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Thaddaeus May, Kevin C Klatt, Jacob Smith, Eumenia Castro, Mark Manary, Marie A Caudill, Farook Jahoor, Marta L Fiorotto
Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed to weanling mice ( n = 9) for 6 or 13 days...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
Björn Gylling, Robin Myte, Arve Ulvik, Per M Ueland, Øivind Midttun, Jörn Schneede, Göran Hallmans, Jenny Häggström, Ingegerd Johansson, Bethany Van Guelpen, Richard Palmqvist
One-carbon metabolism biomarkers are easily measured in plasma, but analyzing them one at a time in relation to disease does not take into account the interdependence of the many factors involved. The relative dynamics of major one-carbon metabolism branches can be assessed by relating the functional B-vitamin marker total homocysteine (tHcy) to transsulfuration (total cysteine) and methylation (creatinine) outputs. We validated the ratios of tHcy to total cysteine (Hcy:Cys), tHcy to creatinine (Hcy:Cre), and tHcy to cysteine to creatinine (Hcy:Cys:Cre) as functional markers of B-vitamin status...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Amal Al-Tamimi, Mohamad Khatib, Giuseppe Pieraccini, Nadia Mulinacci
Capparis spinosa L. is a perennial plant typical of the Mediterranean flora and a multipurpose plant used for curing various human ailments. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), as constituents of Capparaceae, play important roles in protecting against abiotic stress. Aim of this work was to determine QACs in root and leaves of caper from two proveniences. The presence of stachydrine, choline, glycine betaine and homo-stachydrine has been confirmed by high resolution MS, while 1 H NMR was applied to quantify the main QACs in the aqueous extracts...
May 21, 2018: Natural Product Research
Truong-Giang Huynh, Ann-Chang Cheng, Chia-Chun Chi, Kuo-Hsun Chiu, Chun-Hung Liu
In this study, we examined the synergistic effects of a diet-administered synbiotic comprising galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 7-40 on immune responses, immune-related gene expressions, and disease resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. To unravel the regulatory role of the synbiotic in activating the immune system of shrimp, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analyses were used to investigate hepatopancreas metabolites, then significantly altered metabolites were confirmed in both the hepatopancreas and plasma by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and spectrophotometric analyses...
May 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ruoyu Liang, Juan Chen, Yajuan Shi, Yonglong Lu, Suriyanarayanan Sarvajayakesavalu, Xiangbo Xu, Xiaoqi Zheng, Kifayatullah Khan, Chao Su
Earthworms improve the soil fertility and they are also sensitive to soil contaminants. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida), standard reference species, were usually chosen to culture and handle for toxicity tests. Metabolic responses in earthworms exposed to 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) were inhibitory and interfered with basal metabolism. In this study, 1 H-NMR based metabolomics was used to identify sensitive biomarkers and explore metabolic responses of earthworms under sub-lethal BDE-47 and BDE-209 concentrations for 14 days...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Daniel Fabio Kawano, Marcelo Rodrigues de Carvalho, Mauricio Ferreira Marcondes Machado, Adriana Karaoglanovic Carmona, Gilberto Ubida Leite Braga, Ivone Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Fungal secondary metabolites are important sources for the discovery of new pharmaceuticals, as exemplified by penicillin, lovastatin and cyclosporine. Searching for secondary metabolites of the fungi Metarhizium ssp., we previously identified tyrosine betaine as a major constituent. METHODS: Because of the structural similarity with other inhibitors of neprilysin (NEP), an enzyme explored for the treatment of heart failure, we devised the synthesis of tyrosine betaine and three analogues to be subjected to in vitro NEP inhibition assays and to molecular modeling studies...
May 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Christina L Burnett, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen, Bart Heldreth
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 11 alkyl betaines as used in cosmetics. These ingredients are reported to function as hair and skin conditioning agents, antistatic agents, surfactants-cleansing agents, and viscosity-increasing agents in cosmetic products. Although there are data gaps, the shared chemical core structure, similar functions and concentrations of use in cosmetics, and the expected similarities in physicochemical properties enabled grouping these ingredients and reading across the available toxicological data to support the safety assessment of each individual compound in the entire group...
