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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087451/in-depth-comparative-analysis-of-the-chicken-eggshell-membrane-proteome
#1
Tamer A E Ahmed, Henri-Pierre Suso, Maxwell T Hincke
: The avian eggshell membrane (ESM) is stabilized by extensive cross-linkages, making the identification of its protein constituents technically challenging. Herein, we applied various extraction/solubilization conditions followed by proteomic analysis to characterize the protein constituents of ESM derived from the unfertilized chicken eggs. The egg white and eggshell proteomes (including previous published work) were determined and compared to ESM to identify proteins that are relatively or highly specific to ESM...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#2
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087147/immune-responses-to-in-ovo-vaccine-formulations-containing-inactivated-fowl-adenovirus-8b-with-poly-di-sodium-carboxylatoethylphenoxy-phosphazene-pcep-and-avian-beta-defensin-as-adjuvants-in-chickens
#3
Mishal Sarfraz, Muhammed Suleman, Suresh K Tikoo, Colette Wheler, Andrew A Potter, Volker Gerdts, Arshud Dar
Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major viral infections causing substantial economic loss to the global poultry industry. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of mortality (2-30%) and high morbidity (60-70%). IBH is caused by a number of serotypes of fowl adenovirus with substantially low levels of serotype cross protection. Thus far, there is no effective and safe vaccine commercially available in the North America for the control of IBH in chickens. Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]phosphazene (PCEP) is a high molecular weight, biodegradable water soluble polymer that has been well characterized as a safe and effective adjuvant for a number of experimental veterinary vaccines...
January 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086922/transcriptional-profiles-in-bursal-b-lymphoid-dt40-cells-infected-with-very-virulent-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#4
Rong Quan, Shanshan Zhu, Li Wei, Jing Wang, Xu Yan, Zixuan Li, Jue Liu
BACKGROUND: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The virus mainly infects immature B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Chicken B cell line DT40, an avian leukosis virus-induced B cell line, supports very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) infection in vitro and thereby serves as a good model for investigating the infection and pathogenesis of this virus. However, a transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between vvIBDV and B cells has not yet been achieved...
January 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086751/quantifying-predictors-for-the-spatial-diffusion-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-china
#5
Lu Lu, Andrew J Leigh Brown, Samantha J Lycett
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes both severe outbreaks and endemic disease among poultry and has caused sporadic human infections in Asia, furthermore the routes of transmission in avian species between geographic regions can be numerous and complex. Using nucleotide sequences from the internal protein coding segments of AIV, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic study to uncover regional routes of transmission and factors predictive of the rate of viral diffusion within China...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081470/inhibition-viral-rnp-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-coumarins-against-influenza-virus
#6
YuTao Wang, Wen Yan, QiaoLian Chen, WanYi Huang, Zifeng Yang, Xiong Li, XinHua Wang
Influenza viruses pose a severe threat to human health and a significant increase in antiviral drug-resistant among influenza viruses worldwide has been observed. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop the new antiviral drugs, specifically from the natural products. In this study, the anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities of coumarins against influenza A virus in vitro were investigated. One of the derivatives eleutheroside B1 showed a wide spectrum of anti- human influenza virus effect with the IC50 value of 64-125μg/ml in vitro, but it showed no effects against avian influenza virus...
January 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080910/use-of-computed-tomography-for-investigation-of-rhinitis-and-sinusitis-in-a-greater-rhea-rhea-americana
#7
Anne M Meyer, Kristen Phair, Gary West
Sinusitis is a common finding in avian species; however, it presents unique treatment challenges in ratites. A 6-yr-old male greater rhea ( Rhea americana ) presented acutely with right infraorbital sinus swelling and chemosis. Oral antibiotics were prescribed based on bacterial culture results with incomplete resolution of clinical signs. A computed tomography scan of the skull demonstrated a mixed-density soft tissue mass with extensive destruction of the right nasal bone, hard palate, maxilla, and frontal bone...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079520/genetic-characterisation-of-novel-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-h5n6-viruses-isolated-in-birds-south-korea-november-2016
#8
Young-Jae Si, In Won Lee, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Il Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Su-Jin Park, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Se Mi Kim, Jin-Jung Kwon, Won-Suk Choi, Yun Hee Beak, Min-Suk Song, Chul-Joong Kim, Richard J Webby, Young-Ki Choi
A novel genotype of H5N6 influenza viruses was isolated from migratory birds in South Korea during November 2016. Domestic outbreaks of this virus were associated with die-offs of wild birds near reported poultry cases in Chungbuk province, central South Korea. Genetic analysis and animal studies demonstrated that the Korean H5N6 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and that these viruses are novel reassortants of at least three different subtypes (H5N6, H4N2 and H1N1).
