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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534106/detection-and-prevalence-of-haemoproteus-archilochus-haemosporida-haemoproteidae-in-two-species-of-california-hummingbirds
#1
A C Bradshaw, L A Tell, H B Ernest, S Bahan, J Carlson, R N M Sehgal
Haemosporidian blood parasites are transmitted to a wide range of avian hosts via blood-sucking dipteran vectors. Microscopy has revealed an impressive diversity of avian haemosporidia with more than 250 species described. Moreover, PCR and subsequent sequence analyses have suggested a much greater diversity of haemosporidia than morphological analyses alone. Given the importance of these parasites, very few studies have focused on the charismatic hummingbirds. To date, three Haemoproteus species (Haemoproteus archilochus, Haemoproteus trochili, and Haemoproteus witti) and one Leucocytozoon species (Leucocytozoon quynzae) have been described in blood samples taken from hummingbirds (Trochilidae)...
May 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533456/colour-vision-and-coevolution-in-avian-brood-parasitism
#2
REVIEW
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Mark E Hauber
The coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts provide a powerful system for investigating the diversity of animal coloration. Specifically, reciprocal selection pressure applied by hosts and brood parasites can give rise to novel forms and functions of animal coloration, which largely differ from those that arise when selection is imposed by predators or mates. In the study of animal colours, avian brood parasite-host dynamics therefore invite special consideration. Rapid advances across disciplines have paved the way for an integrative study of colour and vision in brood parasite-host systems...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533455/coevolution-of-coloration-and-colour-vision
#3
Olle Lind, Miriam J Henze, Almut Kelber, Daniel Osorio
The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533093/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-live-attenuated-influenza-h5-candidate-vaccine-strain-a-17-turkey-turkey-05-133-h5n2-and-its-priming-effects-for-potential-pre-pandemic-use-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Punnee Pitisuttithum, Kobporn Boonnak, Supat Chamnanchanunt, Pilaipan Puthavathana, Viravarn Luvira, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Vipa Thanachartwet, Udomsak Silachamroon, Wanibtisam Masamae, Alexandra Schuetz, Ponthip Wirachwong, Sit Thirapakpoomanunt, Larisa Rudenko, Erin Sparrow, Martin Friede, Marie-Paule Kieny
BACKGROUND: The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses has raised concerns about their pandemic potential. Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing influenza. In this study, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of an avian H5N2 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV H5N2) in healthy Thai adults and its priming immune responses with an H5N1 inactivated vaccine boost. METHODS: This study was done at the Vaccine Trial Centre at Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand and was divided into two parts...
May 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533052/reverse-spillover-of-avian-viral-vaccine-strains-from-domesticated-poultry-to-wild-birds
#5
M A Rohaim, R F El Naggar, A M Helal, H A Hussein, Muhammad Munir
Transmission of viruses from the commercial poultry to wild birds is an emerging paradigm of livestock-wildlife interface. Here, we report the identification and isolation of vaccine strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV1) and avian coronaviruses (ACoV) from different wild bird species across eight Egyptian governorates between January 2014 and December 2015. Surveillance of avian respiratory viruses in free-ranging wild birds (n=297) identified three species that harboured or excreted APMV1 and ACoVs...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532813/genetics-and-biological-property-analysis-of-korea-lineage-of-influenza-a-h9n2-viruses
#6
Min Kang, Hyung-Kwan Jang
H9N2 influenza viruses have been detected from wild and domestic avian species including chickens and ducks worldwide. Few studies have compared the biological properties of different H9N2 lineages or determined whether certain lineages might pose a higher risk to mammals, especially H9N2 viruses of Korean lineage. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic and biological properties of 22 Korean H9N2 viruses and assess their potential risks to mammals. Their complete genomes were analyzed. Some Korean H9N2 viruses were found to carry mammalian host-specific mutations...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532787/evolution-of-avian-encephalomyelitis-virus-during-embryo-adaptation
#7
Rüdiger Hauck, C Gabriel Sentíes-Cué, Ying Wang, Colin Kern, H L Shivaprasad, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo A Gallardo
