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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325732/whey-protein-effects-on-energy-balance-link-the-intestinal-mechanisms-of-energy-absorption-with-adiposity-and-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-gene-expression
#1
Kanishka N Nilaweera, Raul Cabrera-Rubio, John R Speakman, Paula M O' Connor, AnneMarie McAuliffe, Caitriona M Guinane, Elaine Lawton, Fiona Crispie, Mònica Aguilera, Maurice Stanley, Serena Boscaini, Susan Joyce, Silvia Melgar, John F Cryan, Paul D Cotter
We tested the hypothesis that dietary whey protein isolate (WPI) affects the intestinal mechanisms related to energy absorption and that the resulting energy deficit is compensated by changes in energy balance to support growth. C57BL/6 mice were provided a diet enriched with WPI with varied sucrose content, and the impact on energy balance related parameters were investigated. As part of a high sucrose diet, WPI reduced the hypothalamic expression of pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression and increased energy intake...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318464/effects-of-a-dietary-crude-fibre-concentrate-on-growth-in-weaned-piglets
#2
P Superchi, R Saleri, P Borghetti, G Ferrarini, V Cavalli, M Sereni, S Zavattini, A Sabbioni
Many fibre sources can help the adaptation of piglets at weaning, improving the growth. In this study, the effects of a dietary crude fibre concentrate (CFC) on piglet's growth was investigated. From 31 to 51 days of age, 108 weaned piglets (D×(Lw×L)), had access to two isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets, supplemented with 1% of CFC (CFC group) or not (control (CON) group). From days 52 to 64 all piglets received the same starter diet. During the dietary treatment period the CFC group showed higher average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed efficiency (P<0...
March 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292619/obesity-and-female-infertility-potential-mediators-of-obesity-s-impact
#3
REVIEW
Darcy E Broughton, Kelle H Moley
The worldwide upward trend in obesity has been dramatic, now affecting more than 20% of American women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal effects prenatally, but it also exerts a negative influence on female fertility. Obese women are more likely to have ovulatory dysfunction due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who are also obese demonstrate a more severe metabolic and reproductive phenotype. Obese women have reduced fecundity even when eumenorrheic and demonstrate poorer outcomes with the use of in vitro fertilization...
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288611/benefits-of-resistance-exercise-in-lean-women-with-fibromyalgia-involvement-of-igf-1-and-leptin
#4
Jan L Bjersing, Anette Larsson, Annie Palstam, Malin Ernberg, Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar, Monika Löfgren, Björn Gerdle, Eva Kosek, Kaisa Mannerkorpi
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain and fatigue improves by exercise in fibromyalgia (FM) but underlying mechanisms are not known. Obesity is increased among FM patients and associates with higher levels of pain. Symptom improvement after aerobic exercise is affected by body mass index (BMI) in FM. Metabolic factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and leptin may be involved. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the role of metabolic factors in lean, overweight and obese women during resistance exercise, in relation to symptom severity and muscle strength in women with FM...
March 14, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287413/the-effect-of-short-term-dietary-fructose-supplementation-on-gastric-emptying-rate-and-gastrointestinal-hormone-responses-in-healthy-men
#5
Adora M W Yau, John McLaughlin, Ronald J Maughan, William Gilmore, Gethin H Evans
This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the (13)C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides...
March 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245454/leptin-neuroinflammation-and-obesity
#6
Nathalia R V Dragano, Roberta Haddad-Tovolli, Licio A Velloso
Hypothalamic resistance to adipostatic actions of leptin is a hallmark of obesity. Studies have revealed that hypothalamic inflammation, triggered in response to the consumption of large amounts of dietary fat, is an important mechanism in the development of leptin resistance. In this chapter, we will review the work that paved the way linking neuroinflammation of the hypothalamus and defective leptin action in obesity.
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241808/modified-lingguizhugan-decoction-incorporated-with-dietary-restriction-and-exercise-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-hyperlipidemia-and-hypertension-in-a-rat-model-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#7
Limei Yao, Jingjing Wei, Si Shi, Kunbin Guo, Xiangyu Wang, Qi Wang, Dingsheng Chen, Weirong Li
BACKGROUND: Modified Lingguizhugan Decoction (MLD) came from famous Chinese medicine Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The MLD is used for the treatment of metabolic syndrome in the clinical setting. Our study focuses on the comprehensive treatment of MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS: Rats were divided into five groups: control group (Cont), high-fat diet group (HFD), high-fat diet incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR), exercise incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR-Ex) and MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise group (HFD-DR-Ex-MLD)...
