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dietary leptin

Eva Nüsken, Jörg Dötsch, Lutz T Weber, Kai-Dietrich Nüsken
Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Ting Gong, Daniel J Torres, Marla J Berry, Matthew W Pitts
The hypothalamus is the central neural site governing food intake and energy expenditure. During the past 25 years, understanding of the hypothalamic cell types, hormones, and circuitry involved in the regulation of energy metabolism has dramatically increased. It is now well established that the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, acts upon two distinct groups of hypothalamic neurons that comprise opposing arms of the central melanocortin system. These two cell populations are anorexigenic neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic neurons that express agouti-related peptide (AGRP)...
March 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Miguel A Lanaspa, Masanari Kuwabara, Ana Andres-Hernando, Nancy Li, Christina Cicerchi, Thomas Jensen, David J Orlicky, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Takuji Ishimoto, Takahiko Nakagawa, Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe, Paul S MacLean, Richard J Johnson
Dietary guidelines for obesity typically focus on three food groups (carbohydrates, fat, and protein) and caloric restriction. Intake of noncaloric nutrients, such as salt, are rarely discussed. However, recently high salt intake has been reported to predict the development of obesity and insulin resistance. The mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we show that high intake of salt activates the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway in the liver and hypothalamus, leading to endogenous fructose production with the development of leptin resistance and hyperphagia that cause obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rizaldy C Zapata, Arashdeep Singh, Nadia M Ajdari, Prasanth K Chelikani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of graded dietary restriction of tryptophan on food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, gut hormones, and select fecal bacterial populations in obesity-prone rats. METHODS: Obesity-prone rats were randomized to isocaloric diets with varying degrees of tryptophan restriction: control (100% requirements), 70% tryptophan (70TRP), 40% tryptophan (40TRP), or 10% tryptophan (10TRP) for 21 days. The sympathetic system was challenged with a subcutaneous injection of propranolol on days 15 to 17...
March 4, 2018: Obesity
Ceyda Tugba Pekmez, Lars Ove Dragsted, Lena Kirchner Brahe
The gut microbiome affects the health status of the host through different mechanisms and is associated with a wide variety of diseases. Both childhood undernutrition and obesity are linked to alterations in composition and functionality of the gut microbiome. One of the possible mechanisms underlying the interplay between microbiota and host metabolism is through appetite-regulating hormones (including leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1). Short chain fatty acids, the end product of bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates, might be able to alter energy harvest and metabolism through enteroendocrine cell signaling, adipogenesis and insulin-like growth factor-1 production...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Inês O Gonçalves, Jorge Beleza, António Ascensão, José Magalhães
The dysregulation of adipokine secretion owing to adiposopathy can contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders. Being that exercise is an advised strategy against obesity-induced adiposopathy, we aimed to analyze the role of physical exercise as a preventive and therapeutic strategy against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced adipokine and ghrelin alterations. Rats were pair-fed the Lieber De Carli standard diet (S, 35 Kcal% fat) or HFD (71 Kcal% fat) over 17 weeks. Animals were assigned into four groups as follows: standard diet sedentary (SS), standard diet voluntary physical activity (SVPA), high-fat diet sedentary (HS), and high-fat diet voluntary physical activity (HVPA)...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Tábata Natal Gadotti, Marina Maintinguer Norde, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Mauro Fisberg, Regina Mara Fisberg, Erica Oki, Lígia Araújo Martini
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dairy product consumption and plasma inflammatory biomarkers levels among a representative sample of Brazilian adults from São Paulo City. METHODS: Data were acquired from the Health Survey for São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. All individuals 20 to 59 y of age with complete food consumption information (24-h dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire) and blood sample analysis were included (N = 259)...