January 5, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079188/proteome-response-of-chicken-embryo-fibroblast-cells-to-recombinant-h5n1-avian-influenza-viruses-with-different-neuraminidase-stalk-lengths
#9
Yongtao Li, Fan Ming, Huimin Huang, Kelei Guo, Huanchun Chen, Meilin Jin, Hongbo Zhou
The variation on neuraminidase (NA) stalk region of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus results in virulence change in animals. In our previous studies, the special NA stalk-motif of H5N1 viruses has been demonstrated to play a significant role in the high virulence and pathogenicity in chickens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of viruses with different NA stalk remain poorly understood. This study presents a comprehensive characterization of the proteome response of chicken cells to recombinant H5N1 virus with stalk-short NA (rNA-wt) and the stalkless NA mutant virus (rSD20)...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079062/does-retinal-configuration-make-the-head-and-eyes-of-foveate-birds-move
#10
Bret A Moore, Luke P Tyrrell, Diana Pita, Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds, Esteban Fernández-Juricic
Animals move their heads and eyes to compensate for movements of the body and background, search, fixate, and track objects visually. Avian saccadic head/eye movements have been shown to vary considerably between species. We tested the hypothesis that the configuration of the retina (i.e., changes in retinal ganglion cell density from the retinal periphery to the center of acute vision-fovea) would account for the inter-specific variation in avian head/eye movement behavior. We characterized retinal configuration, head movement rate, and degree of eye movement of 29 bird species with a single fovea, controlling for the effects of phylogenetic relatedness...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078738/dorsal-pallidal-neurons-directly-link-the-nidopallium-and-midbrain-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#11
J Martin Wild
The dorsal pallidum in birds is considered similar, if not homologous, to the globus pallidus (GP) of mammals. The dorsal pallidum projects to both thalamic and midbrain targets similar to the direct and indirect pathways arising from the internal and external segments of the GP. In the present study retrograde and anterograde tracing studies revealed a previously undescribed projection of the avian dorsal pallidum. This arises from a specific dorsomedial component, which terminates in the intercollicular nucleus and partly surrounds the avian equivalent of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077774/tropical-ancient-dna-reveals-relationships-of-the-extinct-bahamian-giant-tortoise-chelonoidis-alburyorum
#12
Christian Kehlmaier, Axel Barlow, Alexander K Hastings, Melita Vamberger, Johanna L A Paijmans, David W Steadman, Nancy A Albury, Richard Franz, Michael Hofreiter, Uwe Fritz
Ancient DNA of extinct species from the Pleistocene and Holocene has provided valuable evolutionary insights. However, these are largely restricted to mammals and high latitudes because DNA preservation in warm climates is typically poor. In the tropics and subtropics, non-avian reptiles constitute a significant part of the fauna and little is known about the genetics of the many extinct reptiles from tropical islands. We have reconstructed the near-complete mitochondrial genome of an extinct giant tortoise from the Bahamas (Chelonoidis alburyorum) using an approximately 1 000-year-old humerus from a water-filled sinkhole (blue hole) on Great Abaco Island...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077631/vaccine-efficacy-of-an-inactivated-chimeric-ha-h9-h5n2-avian-influenza-virus-and-its-suitability-for-the-marker-vaccine-strategy
#13
Se Mi Kim, Young-Il Kim, Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Min-Suk Song, Young Ki Choi
: In order to produce a dual effective vaccine against H9 and H5 avian influenza viruses that aligns with the DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) strategy, we generated a chimeric H9/H5N2 recombinant vaccine which expressed the whole HA1 region of A/CK/Korea/04163/04 H9N2 and HA2 region of recent HPAI A/MD/Korea/W452/14 H5N8 viruses. The Chimeric H9/H5N2 virus showed similar in vitro and in vivo growth properties and virulence to the LPAI H9 influenza virus. An inactivated vaccine based on this chimeric virus induced serum neutralizing (SN) antibodies against both H9 and H5 viruses, but only induced cross-reactive hemmaglutination inhibition (HI) antibody against H9 viruses...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077286/assessment-of-neuroanatomical-and-behavioural-effects-of-in-ovo-methylmercury-exposure-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#14
Maria S Yu, Margaret L Eng, Tony D Williams, Mélanie F Guigueno, John E Elliott
Methylmercury (MeHg) readily crosses the blood brain barrier and is a known neuro-toxicant. MeHg accumulation in the brain causes histopathological alterations, neurobehavioral changes, and impairments to cognitive motor functions in mammalian models. However, in birds the neurotoxic effects of MeHg on the developing pre-hatching brain and consequent behavioral alterations in adult birds have not received much attention. Moreover, passerine birds are poorly represented in MeHg neurotoxicology studies in comparison to other avian orders...