Wild-type avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) causes neurological signs in young chicks but no disease in pullets after oral or intracutaneous infection. However, if the virus gets embryo-adapted by serial passaging in chicken embryos, it will cause AE after intracutaneous infection in chickens of all ages. Recently, several cases of AE in layer pullets occurring shortly after intracutaneous vaccination were described. The present investigation was initiated to determine if vaccines that had inadvertently been embryo-adapted were responsible for these outbreaks...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532523/immune-responses-intestinal-microbiota-performance-and-blood-characteristics-of-japanese-quail-fed-on-diets-containing-camphor
#8
A Sedaghat, M A Karimi Torshizi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental camphor on the performance and immune functions of Japanese quail by feeding graded levels (0 (control), 250, 500, 750, 1000, 5000 or 10 000 ppm) of camphor during a 42-day feeding trial. In all, 280 1-day-old quail chicks were randomly assigned into 28 cages of 10 chicks each with separate feeders. The results clearly demonstrated that camphor did not have a significant effect on BW, BW gain, total experimental average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, internal organ relative weights and biochemical parameters such as uric acid, albumin, total protein and triglyceride; however, plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly different in a linear manner, in which 500 ppm of camphor resulted in a lower level of cholesterol...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532466/baseline-and-stress-induced-levels-of-corticosterone-in-male-and-female-afrotropical-and-european-temperate-stonechats-during-breeding
#9
Beate Apfelbeck, Barbara Helm, Juan Carlos Illera, Kim G Mortega, Patrick Smiddy, Neil P Evans
BACKGROUND: Latitudinal variation in avian life histories falls along a slow-fast pace of life continuum: tropical species produce small clutches, but have a high survival probability, while in temperate species the opposite pattern is found. This study investigated whether differential investment into reproduction and survival of tropical and temperate species is paralleled by differences in the secretion of the vertebrate hormone corticosterone (CORT). Depending on circulating concentrations, CORT can both act as a metabolic (low to medium levels) and a stress hormone (high levels) and, thereby, influence reproductive decisions...
May 22, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532182/tackling-a-novel-lethal-virus-a-focus-on-h7n9-vaccine-development
#10
Irina Isakova-Sivak, Larisa Rudenko
Avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses first detected in humans in China in 2013 continue to cause severe human infections with a mortality rate close to 40%. These viruses are acknowledged as the subtype most likely to cause the next influenza pandemic. Areas covered: Here we review published data on the development of H7N9 influenza vaccine candidates and their evaluation in preclinical and clinical trials identified on PubMed database with the term "H7N9 influenza vaccine". In addition, a search with the same term was done on ClinicalTrials...
May 22, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529652/de-novo-assembly-of-the-liver-transcriptome-of-the-european-starling-sturnus-vulgaris
#11
Mark F Richardson, William B Sherwin, Lee A Rollins
The European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, is a prolific and worldwide invasive species that also has served as an important model for avian ecological and invasion research. Although the genome sequence recently has become available, no transcriptome data have been published for this species. Here, we have sequenced and assembled the S. vulgaris liver transcriptome, which will provide a foundational resource for further annotation and validation of the draft genome. Moreover, it will be important for ecological and evolutionary studies investigating the genetic factors underlying rapid evolution and invasion success in this global invader...
2017: Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529504/a-novel-avian-paramyxovirus-putative-serotype-15-isolated-from-wild-birds
#12
Hyun-Jeong Lee, Ji-Ye Kim, Youn-Jeong Lee, Eun-Kyung Lee, Byoung-Min Song, Hee-Soo Lee, Kang-Seuk Choi
In January 2014, a viral hemagglutinating agent named UPO216 was isolated from fecal droppings of wild birds at the UPO wetland in South Korea during an avian influenza surveillance program. Electron microscopy identified the UPO216 virus as an avian paramyxovirus (APMV). Pathogenicity tests and molecular pathotyping revealed that the virus was avirulent in chickens. The UPO216 virus was assigned to a serological group antigenically distinct from known serotypes of APMV (-1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -8, and -9) by hemagglutination inhibition test, despite showing weak cross-reactivity with APMV-1 and APMV-9...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528903/equilibrium-bird-species-diversity-in-atlantic-islands
#13
Luis Valente, Juan Carlos Illera, Katja Havenstein, Tamara Pallien, Rampal S Etienne, Ralph Tiedemann
Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]...