October 26, 2017: Nutrition
M A Vithayathil, J R Gugusheff, Z Y Ong, S C Langley-Evans, R A Gibson, B S Muhlhausler
Background: While the adverse metabolic effects of exposure to obesogenic diets during both the prenatal and early postnatal period are well established, the relative impact of exposure during these separate developmental windows remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the relative contribution of exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during pregnancy and lactation on body weight, fat mass and expression of lipogenic and adipokine genes in the offspring. Methods: Wistar rats were fed either a control chow (Control, n  = 14) or obesogenic cafeteria diet (CAF, n  = 12) during pregnancy and lactation...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Cyril Cyrus, Mona H Ismail, Shahanas Chathoth, Chittibabu Vatte, Majd Hasen, Amein Al Ali
BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide resulting in a serious public health problem. In Saudi Arabia, 28.7% of the population is obese due largely to the adoption of western dietary patterns over the last decade. The Fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes are ubiquitously expressed in the brain and pancreatic islets, and are the main link between the central nervous system and energy homeostasis based on food intake and energy expenditure...
February 21, 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Ping Dong, Jing-Jing Feng, Dong-Yong Yan, Yu-Jing Lyu, Xiu Xu
AIM: To assess nutrient intake, growth and nutritional status of infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) who follow a therapeutic elimination diet since the first few months of life. METHODS: Sixty infants younger than 4 months of age with challenge-proven CMA and 60 healthy age-matched children were investigated. Anthropometric and body composition (BC) were assessed up to 24 months. Dietary intake was recorded by the parents for 3 consecutive days before visits at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months...
February 20, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Valentina Satta, Maria Scherma, Fabiana Piscitelli, Paolo Usai, M Paola Castelli, Tiziana Bisogno, Walter Fratta, Paola Fadda
Emerging evidence suggest an impaired endocannabinoid activity in the pathophysiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Herein, we investigated whether endocannabinoid tone could be modified as a consequence of dietary-induced binge eating in female rats. For this purpose, brain levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), as well as two endocannabinoid-like lipids, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), were assessed in different brain areas involved in the hedonic feeding (i...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
James G Burchfield, Melkam A Kebede, Christopher C Meoli, Jacqueline Stöckli, P Tess Whitworth, Amanda L Wright, Nolan J Hoffman, Annabel Y Minard, Xiuquan Ma, James R Krycer, Marin E Nelson, Shi-Xiong Tan, Belinda Yau, Kristen C Thomas, Natalie K Y Wee, Ee-Cheng Khor, Ronaldo F Enriquez, Bryce Vissel, Trevor J Biden, Paul A Baldock, Kyle L Hoehn, James Cantley, Gregory J Cooney, David E James, Daniel J Fazakerley
Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
J Philip Karl, Renee E Cole, Claire E Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N Radcliffe, Matthew T Kominsky, Nancy E Murphy, John W Carbone, Jennifer C Rood, Andrew J Young, Stefan M Pasiakos
Karl, J. Philip, Renee E. Cole, Claire E. Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N. Radcliffe, Matthew T. Kominsky, Nancy E. Murphy, John W. Carbone, Jennifer C. Rood, Andrew J. Young, and Stefan M. Pasiakos. Appetite Suppression and Altered Food Preferences Coincide with Changes in Appetite-Mediating Hormones During Energy Deficit at High Altitude, But Are Not Affected by Protein Intake. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018.-Anorexia and unintentional body weight loss are common during high altitude (HA) sojourn, but underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized, and the impact of dietary macronutrient composition on appetite regulation at HA is unknown...
February 12, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Seol-Jung Kang, Jong-Hyu Kim, Zhao Gang, Young-Sook Yook, Jea-Ryang Yoon, Gi-Chul Ha, Kwang-Jun Ko
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of circuit exercise on obesity index, appetite regulating hormones and insulin resistance in middle-aged obese women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 26 obese middle-aged women who were selected among participants in exercise class at K Region Health Promotion Center in South Korea and were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=13; age 50.15 ± 3.82, % body fat 38.79 ± 3.28) and the control group (n=13; age 49.84 ± 2...