January 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076405/development-and-validation-of-a-new-reliable-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-avian-botulism
#15
Caroline Le Maréchal, Sandra Rouxel, Valentine Ballan, Emmanuelle Houard, Typhaine Poezevara, Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer, Rozenn Souillard, Hervé Morvan, Marie-Agnès Baudouard, Cédric Woudstra, Christelle Mazuet, Sophie Le Bouquin, Patrick Fach, Michel Popoff, Marianne Chemaly
Liver is a reliable matrix for laboratory confirmation of avian botulism using real-time PCR. Here, we developed, optimized, and validated the analytical steps preceding PCR to maximize the detection of Clostridium botulinum group III in avian liver. These pre-PCR steps included enrichment incubation of the whole liver (maximum 25 g) at 37°C for at least 24 h in an anaerobic chamber and DNA extraction using an enzymatic digestion step followed by a DNA purification step. Conditions of sample storage before analysis appear to have a strong effect on the detection of group III C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076391/assessing-sexual-dicromatism-the-importance-of-proper-parameterization-in-tetrachromatic-visual-models
#16
Pierre-Paul Bitton, Kevyn Janisse, Stéphanie M Doucet
Perceptual models of animal vision have greatly contributed to our understanding of animal-animal and plant-animal communication. The receptor-noise model of color contrasts has been central to this research as it quantifies the difference between two colors for any visual system of interest. However, if the properties of the visual system are unknown, assumptions regarding parameter values must be made, generally with unknown consequences. In this study, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of the receptor-noise model using avian visual system parameters to systematically investigate the influence of variation in light environment, photoreceptor sensitivities, photoreceptor densities, and light transmission properties of the ocular media and the oil droplets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074860/sex-and-age-dependent-patterns-of-survival-and-breeding-success-in-a-long-lived-endangered-avian-scavenger
#17
Ana Sanz-Aguilar, Ainara Cortés-Avizanda, David Serrano, Guillermo Blanco, Olga Ceballos, Juan M Grande, José L Tella, José A Donázar
In long-lived species, the age-, stage- and/or sex-dependent patterns of survival and reproduction determine the evolution of life history strategies, the shape of the reproductive value, and ultimately population dynamics. We evaluate the combined effects of age and sex in recruitment, breeder survival and breeding success of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), using 31-years of exhaustive data on marked individuals in Spain. Mean age of first reproduction was 7-yrs for both sexes, but females showed an earlier median and a larger variance than males...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074715/comparison-of-three-different-primer-sets-for-sexing-birds
#18
Emel Çakmak, Çiğdem Akın Pekşen, C Can Bilgin
Because many bird species are monomorphic or only sexually dimorphic in adult stages, it is difficult to determine their sexes, which may cause significant problems in population and conservation studies. DNA-based sexing relies on the chromodomain helicase DNA binding ( CHD) gene located on the W chromosome and its homolog on the Z chromosome, giving distinct banding patterns on agarose gel as a result of length differences in intronic regions within this gene. We used 3 specific primer sets, CHD1F/CHD1R, 2550F/2718R, and P2/P8, for sex determination of 230 samples from 77 avian species...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072964/-avian-influenza-virus-h9n2-found-in-a-child-with-influenza-like-illness-in-beijing
#19
R N Zhu, Y Sun, F Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072845/tuberculosis-detection-in-paratuberculosis-vaccinated-calves-new-alternatives-against-interference
#20
Miriam Serrano, Natalia Elguezabal, Iker A Sevilla, María V Geijo, Elena Molina, Rakel Arrazuria, Alfonso Urkitza, Gareth J Jones, Martin Vordermeier, Joseba M Garrido, Ramón A Juste
Paratuberculosis vaccination in cattle has been restricted due to its possible interference with the official diagnostic methods used in tuberculosis eradication programs. To overcome this drawback, new possibilities to detect Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle in paratuberculosis vaccinated animals were studied under experimental conditions. Three groups of 5 calves each were included in the experiment: one paratuberculosis vaccinated group, one paratuberculosis vaccinated and M. bovis infected group and one M...
2017: PloS One
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