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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808327/spontaneous-detachment-of-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-by-synergistic-effect-between-zwitterion-and-sugar-alcohol
#1
Jong Hyun Lim, Sang-Hun Song, Hyun-Sub Park, Jeong Rae Lee, Sang-Min Lee
A biofilm, a community of microorganisms, is highly resistant to antibiotics, resulting in massive losses in various areas. We herein present a strategy to remove Streptococcus mutans biofilms through a spontaneous exfoliation by the synergistic effect between zwitterion and sugar alcohols. It is assumed that the anionic site of zwitterion can be coupled with sugar alcohols and the cationic site remains in the state of lacking electrons. The cationic site allows the complexes to be delivered to negatively charged exopolysaccharides of biofilms...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806604/chemodiversity-of-tryptamine-derived-alkaloids-in-six-costa-rican-palicourea-species-rubiaceae-palicoureeae
#2
Andreas Berger, Elias Tanuhadi, Lothar Brecker, Johann Schinnerl, Karin Valant-Vetschera
We report 14 harmala and tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids with various tri-, tetra- and pentacyclic cores from leaves and stem bark of six species of the large and complex neotropical genus Palicourea. Among them is the previously undescribed compound deoxostrictosamide which is related to strictosamide, a key intermediate in camptothecin biosynthesis. In addition, we describe the occurrence of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronorharman-1-one for the first time within Rubiaceae and ophiorine A and B, two alkaloids with an unusual core bearing a betaine function and a zwitterion as new for the genus...
August 11, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803626/putting-the-piezolyte-hypothesis-under-pressure
#3
Christina M Papini, Pranav P Pandharipande, Catherine A Royer, George I Makhatadze
A group of small molecules that stabilize proteins against high hydrostatic pressure has been classified as piezolytes, a subset of stabilizing cosolutes. This distinction would imply that piezolytes counteract the effects of high hydrostatic pressure through effects on the volumetric properties of the protein. The purpose of this study was to determine if cosolutes proposed to be piezolytes have an effect on the volumetric properties of proteins through direct experimental measurements of volume changes upon unfolding of model proteins lysozyme and ribonuclease A, in solutions containing varying cosolute concentrations...
August 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793984/effects-of-acupuncture-on-the-urinary-metabolome-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#4
Ying Wang, Yang Li, Liang Zhou, Lin Guo
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of action underlying the putative effects of acupuncture in essential hypertension remains unknown but neuronal mechanisms have been explored most extensively to date. We aimed to explore the effects of manual acupuncture (MA) with manual stimulation on blood pressure (BP) and urine metabolites in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of hypertension. METHODS: After adaptive feeding (with a standard laboratory diet and distilled water) for 1 week, five normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats with normal BP formed the control group...
August 9, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782782/thermodynamic-stability-of-worm-like-micelle-solutions
#5
Karsten Vogtt, Gregory Beaucage, Michael Weaver, Hanqiu Jiang
Worm-like micelles (WLMs) are nano-scale self-assemblies widely used for viscosity enhancement, for drug delivery, and in personal care products. The stability of WLMs under variable ionic and surfactant concentrations is important to applications of these fascinating materials. In this work it is demonstrated that a virial approach can be used to understand and predict WLM stability. A mixed surfactant system consisting of sodium laureth sulfate and cocoamidopropyl betaine was examined using small-angle neutron scattering...
August 7, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779878/adult-classical-homocystinuria-requiring-parenteral-nutrition-pitfalls-and-management
#6
REVIEW
Christel Tran, Luisa Bonafé, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Julie Rieger, Mette M Berger
BACKGROUND: Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency presents with a wide clinical spectrum. Treatment by the enteral route aims at reducing homocysteine levels by using vitamin B6, possibly methionine-restricted diet, betaine and/or folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. Currently no nutritional guidelines exist regarding parenteral nutrition (PN) under acute conditions. METHODS: Exhaustive literature search was performed, in order to identify the relevant studies describing the pathogenesis and nutritional intervention of adult classical homocystinuria requiring PN...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777736/a-pilot-study-of-the-effect-of-human-breast-milk-on-urinary-metabolome-analysis-in-infants
#7
Hiromichi Shoji, Hikari Taka, Naoko Kaga, Naho Ikeda, Tomohiro Kitamura, Yoshiki Miura, Toshiaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the nutritional effect of breast feeding on healthy term infants by using urinary metabolome analysis. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 19 and 14 infants at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Infants were separated into two groups: the breast-fed group receiving <540 mL/week of their intake from formula (n=13 at 1 month; n=9 at 6 months); and the formula-fed group receiving no breast milk (BM) (n=6 at 1 month; n=5 at 6 months)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770393/association-of-neural-tube-defects-with-gene-polymorphisms-in-one-carbon-metabolic-pathway
#8
Lirong Cao, Yizheng Wang, Ruiping Zhang, Liang Dong, Hualei Cui, Yulian Fang, Linsheng Zhao, Ouyan Shi, Chunquan Cai
PURPOSE: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common congenital malformations. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to one-carbon metabolism (OCM) and NTDs in Han population of Northern China. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in 152 children with NTDs and 169 controls. Twenty-nine SNPs in five genes were genotyped by Sequenom MassARRAY technology, and haplotype analysis was done by Haploview4...
