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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817673/the-plasmid-encoded-ipf-and-klf-fimbriae-display-different-expression-and-varying-roles-in-the-virulence-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-infantis-in-mouse-vs-avian-hosts
#1
Gili Aviv, Laura Elpers, Svetlana Mikhlin, Helit Cohen, Shaul Vitman Zilber, Guntram A Grassl, Galia Rahav, Michael Hensel, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two previously uncharacterized pESI-encoded chaperone-usher fimbriae, named Ipf and Klf. While Ipf homologs are rare and were found only in S. enterica subspecies diarizonae and subspecies VII, Klf is related to the known K88-Fae fimbria and klf clusters were identified in seven S...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815990/trade-patterns-facilitating-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-dissemination-in-the-free-grazing-layer-duck-system-in-vietnam
#2
A Meyer, T X Dinh, T A Han, D V Do, T V Nhu, L T Pham, T T T Nguyen, S Newman, B Häsler, D U Pfeiffer, T Vergne
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam...
August 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815716/characterization-of-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-wild-and-captive-birds-in-the-winter-season-of-2016-2017-in-northern-japan
#3
Takahiro Hiono, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Keita Matsuno, Atsushi Haga, Ritsuko Iwata, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Mizuho Suzuki, Yuto Kikutani, Hiroshi Kida, Manabu Onuma, Yoshihiro Sakoda
On November 15, 2016, a suspected case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a dead black swan was reported from a zoo in Akita prefecture, northern Japan, and an HPAI virus (HPAIV) belonging to the H5N6 subtype was isolated from specimens taken from the bird. After the initial report, 230 cases of HPAI caused by H5N6 viruses were reported from wild birds, captive birds, and domestic poultry farms throughout the country during the winter season. In the present study, we further characterized 66 H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from northern Japan...
August 16, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814978/evolutionary-history-of-the-mariner-element-galluhop-in-avian-genomes
#4
Natasha Avila Bertocchi, Fabiano Pimentel Torres, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Ricardo José Gunski, Gabriel Luz Wallau
BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) are highly abundant genomic parasites in eukaryote genomes. Although several genomes have been screened for TEs, so far very limited information is available regarding avian TEs and their evolutionary histories. Taking advantage of the rich genomic data available for birds, we characterized the evolutionary history of the galluhop element, originally described in Gallus gallus, through the use of several bioinformatic analyses. RESULTS: galluhop homologous sequences were found in 6 of 72 genomes analyzed: 5 species of Galliformes (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Coturnix japonica, Colinus virginianus, Lyrurus tetrix) and one Buceritiformes (Buceros rhinoceros)...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814657/differential-sperm-storage-by-female-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#5
Nicola Hemmings, Tim Birkhead
When females mate promiscuously, female sperm storage provides scope to bias the fertilization success towards particular males via the non-random acceptance and utilization of sperm. The difficulties observing post-copulatory processes within the female reproductive tract mean that the mechanisms underlying cryptic female choice remain poorly understood. Here, we use zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, selected for divergent sperm lengths, combined with a novel technique for isolating and extracting sperm from avian sperm storage tubules (SSTs), to test the hypothesis that sperm from separate ejaculates are stored differentially by female birds...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814611/homing-pigeons-columba-livia-modulate-wingbeat-characteristics-as-a-function-of-route-familiarity
#6
Lucy A Taylor, Steven J Portugal, Dora Biro
Mechanisms of avian navigation have received considerable attention, but whether different navigational strategies are accompanied by different flight characteristics is unknown. Managing energy expenditure is critical for survival; therefore, understanding how flight characteristics, and hence energy allocation, potentially change with birds' familiarity with a navigational task could provide key insights into the costs of orientation. We addressed this question by examining changes in the wingbeat characteristics and airspeed of homing pigeons (Columba livia) as they learned a homing task...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814518/a-single-amino-acid-substitution-at-position-225-in-ha-alters-the-transmissibility-of-eurasian-avian-like-h1n1-swine-influenza-virus-in-guinea-pigs
#7
Zeng Wang, Huanliang Yang, Yan Chen, Shiyu Tao, Liling Liu, Huihui Kong, Shujie Ma, Fei Meng, Yasuo Suzuki, Chuanling Qiao, Hualan Chen
Efficient transmission from human to human is the prerequisite for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic; however, the molecular determinants of influenza virus transmission are still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the molecular basis for transmission of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses by comparing two viruses that are genetically similar but differ in their transmissibility in guinea pigs: the A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus (GX/18) is highly transmissible by respiratory droplet in guinea pigs, whereas the A/swine/Heilongjiang/27/2012 virus (HLJ/27) does not transmit in this animal model...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814512/zoonotic-risk-pathogenesis-and-transmission-of-avian-origin-h3n2-canine-influenza-virus
#8