February 28, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235645/modification-of-the-fatty-acid-composition-of-an-obesogenic-diet-improves-the-maternal-and-placental-metabolic-environment-in-obese-pregnant-mice
#8
Martina Gimpfl, Jan Rozman, Maik Dahlhoff, Raphaela Kübeck, Andreas Blutke, Birgit Rathkolb, Martin Klingenspor, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Soner Öner-Sieben, Annette Seibt, Adelbert A Roscher, Eckhard Wolf, Regina Ensenauer
Peri-conceptional exposure to maternal obesogenic nutrition is associated with in utero programming of later-life overweight and metabolic disease in the offspring. We aimed to investigate whether dietary intervention with a modified fatty acid quality in an obesogenic high-calorie (HC) diet during the preconception and gestational phases can improve unfavourable effects of an adipogenic maternal environment. In NMRI mice, peri-conceptional and gestational obesity was induced by feeding a HC diet (controls), and they were compared with dams on a fat-modified (Fat-mod) HC diet of the same energy content but enriched with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and adjusted to a decreased ratio of n-6 to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs)...
February 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222742/resistant-starch-lowers-postprandial-glucose-and-leptin-in-overweight-adults-consuming-a-moderate-to-high-fat-diet-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Mindy Patterson Maziarz, Sara Preisendanz, Shanil Juma, Victorine Imrhan, Chandan Prasad, Parakat Vijayagopal
BACKGROUND: High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAM-RS2) stimulates gut-derived satiety peptides and reduces adiposity in animals. Human studies have not supported these findings despite improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after HAM-RS2 intake which can lower adiposity-related disease risk. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HAM-RS2 consumption on blood glucose homeostasis in overweight, healthy adults. We also examined changes in biomarkers of satiety (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], and leptin) and body composition determined by anthropometrics and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and subjective satiety measured by a visual analogue scale following HAM-RS2 consumption...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193219/the-effect-of-an-antenatal-lifestyle-intervention-in-overweight-and-obese-women-on-circulating-cardiometabolic-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-secondary-analyses-from-the-limit-randomised-trial
#10
Lisa J Moran, Louise M Fraser, Tulika Sundernathan, Andrea R Deussen, Jennie Louise, Lisa N Yelland, Rosalie M Grivell, Anne Macpherson, Matthew W Gillman, Jeffrey S Robinson, Julie A Owens, Jodie M Dodd
BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight and obesity during pregnancy is associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and a low-grade state of chronic inflammation. The aim of this pre-specified analysis of secondary outcome measures was to evaluate the effect of providing antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice on cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre trial in which pregnant women who were overweight or obese were randomised to receive either Lifestyle Advice or Standard Care...
February 14, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192465/impact-of-a-cafeteria-diet-and-daily-physical-training-on-the-rat-serum-metabolome
#11
Susana Suárez-García, Josep M Del Bas, Antoni Caimari, Rosa M Escorihuela, Lluís Arola, Manuel Suárez
Regular physical activity and healthy dietary patterns are commonly recommended for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is diagnosed at an alarmingly increasing rate, especially among adolescents. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the relevance of physical exercise on the modulation of the metabolome in healthy people and those with MetS. We have previously shown that treadmill exercise ameliorated different symptoms of MetS. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a MetS-inducing diet and different intensities of aerobic training on the overall serum metabolome of adolescent rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170448/genome-wide-analysis-identifies-colonic-genes-differentially-associated-with-serum-leptin-and-insulin-concentrations-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Sung-Eun Kim, Jinsil Choo, Joon Yoon, Jae Ryang Chu, Yun Jung Bae, Seungyeoun Lee, Taesung Park, Mi-Kyung Sung
Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is known to increase the risk of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and colorectal cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that leptin and insulin are key molecules linking obesity with diseases of the lower intestine. Here, we identified serum phenotype-associated genes in the colon of diet-induced obese mice as early biomarkers of obesity-associated colonic diseases. C57BL/6J mice were fed with either normal diet (ND, 15% of fat calories) or high-fat diet (HFD, 45% of fat calories) for 8 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165758/early-antibiotic-exposure-and-risk-of-childhood-obesity-in-latinos
#13
Annette P Ville, Melvin B Heyman, Rosalinda Medrano, Janet M Wojcicki
We investigated the relationship between early antibiotic exposure before 6 months age and risk for obesity at 2 years in a high-risk, low-income, urban Latino cohort (n = 97), with the hypothesis that antibiotic exposure would increase risk for obesity by 2 years. Data were collected through maternal report of infant 24-hour dietary intake at 4-6 weeks, 6 months, 1, and 2 years; and food frequency questionnaires at 4-6 weeks, 6 months, 1, and 2 years. Antibiotic use data, including type and frequency, were collected through maternal self-report at 6 months and 1 year...