August 2, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763759/metabolomics-analysis-of-danggui-sini-decoction-on-treatment-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-rats
#9
Bang Cheng, Hua Zheng, Fang Wu, Jinxia Wu, Xuwen Liu, Chaoling Tang, Shiyin Lu, Zhaoni Chen, Fangming Song, Junxiang Ruan, Hongye Zhang, Hui Song, Wei Liu, Hongwei Guo, Yonghong Liang, Zhiheng Su
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by persistent joint inflammation leading to bone and cartilage damage and even disability. However, the pathogenesis of RA is multi-factorial and to a large degree, remains unknown. Danggui Sini decoction (DSD), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been widely used as a remedy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in recent years. In our study, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) based metabolomics analysis of 7 potential biomarkers, including taurine (1), urea (2), betaine (3), pyruvate (4), hippurate (5), succinate (6) and acetone (7) was performed to investigate the progression of RA and assess the efficacy of DSD in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752295/nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-the-metabolite-profiles-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-under-ferric-iron-stimulation
#10
Jun Zhou, Chenyang Lu, Dijun Zhang, Chennv Ma, Xiurong Su
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium endemic to coastal areas, and its pathogenicity has caused widespread seafood poisoning. In our previous research, the protein expression of V. parahaemolyticus in Fe(3+) medium was determined using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). Here, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to detect changes in the V. parahaemolyticus metabolome. NMR spectra were obtained using methanol-water extracts of intracellular metabolites from V. parahaemolyticus under various culture conditions, and 62 metabolites were identified, including serine, arginine, alanine, ornithine, tryptophan, glutamine, malate, NAD(+), NADP(+), oxypurinol, xanthosine, dCTP, uracil, thymine, hypoxanthine, and betaine...
August 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750641/metabolome-alterations-in-severe-critical-illness-and-vitamin-d-status
#11
Jessica Lasky-Su, Amber Dahlin, Augusto A Litonjua, Angela J Rogers, Michael J McGeachie, Rebecca M Baron, Lee Gazourian, Diana Barragan-Bradford, Laura E Fredenburgh, Augustine M K Choi, Kris M Mogensen, Sadeq A Quraishi, Karin Amrein, Kenneth B Christopher
BACKGROUND: Metabolic homeostasis is substantially disrupted in critical illness. Given the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D, we hypothesized that metabolic profiles differ between critically ill patients relative to their vitamin D status. METHODS: We performed a metabolomics study on biorepository samples collected from a single academic medical center on 65 adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis treated in a 20-bed medical ICU between 2008 and 2010...
July 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741209/pb-induced-changes-in-roots-of-two-cultivated-rice-cultivars-grown-in-lead-contaminated-soil-mediated-by-smoke
#12
Nazneen Akhtar, Sehresh Khan, Ijaz Malook, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Muhammad Jamil
Nowadays, public concerns regarding deleterious effect of lead (Pb) is on rise due to its abundance and toxic effect on plants and other living organisms. In plants, it has no noticeable biological importance but can cause various morphological, physiological, and biochemical malfunctions. To evaluate the remediating potential of plant-derived smoke (Cymbopogon jwarancusa), a pot culture experiment was designed to investigate the physiological, biochemical, metabolic, and antioxidant parameters of roots in lead (0 (control), 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm)-contaminated soil...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735321/betaine-improves-polymer-grade-d-lactic-acid-production-by-sporolactobacillus-inulinus-using-ammonia-as-green-neutralizer
#13
Guoping Lv, Chengchuan Che, Li Li, Shujing Xu, Wanyi Guan, Baohua Zhao, Jiansong Ju
The traditional CaCO3-based fermentation process generates huge amount of insoluble CaSO4 waste. To solve this problem, we have developed an efficient and green D-lactic acid fermentation process by using ammonia as neutralizer. The 106.7 g/L of D-lactic acid production and 0.89 g per g of consumed sugar were obtained by Sporolactobacillus inulinus CASD with a high optical purity of 99.7% by adding 100 mg/L betaine in the simple batch fermentation process. The addition of betaine was experimentally proven to protect cell at high concentration of ammonium ion, increase the D-lactate dehydrogenase specific activity and thus promote the production of D-lactic acid...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733762/reconsidering-betaine-as-a-natural-anti-heat-stress-agent-in-poultry-industry-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Muhammad Saeed, Daryoush Babazadeh, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Asif Arain, Faiz Ul Hassan, Sun Chao
Betaine is found ubiquitously in plants, animals, microorganisms, and rich dietary sources including seafood, spinach, and wheat bran. The chief physiological role of betaine is to function as a methyl donor and an osmolyte. Betaine also acts as an osmolyte, to maintain the avian's cellular water and ion balance to improve the avian's capacity against heat stress via preventing dehydration and osmotic inactivation. It helps in maintaining the protective osmolytic activity, especially in heat-stressed birds...