Hailiang Sun, Sherry Blackmon, Guohua Yang, Kaitlyn Waters, Tao Li, Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat, Yifei Xu, Daniel Shyu, Feng Wen, Jim Cooley, Lucy Senter, Xiaoxu Lin, Richard Jarman, Larry Hanson, Richard Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), avian-origin canine influenza virus H3N2 (CIV-H3N2) and equine-origin CIV-H3N8, are enzootic in the canine population. Dogs have demonstrated seroconversion to diverse IAVs and naturally occurring reassortants of CIV-H3N2 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) have been isolated. We conducted a thorough phenotypic evaluation of CIV-H3N2 in order to assess its threat to human health. Using ferret-generated antisera we determined that CIV-H3N2 is antigenically distinct from contemporary human H3N2 IAVs, suggesting there may be minimal herd immunity in humans...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814270/transcriptional-analysis-of-abdominal-fat-in-chickens-divergently-selected-on-bodyweight-at-two-ages-reveals-novel-mechanisms-controlling-adiposity-validating-visceral-adipose-tissue-as-a-dynamic-endocrine-and-metabolic-organ
#9
C W Resnyk, W Carré, X Wang, T E Porter, J Simon, E Le Bihan-Duval, M J Duclos, S E Aggrey, L A Cogburn
BACKGROUND: Decades of intensive genetic selection in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) have enabled the remarkable rapid growth of today's broiler (meat-type) chickens. However, this enhanced growth rate was accompanied by several unfavorable traits (i.e., increased visceral fatness, leg weakness, and disorders of metabolism and reproduction). The present descriptive analysis of the abdominal fat transcriptome aimed to identify functional genes and biological pathways that likely contribute to an extreme difference in visceral fatness of divergently selected broiler chickens...
August 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813778/the-bactericidal-effect-of-high-temperature-is-an-essential-resistance-mechanism-of-chicken-macrophage-against-brucella-abortus-infection
#10
Lauren Togonon Arayan, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo Reyes, Huynh Tan Hop, Huy Tran Xuan, Eun Jin Baek, Wongi Min, Suk Kim
Knowledge of avian host responses to brucellosis is critical to understanding how avian resists this infection however this mechanism is not well established. On the other hand, temperature has a major involvement in the physiology of living organisms and cell death induced by heat is attributed to protein denaturation. This study demonstrates the direct bactericidal effect of a higher temperature (41ºC) to Brucella (B.) abortus that resulted in the gradual reduction of intracellular bacteria that inhibits bacterial growth within avian macrophage HD11 along an increasing period of time...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813663/a-crispr-activation-screen-identifies-a-pan-avian-influenza-virus-inhibitory-host-factor
#11
Brook E Heaton, Edward M Kennedy, Rebekah E Dumm, Alfred T Harding, Matthew T Sacco, David Sachs, Nicholas S Heaton
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a pathogen that poses significant risks to human health. It is therefore critical to develop strategies to prevent influenza disease. Many loss-of-function screens have been performed to identify the host proteins required for viral infection. However, there has been no systematic screen to identify the host factors that, when overexpressed, are sufficient to prevent infection. In this study, we used CRISPR/dCas9 activation technology to perform a genome-wide overexpression screen to identify IAV restriction factors...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813481/method-matters-experimental-evidence-for-shorter-avian-sperm-in-faecal-compared-to-abdominal-massage-samples
#12
Antje Girndt, Glenn Cockburn, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Hanne Løvlie, Julia Schroeder
Birds are model organisms in sperm biology. Previous work in zebra finches, suggested that sperm sampled from males' faeces and ejaculates do not differ in size. Here, we tested this assumption in a captive population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus. We compared sperm length in samples from three collection techniques: female dummy, faecal and abdominal massage samples. We found that sperm were significantly shorter in faecal than abdominal massage samples, which was explained by shorter heads and midpieces, but not flagella...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813097/avian-communities-in-the-amazonian-cangas-vegetation-biogeographic-affinities-components-of-beta-diversity-and-conservation
#13
Sérgio H Borges, Marcos P D Santos, Leonardo M S Soares, Antonita S DA Silva
The Amazonian cangas is a vegetation type distributed as patches of open vegetation embedded in a matrix of tropical forest and that grows over iron-rich soils in the Serra dos Carajás region. To characterize cangas avifauna, we surveyed birds in eight patches varying from 43 to 1,366 hectares. Cangas avifauna has compositional affinities with savannas widespread throughout the Amazon and other biomes, and we estimate that more than 200 bird species occurs in this habitat. Species composition was relatively homogeneous, and the similarity among cangas patches was the dominant component of the beta-diversity...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812673/craniofacial-diversification-in-the-domestic-pigeon-and-the-evolution-of-the-avian-skull
#14
Nathan M Young, Marta Linde-Medina, John W Fondon, Benedikt Hallgrímsson, Ralph S Marcucio
A central question in evolutionary developmental biology is how highly conserved developmental systems can generate the remarkable phenotypic diversity observed among distantly related species. In part, this paradox reflects our limited knowledge about the potential for species to both respond to selection and generate novel variation. Consequently, the developmental links between small-scale microevolutionary variations within populations to larger macroevolutionary patterns among species remain unbridged...