January 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Zhen Dong, Raghu Sinha, John P Richie
Sulfur amino acids (SAAs) play numerous critical roles in metabolism and overall health maintenance. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that SAA-restricted diets have many beneficial effects, including extending life span and preventing the development of a variety of diseases. Dietary sulfur amino acid restriction (SAAR) is characterized by chronic restrictions of methionine and cysteine but not calories and is associated with reductions in body weight, adiposity and oxidative stress, and metabolic changes in adipose tissue and liver resulting in enhanced insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure...
February 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Paula Mantero, Gonzalo Sebastián Matus, Rodolfo Ernesto Corti, Ana María Cabanne, Gerardo Gabriel Zerbetto de Palma, Liliana Marchesi Olid, María Marta Piskorz, Marcela Beatriz Zubillaga, Mariana Andrea Janjetic, Cinthia Gabriela Goldman
AIM: To evaluate the association of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ), cagA genotype, and type of gastric pathology with ghrelin, leptin and nutritional status. METHODS: Fasted dyspeptic adults (18-70 years) referred for an upper digestive endoscopy were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Height and weight were assessed for body mass index (BMI) calculation. A sociodemographic survey was administered and nutrient intake was evaluated with 24 h dietary recalls...
January 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Yee-Ying Lee, Teck-Kim Tang, Eng-Tong Phuah, Nur Azwani Abdul Karim, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed Alitheen, Chin-Ping Tan, Intan Shameha Abdul Razak, Oi-Ming Lai
Medium-and-Long Chain Triacylglycerol (MLCT) is a type of structured lipid that is made up of medium chain, MCFA (C8-C12) and long chain, LCFA (C16-C22) fatty acid. Studies claimed that consumption of MLCT has the potential in reducing visceral fat accumulation as compared to long chain triacylglycerol, LCT. This is mainly attributed to the rapid metabolism of MCFA as compared to LCFA. Our study was designed to compare the anti-obesity effects of a enzymatically interesterified MLCT (E-MLCT) with physical blend of palm kernel and palm oil (B-PKOPO) having similar fatty acid composition and a commercial MLCT (C-MLCT) made of rapeseed/soybean oil on Diet Induced Obesity (DIO) C57BL/6J mice for a period of four months in low fat, LF (7%) and high fat, HF (30%) diet...
January 2018: Food Research International
Marina B Pioltine, Maria Edna de Melo, Aritânia S Santos, Alisson D Machado, Ariana E Fernandes, Clarissa T Fujiwara, Cintia Cercato, Marcio C Mancini
Childhood obesity is a major public health problem. It has a direct impact on the quality of life of children and adolescents, as well as on their future risk of developing chronic diseases. Dietary patterns rich in fats and sugars and lacking dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals, as well as lack of physical exercise have been associated with the rise of obesity prevalence. However, factors that contribute to the preference for foods rich in these nutrients are not well established. Taste is recognized as an important predictor of food choices, and polymorphisms in taste-related genes may explain the variability of taste preference and food intake...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Martha Tamez, Adriana Monge, Ruy López-Ridaura, Guy Fagherazzi, Sabina Rinaldi, Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo, Elsa Yunes, Isabelle Romieu, Martin Lajous
Background: Soda intake is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of diet sodas, often considered healthy alternatives to sodas, could also increase the likelihood of cardiovascular outcomes. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the relation between soda and diet soda and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 825 Mexican women free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and for whom serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), C-peptide, adiponectin, and leptin were available...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Masoumeh Rafiee, Gity Sotoudeh, Mahmoud Djalali, Ehsan Alvandi, Mohammadreza Eshraghian, Fatemeh Javadi, Farideh Doostan, Fariba Koohdani
PURPOSE: We aimed to study whether macronutrient intake could modify the association between ApoB Ins/Del and lipid profile, and serum leptin and ghrelin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: In this study, 700 T2DM patients were recruited. Anthropometric, biochemical and molecular data were collected, and Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The interactions were tested using ANCOVA. RESULTS: Del-allele carriers with high-MUFA and carbohydrate (≥ 12 and ≥ 54% of energy, respectively) had significantly higher TG (P = 0...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
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