May 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Kento Iwai, Soichi Yokoyama, Haruyasu Asahara, Nagatoshi Nishiwaki
A facile method for synthesizing allyl propargyl ethers (APEs) was developed based on the dimerization of propargyl alcohols. The reaction proceeded via an oxaphosphetane intermediate, which was generated without the use of a strong base, thus making this process a pseudo-Wittig reaction under mild reaction conditions. A wide variety of functional groups, including formyl and pyridyl groups were tolerated, thus yielding the corresponding functionalized APEs, which are otherwise not readily prepared via conventional methods...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Hai-Kuo Zheng, Jun-Han Zhao, Yi Yan, Tian-Yu Lian, Jue Ye, Xiao-Jian Wang, Zhe Wang, Zhi-Cheng Jing, Yang-Yang He, Ping Yang
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare systemic disorder associated with considerable metabolic dysfunction. Although enormous metabolomic studies on PAH have been emerging, research remains lacking on metabolic reprogramming in experimental PAH models. We aim to evaluate the metabolic changes in PAH and provide new insight into endogenous metabolic disorders of PAH. METHOD: A single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (MCT) (60 mg kg- 1 ) was used for rats to establish PAH model...
May 11, 2018: Respiratory Research
Misha Rumyantsev, Sergey Rumyantsev, Ivan Yu Kalagaev
Thermodynamic characteristics as well as peculiarities of hydrogen bonding in aqueous solutions of new deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on synthetic carboxybetaine have been studied. Cheap starting reagents (acrylic acid and 2-dimethylaminoethanol), the simplicity of preparation, and high yields are the advantages of the proposed betaine. Analyzes of the calculated stabilization energies and NBO delocalization energies revealed the absence of preferential association in aqueous reline solutions tested for the comparative purpose...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Graham G Willsey, Sebastian Ventrone, Kristin C Schutz, Aaron M Wallace, John W Ribis, Benjamin T Suratt, Matthew J Wargo
The interactions between K lebsiella pneumoniae and the host environment at the site of infection largely unknown. Pulmonary surfactant serves as an initial point of contact for inhaled bacteria entering the lung and is thought to contain molecular cues that aid colonization and pathogenesis. To gain insight into this ecological transition, we characterized the transcriptional response of K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 to purified pulmonary surfactant. This work revealed changes within the K. pneumoniae transcriptome that likely contribute to host colonization, adaptation, and virulence in vivo Notable transcripts expressed under these conditions include genes involved in capsule synthesis, LPS modification, antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and metabolism...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Ya-Hui Shao, Li-Zhong Guo, Yu-Qing Zhang, Hao Yu, Bai-Suo Zhao, Hai-Qiang Pang, Wei-Dong Lu
Although some bacteria, including Chromohalobacer salexigens DSM 3043, can use glycine betaine (hereafter referred to as GB) as the sole carbon and energy source, little information is available about the genes and their encoded proteins involved in the initial step of GB degradation pathway. In the present study, the results of conserved domain analysis, construction of in-frame deletion mutants, and in vivo functional complementation assay suggested that the open reading frames Csal_1004 and Csal_1005, designated bmoA and bmoB , may act as the terminal oxygenase and the ferredoxin reductase in a novel Rieske-type oxygenase system to convert GB to dimethylglycine in C...
April 27, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Salma Mukhtar, Samina Mehnaz, Muhammad Sajjad Mirza, Babur Saeed Mirza, Kauser Abdulla Malik
Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses, with a total of 3% of the world's land mass being affected by salinity. Approximately 6.3 million hectares of land in Pakistan is affected by salinity to varying degree and most of the areas are arid to semiarid with low annual precipitation. The aim of present study is to identify and characterize Bacillus and Bacillus-derived bacterial genera from the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil samples from Khewra Salt Mine, Pakistan by using culture-independent as well as culture-dependent methods...