July 21, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728374/analysis-of-metabolomic-patterns-in-thoroughbreds-before-and-after-exercise
#15
Hyun-Jun Jang, Duk-Moon Kim, Kyu-Bong Kim, Jeong-Woong Park, Jae-Young Choi, Jin Hyeog Oh, Ki-Duk Song, Suhkmann Kim, Byung-Wook Cho
Objective: Evaluation of exercise effects in racehorse is important in horseracing industry and animal health care. In this study, we compared metabolic patterns between before and after exercise to screen metabolic biomarkers for exercise effects in thoroughbreds. Methods: The concentration of metabolites in muscle, plasma, and urine was measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis and the relative metabolite levels in the three samples were compared between before and after exercise...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727090/effect-of-natural-betaine-and-ractopamine-hcl-on-whole-body-and-carcass-growth-in-pigs-housed-under-high-ambient-temperatures
#16
S M Mendoza, R D Boyd, C E Zier-Rush, P R Ferket, K D Haydon, E van Heugten
Betaine is an osmolyte that helps to maintain water homeostasis and cell integrity, which is essential during heat stress. We hypothesized that supplemental betaine can improve growth during heat stress and may further improve the response to ractopamine. Two studies were conducted to determine: 1) the effects of betaine in combination with ractopamine; and 2) the optimum betaine level for late finishing pigs during heat stress. Heat stress was imposed by gradually increasing temperatures over 10 d to the target high temperature of 32°C...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726110/supplementation-of-selenium-vitamin-e-chromium-and-betaine-above-recommended-levels-improves-lactating-performance-of-sows-over-summer
#17
Fan Liu, Jeremy James Cottrell, Cherie Louise Collins, David James Henman, Kirrily Sharon Beatrice O'Halloran, Frank Rowland Dunshea
Heat stress (HS) exacerbates the body weight loss of lactating sows and reduces litter weight gain. Selenium (Se), vitamin E (VE), chromium (Cr) and betaine have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of HS, and yeast nucleotides and mannan oligosaccharides have been reported to improve lactational performance and immune response in pigs. Therefore, a combination of these nutrients may improve lactational performance of sows in summer. The effects of two nutritionally enhanced diets on lactational performance of sows in summer were investigated in two experiments...
July 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724959/hepatic-metabolic-effects-of-curcuma-longa-extract-supplement-in-high-fructose-and-saturated-fat-fed-rats
#18
Fabrice Tranchida, Zo Rakotoniaina, Laetitia Shintu, Léopold Tchiakpe, Valérie Deyris, Mehdi Yemloul, Pierre Stocker, Nicolas Vidal, Odile Rimet, Abel Hiol, Stefano Caldarelli
The metabolic effects of an oral supplementation with a Curcuma longa extract, at a dose nutritionally relevant with common human use, on hepatic metabolism in rats fed a high fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet was evaluated. High-resolution magic-angle spinning NMR and GC/MS in combination with multivariate analysis have been employed to characterize the NMR metabolite profiles and fatty acid composition of liver tissue respectively. The results showed a clear discrimination between HFS groups and controls involving metabolites such as glucose, glycogen, amino acids, acetate, choline, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and β-hydroxybutyrate as well as an increase of MUFAs and a decrease of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722416/character-of-localization-and-microenvironment-of-the-solvatochromic-reichardt-s-betaine-dye-in-sds-and-ctab-micelles-md-simulation-study
#19
Vladimir S Farafonov, Alexander V Lebed, Nikolay O Mchedlov-Petrossyan
The problem of using the surfactant micellar aqueous solutions as reaction media centers on estimating the polarity of the micellar pseudophase. The most popular approach is the utilization of solvatochromic dyes. Among the last, the strongest ones are the dipolar pyridinium N-phenolate dyes. The complication of such approach, however, consists in the non-uniform character of the environment of the indicator fixed in the micellar pseudophase. The aim of this study is to reveal the character of localization and orientation of the standard solvatochromic pyridinium N-phenolate dye, 4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl)-2,6-diphenylphenolate, the so-called Reichardt's dye, within the micellar pseudophase of an anionic (sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) surfactants using MD simulations...
July 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718809/maternal-choline-supplementation-alters-fetal-growth-patterns-in-a-mouse-model-of-placental-insufficiency
#20
Julia H King, Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Jian Yan, Kevin C Klatt, Xinyin Jiang, Mark S Roberson, Marie A Caudill
Impairments in placental development can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. The bioactive nutrient choline may mitigate some of these impairments, as suggested by data in humans, animals, and human trophoblasts. Herein, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on parameters of fetal growth in a Dlx3+/- (distal-less homeobox 3) mouse model of placental insufficiency. Dlx3+/- female mice were assigned to 1X (control), 2X, or 4X choline intake levels during gestation. Dams were sacrificed at embryonic days E10...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
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