February 6, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161997/patterns-of-dna-methylation-across-the-leptin-core-promoter-in-four-diverse-asian-and-north-american-populations
#14
M J Mosher, P E Melton, P Stapleton, M S Schanfield, M H Crawford
DNA methylation is the most widely studied of epigenetic mechanisms, with environmental effects recorded through patterned attachments of methyl groups along the DNA that are capable of modifying gene expression without altering the DNA sequencing. The degree to which these patterns of DNA methylation are heritable, the expected range of normality across populations, and the phenotypic relevance of pattern variation remain unclear. Genes regulating metabolic pathways appear to be vulnerable to ongoing nutritional programming over the life course, as dietary nutrients are significant environmental determinants of DNA methylation, supplying both the methyl groups and energy to generate the methylation process...
April 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138133/thyroid-hormones-and-changes-in-body-weight-and-metabolic-parameters-in-response-to-weight-loss-diets-the-pounds-lost-trial
#15
G Liu, L Liang, G A Bray, L Qi, F B Hu, J Rood, F M Sacks, Q Sun
BACKGROUND: The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year POUNDS LOST randomized clinical trial...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131569/histidine-deficiency-has-a-negative-effect-on-lactational-performance-of-dairy-cows
#16
F Giallongo, M T Harper, J Oh, C Parys, I Shinzato, A N Hristov
A 10-wk randomized complete block design experiment with 24 Holstein cows was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of feeding a His-deficient diet on lactational performance of dairy cows. Cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 2 treatments: (1) His-adequate diet [HAD; providing +166 g/d over metabolizable protein (MP) requirements, according to the National Research Council (2001) and digestible His (dHis) supply of 68 g/d, or 2.5% of MP requirements] and (2) His-deficient diet (HDD; +37 g/d over MP requirements and dHis supply of 49 g/d, or 1...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116469/adipokines-may-mediate-the-relationship-between-resting-metabolic-rates-and-bone-mineral-densities-in-obese-women
#17
S Moradi, K Mirzaei, A A Abdurahman, S A Keshavarz
The researchers sought to test the possible link between resting metabolic rate and bone mineral density through four adipokines. Participants with lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) per kilogram demonstrated higher total bone mineral density (BMD), total T-score, and total Z-score. Omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR/kg of body weight and bone parameters. INTRODUCTION: The previous results of studies regarding the links between obesity and bone health are controversial...
January 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098139/appetite-responses-to-high-fat-meals-or-diets-of-varying-fatty-acid-composition-a-comprehensive-review
#18
REVIEW
S Kaviani, J A Cooper
Dietary fatty acids (FA) act as signaling molecules with diverse effects on physiologic function. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the clinical human studies in the literature on how dietary FA composition in meals and diets affects hunger and satiety signaling in the body. Studies examining FA saturation (monounsaturated (MUFA), saturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) FAs) or FA chain length from high-fat meals/diets were included. Measures of appetite included visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires, appetite hormones (Cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), gastric insulinotropic polypeptide gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and/or energy intake (EI) data...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093573/impact-of-lifestyle-intervention-for-obese-women-during-pregnancy-on-maternal-metabolic-and-inflammatory-markers
#19
K M Renault, E M Carlsen, S Hædersdal, L Nilas, N J Secher, J Eugen-Olsen, D Cortes, S F Olsen, T I Halldorsson, K Nørgaard
BACKGROUND: Offspring of obese mothers have increased risk of developing obesity and related short and long-term disease. The cause is multifactorial and may partly be explained by the unfavorable intrauterine environment. Intervention during pregnancy leading to a healthier lifestyle among obese may alter this. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of lifestyle intervention on markers of maternal metabolism and inflammation in 'the TOP (Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women)-study', a randomized controlled trial...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092346/differential-hypothalamic-leptin-sensitivity-in-obese-rat-offspring-exposed-to-maternal-and-postnatal-intake-of-chocolate-and-soft-drink
#20
M Kjaergaard, C Nilsson, A Secher, J Kildegaard, T Skovgaard, M O Nielsen, K Grove, K Raun
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S)...
January 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
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