April 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Murali Ganesan, Irina Tikhanovich, Shiva Shankar Vangimalla, Raghubendra Singh Dagur, Weimin Wang, Larisa I Poluektova, Yimin Sun, David F Mercer, Dean Tuma, Steven A Weinman, Kusum K Kharbanda, Natalia A Osna
Background & Aims: Alcohol-induced progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is related to dysfunction of innate immunity in hepatocytes. Endogenously produced interferon (IFN)α induces activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) via triggering of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) pathway. This activation requires protein methyltransferase 1-regulated arginine methylation of STAT1. Here, we aimed to study whether STAT1 methylation also depended on the levels of demethylase jumonji domain-containing 6 protein (JMJD6) and whether ethanol and HCV affect JMJD6 expression in hepatocytes...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Xiong Deng, Yue Liu, Xuexin Xu, Dongmiao Liu, Genrui Zhu, Xing Yan, Zhimin Wang, Yueming Yan
In this study, we performed the first comparative proteomic analysis of wheat flag leaves and developing grains in response to drought stress. Drought stress caused a significant decrease in several important physiological and biochemical parameters and grain yield traits, particularly those related to photosynthesis and starch biosynthesis. In contrast, some key indicators related to drought stress were significantly increased, including malondialdehyde, soluble sugar, proline, glycine betaine, abscisic acid content, and peroxidase activity...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Soo-Sang Kang, Robert S Rosenson
Homocysteine is an intermediary metabolite in the methionine cycle. Accumulation of homocysteine is caused either by mutation of relevant genes or by nutritional depletion of related vitamin(s). This review covers the historical background of hyperhomocysteinemia in which indispensable subjects in relation to underlying pathophysiological processes are discussed with the view of metabolism and genetics of folate and methionine cycles. This review emphasizes the unique role of homocysteine that is clearly distinct from other risk factors, particularly cholesterol in the development of vascular disease...
April 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Jeppe Langeland, Christina Kjaer, Lars H Andersen, Steen Brondsted Nielsen
Here we uncover the direct effect of a high electric field on the absorption by the Green Fluorescent Protein chromophore anion isolated in vacuo based on gas-phase action spectroscopy. Betaine is a strong molecular dipole that creates an electric field of ~70 MV/cm when attached to the ion at the phenolate oxygen, more than half the actual field from the protein matrix and pointing in the same direction. Nevertheless, the shift in absorption is limited (0.08 eV), supporting earlier conclusions, but subject to much debate, that the protein is rather innocent in perturbing the transition energy...
April 20, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Aijing Lu, Zhengzhong Wu, Xianglin Luo, Suming Li
Micelles of poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)/(N-(3-sulfopropyl-N-methacryloxyethy-N,N-diethylammonium betaine)) (PCL-PDEAPS) and poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-PEG) were prepared and characterized. The interactions of micelles with model proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (Ly), fibrinogen (Fg) and plasma were studied from adsorption quantity, micelle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta-potential measurements. The adsorption quantity of negatively charged proteins on PCL-PDEAPS micelles containing zwitterionic sulfobetaine is larger than on non-ionic PEG-PCL micelles...
April 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jurij Kiefer, Kamran Harati, Wibke Müller-Seubert, Sebastian Fischer, Benjamin Ziegler, Björn Behr, Jochen Gille, Ulrich Kneser, Marcus Lehnhardt, Adrien Daigeler, Adrian Dragu
Background: Despite overall advances in burn therapy, wound infection remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe burn injuries. This prospective, multicenter, non-comparative clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of Prontosan® Wound Gel X (PWX), a gel containing polihexanide and betaine, for moistening and cleansing in deep tissue burn wounds requiring split-thickness skin grafting. Methods: Patients with deep partial or full thickness burn wounds requiring split-thickness skin grafting were treated with the gel to evaluate its tolerability and safety as well as graft take and the healing of the skin graft...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Nasrin Nikzad, Zahra Karami
Changes in choline levels can be associated with diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington, fatty liver, interstitial lung abnormalities, autism and so on. Therefore, quantitative determination of choline is important in biological and clinical analysis. So far, several methods have been investigated for measuring choline in the body fluids, each of which has disadvantages such as the need for specialist ability, complexity, and high cost. For this purpose, a facile and sensitive colorimetric biosensor based on DNAzyme-choline oxidase coupling used for the determination of choline...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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