May 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528892/hot-chicks-cold-feet
#14
Randi Oppermann Moe, Jon Bohlin, Andreas Flø, Guro Vasdal, Solveig Marie Stubsjøen
Infrared thermography (IRT) is increasingly applied as a noninvasive technique for measuring surface body temperature alterations related to e.g. stress, emotions and leg pathologies in avian species. As a basis for the validation of IRT as a future tool for veterinary diagnostics such as detection and/or prediction of subclinical footpad pathologies in broiler chickens, this study explored effects of manual restraint at two different ages on footpad temperatures. Head region temperatures were applied as additional measures of emotional arousal and stress...
May 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528860/purifying-selection-and-concerted-evolution-of-rna-sensing-toll-like-receptors-in-migratory-waders
#15
Nynke Raven, Simeon Lisovski, Marcel Klaassen, Nathan Lo, Thomas Madsen, Simon Y W Ho, Beata Ujvari
Migratory birds encounter a broad range of pathogens during their journeys, making them ideal models for studying immune gene evolution. Despite the potential value of these species to immunoecology and disease epidemiology, previous studies have typically focused on their adaptive immune gene repertoires. In this study, we examined the evolution of innate immune genes in three long-distance migratory waders (order Charadriiformes). We analysed two parts of the extracellular domains of two Toll-like receptors (TLR3 and TLR7) involved in virus recognition in the Sanderling (Calidris alba), Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis), and Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres)...
May 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528763/evaluation-of-recombinant-chinese-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-cahev-orf2-and-orf3-proteins-for-protection-of-chickens-against-cahev-infection
#16
Shahid Faraz Syed, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Baoyuan Liu, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the etiologic agent of big liver and spleen disease in chickens. In 2010, the Chinese avian HEV (CaHEV) strain was isolated from chickens and demonstrated to cause the decreased egg production in layer hens. No avian HEV commercial vaccine has yet been developed to prevent virus infection in China. In this study, recombinant CaHEV truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were evaluated separately for immunoprotection of chickens against CaHEV infection. First, truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528317/levels-of-blood-lead-in-griffon-vultures-from-a-wildlife-rehabilitation-center-in-spain
#17
Fernando González, Irene López, Laura Suarez, Virginia Moraleda, Casilda Rodríguez
Lead is considered a highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to bird wildlife. Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) are a sensitive indicator of the level of environmental contamination due to their position at the top of the food chain and their dependence on human activities. The aim of this study was to assess susceptibility to lead intoxication in Griffon vultures admitted to Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers (WRC), measuring blood lead levels and determining if blood lead concentrations are related to clinical signs, hematological, biochemical or radiographic findings...
May 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526756/restricted-intra-embryonic-origin-of-bona-fide-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-chicken
#18
Laurent Yvernogeau, Catherine Robin
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), responsible for blood cell production, are generated during embryonic development. Human and chicken embryos share features that pose the chicken as a reliable and accessible alternative model to study developmental hematopoiesis. However, the existence of HSCs has never been formally proven in chicken embryos. Here, we established a complete cartography and quantification of hematopoietic cells in the aorta during development. We demonstrated the existence of bona fide HSCs, originating from the chicken embryo aorta (and not the yolk sac, allantois or head), through an in vivo transplantation assay...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526685/differences-in-molecular-mechanisms-of-k-clearance-in-the-auditory-sensory-epithelium-of-birds-and-mammals
#19
Viviane Wilms, Chris Söffgen, Hans Gerd Nothwang
Mechanoelectrical transduction in the vertebrate inner ear is a highly conserved mechanism depending on K(+) influx into hair cells. Here, we investigated the molecular underpinnings of subsequent K(+) recycling in the chicken basilar papilla and compared it with those in the mammalian auditory sensory epithelium. Like mammals, the avian auditory hair cell uses KCNQ4, KCNMA1, and KCNMB1 as K(+) efflux systems. Expression of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 suggests an additional efflux apparatus in avian hair cells. Marked differences were observed for K(+) clearance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526588/adam10-and-%C3%AE-secretase-regulate-sensory-regeneration-in-the-avian-vestibular-organs
#20
Mark E Warchol, Jennifer Stone, Matthew Barton, Jeffrey Ku, Rose Veile, Nicolas Daudet, Michael Lovett
The loss of sensory hair cells from the inner ear is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders. The mammalian ear has a very limited ability to replace lost hair cells, but the inner ears of non-mammalian vertebrates can spontaneously regenerate hair cells after injury. Prior studies have shown that replacement hair cells are derived from epithelial supporting cells and that the differentiation of new hair cells is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. The present study examined molecular influences on regeneration in the avian utricle, which has a particularly robust regenerative ability...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
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