March 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812532/spontaneous-experimentally-induced-and-transmissible-aa-amyloidosis-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica
#15
Yumi Nakayama, Junichi Kamiie, Gen Watanabe, Kazuhiko Suzuki, Tomoaki Murakami
The authors describe a spontaneous case of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in an adult female Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica). The bird developed AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic peritonitis caused by a Gram-negative bacillus infection. Mild amyloid deposition was also identified in the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adult individuals, suggesting that quail may develop intestinal amyloidosis with age. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that quail can develop AA amyloidosis following inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811888/performance-test-and-verification-of-an-off-the-shelf-automated-avian-radar-tracking-system
#16
Roel May, Yngve Steinheim, Pål Kvaløy, Roald Vang, Frank Hanssen
Microwave radar is an important tool for observation of birds in flight and represents a tremendous increase in observation capability in terms of amount of surveillance space that can be covered at relatively low cost. Based on off-the-shelf radar hardware, automated radar tracking systems have been developed for monitoring avian movements. However, radar used as an observation instrument in biological research has its limitations that are important to be aware of when analyzing recorded radar data. This article describes a method for exploring the detection capabilities of a dedicated short-range avian radar system used inside the operational Smøla wind-power plant...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811887/lessons-from-the-t%C3%A5-hoku-tsunami-a-model-for-island-avifauna-conservation-prioritization
#17
Michelle H Reynolds, Paul Berkowitz, John L Klavitter, Karen N Courtot
Earthquake-generated tsunamis threaten coastal areas and low-lying islands with sudden flooding. Although human hazards and infrastructure damage have been well documented for tsunamis in recent decades, the effects on wildlife communities rarely have been quantified. We describe a tsunami that hit the world's largest remaining tropical seabird rookery and estimate the effects of sudden flooding on 23 bird species nesting on Pacific islands more than 3,800 km from the epicenter. We used global positioning systems, tide gauge data, and satellite imagery to quantify characteristics of the Tōhoku earthquake-generated tsunami (11 March 2011) and its inundation extent across four Hawaiian Islands...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811524/synthesis-of-sulfo-sialic-acid-analogues-potent-neuraminidase-inhibitors-in-regards-to-anomeric-functionality
#18
Christopher J Vavricka, Chiaki Muto, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Yoshinobu Kimura, Michihiro Araki, Yan Wu, George F Gao, Hiroshi Ohrui, Minoru Izumi, Hiromasa Kiyota
The design, synthesis and application of N-acetylneuraminic acid-derived compounds bearing anomeric sulfo functional groups are described. These novel compounds, which we refer to as sulfo-sialic acid analogues, include 2-decarboxy-2-deoxy-2-sulfo-N-acetylneuraminic acid and its 4-deoxy-3,4-dehydrogenated pseudoglycal. While 2-decarboxy-2-deoxy-2-sulfo-N-acetylneuraminic acid contains no further modifications of the 2-deoxy-pyranose ring, it is still a more potent inhibitor of avian-origin H5N1 neuraminidase (NA) and drug-resistant His275Tyr NA as compared to the oxocarbenium ion transition state analogue 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811215/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-protection-against-h9n2-influenza-virus-challenge-in-mice-by-recombinant-lactobacillus-plantarum-with-surface-displayed-ha2-ltb
#19
Yanlong Jiang, Guilian Yang, Qi Wang, Zhannan Wang, Wentao Yang, Wei Gu, Chunwei Shi, Jianzhong Wang, Haibin Huang, Chunfeng Wang
It has been considered that the Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes severe threats to poultry industry. In this study, we constructed a series of recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) with surface displayed hemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2) alone or together with heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Balb/c mice were used as model to evaluate the protective effects of recombinant L. plantarum strains against H9N2 subtype challenge. The results showed that the presence of LTB significantly increased the percentages of CD3(+)CD4(+)IL-4(+), CD3(+)CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+)IL-17(+) T cells, as well as CD3(+)CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells in spleen and MLNs determined by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting assay...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811028/advanced-nanotechnologies-in-avian-influenza-current-status-and-future-trends-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Amitava Moulick, Lukas Richtera, Vedran Milosavljevic, Natalia Cernei, Yazan Haddad, Ondrej Zitka, Pavel Kopel, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam
In the last decade, the control of avian influenza virus has experienced many difficulties, which have caused major global agricultural problems that have also led to public health consequences. Conventional biochemical methods are not sufficient to detect and control agricultural pathogens in the field due to the growing demand for food and subsidiary products; thus, studies aiming to develop potent alternatives to conventional biochemical methods are urgently needed. In this review, emerging detection systems, their applicability to diagnostics, and their therapeutic possibilities in view of nanotechnology are discussed...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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