-in-european-strigiformes
#19
Susana Agusti Montolio, Rafael Molina López, Carolyn Cray, Santiago Lavín González, Olga Nicolás Francisco, Ignasi Marco Sánchez, Encarna Casas-Díaz, Rafaela Cuenca Valera
BACKGROUND: The clinical importance of hematologic testing in avian veterinary medicine is reflected in the increasing number of studies for the establishment of hematologic RIs of Strigiformes and other species. Age is an important physiologic factor in birds and the effect on hematology variable should be understood. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine baseline data of hematologic variables in 5 species of Iberian Strigiformes in different age classes...
July 16, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710829/spatiotemporal-evolutionary-epidemiology-of-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-west-africa-and-nigeria-2006-2015
#20
P S Ekong, N M Fountain-Jones, M A Alkhamis
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was first observed in Nigeria in early 2006 and has now spread to more than 17 African countries having severe economic and public health implications. Here, we explore the spatiotemporal patterns of viral dispersal both among West African countries and within Nigeria using sequence data from hemagglutinin (HA) gene region of the virus. Analyses were performed within a statistical Bayesian framework using phylodynamic models on data sets comprising of all publically available HA sequence data collected from seven West African countries and Egypt between 2006 and 2015...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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