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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930592/choline-the-brain-and-neurodegeneration-insights-from-epigenetics
#1
Rola A Bekdash
  Neurodegenerative disorders are a major public health problem worldwide with huge socioeconomic effect. Recent evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is not only caused by genetic factors but also affected by environmental factors including nutrients. Environmental influences have been shown to cause epigenetic modifications in the brain with long-lasting effects on behavior if they occur in early life. It has been suggested that early nutritional intervention that includes choline, betaine, VitB6, VitB12 and/or folic acid could attenuate decline in cognitive functions...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930162/lean-body-mass-harbors-sensing-mechanisms-that-allow-safeguarding-of-methionine-homeostasis
#2
REVIEW
Yves Ingenbleek
Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM) activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM) submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928660/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-study-of-the-toxicological-effects-in-rats-induced-by-renqing-mangjue-pill-a-traditional-tibetan-medicine
#3
Can Xu, Caidan Rezeng, Jian Li, Lan Zhang, Yujing Yan, Jian Gao, Yingfeng Wang, Zhongfeng Li, Jianxin Chen
"RenqingMangjue" pill (RMP), as an effective prescription of Traditional Tibetan Medicine (TTM), has been widely used in treating digestive diseases and ulcerative colitis for over a thousand years. In certain classical Tibetan Medicine, heavy metal may add as an active ingredient, but it may cause contamination unintentionally in some cases. Therefore, the toxicity and adverse effects of TTM became to draw public attention. In this study, 48 male Wistar rats were orally administrated with different dosages of RMP once a day for 15 consecutive days, then half of the rats were euthanized on the 15th day and the remaining were euthanized on the 30th day...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922384/effects-of-salinity-and-drought-on-growth-ionic-relations-compatible-solutes-and-activation-of-antioxidant-systems-in-oleander-nerium-oleander-l
#4
Dinesh Kumar, Mohamad Al Hassan, Miguel A Naranjo, Veena Agrawal, Monica Boscaiu, Oscar Vicente
Nerium oleander is an ornamental species of high aesthetic value, grown in arid and semi-arid regions because of its drought tolerance, which is also considered as relatively resistant to salt; yet the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying oleander's stress tolerance remain largely unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, one-year-old oleander seedlings were exposed to 15 and 30 days of treatment with increasing salt concentrations, up to 800 mM NaCl, and to complete withholding of irrigation; growth parameters and biochemical markers characteristic of conserved stress-response pathways were then determined in stressed and control plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921605/simple-determination-of-betaine-l-carnitine-and-choline-in-human-urine-using-self-packed-column-and-column-switching-ion-chromatography-with-non-suppressed-conductivity-detection
#5
Dan Wei, Yan Zhu, Ming Guo
A sequential on-line extraction, clean-up and separation system for the determination of betaine, L-carnitine and choline in human urine using column-switching ion chromatography with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed in this work. Self-packed pretreatment column (50 mm×4.6 mm, i.d.) was used for the extraction and clean-up of betaine, L-carnitine and choline. The separation was achieved using self-packed cationic exchange column (150 mm×4.6 mm, i.d.), followed by non-suppressed conductivity detection...
September 15, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918494/betaine-in-the-brain-characterization-of-betaine-uptake-its-influence-on-other-osmolytes-and-its-potential-role-in-neuroprotection-from-osmotic-stress
#6
Leena S Knight, Quinn Piibe, Ian Lambie, Christopher Perkins, Paul H Yancey
Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specifically in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory and one that is particularly susceptible to damage (e...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917144/silicon-improves-seed-germination-and-alleviates-drought-stress-in-lentil-crops-by-regulating-osmolytes-hydrolytic-enzymes-and-antioxidant-defense-system
#7
Sajitha Biju, Sigfredo Fuentes, Dorin Gupta
Silicon (Si) has been widely reported to have beneficial effect on mitigating drought stress in plants. However, the effect of Si on seed germination under drought conditions is still poorly understood. This research was carried out to ascertain the role of Si to abate polyethylene glycol-6000 mediated drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of lentil. Results showed that drought stress significantly decreased the seed germination traits and increased the concentration of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars), reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion) and lipid peroxides in lentil seedlings...
September 5, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906007/intergrated-metabonomic-study-of-the-effects-of-guizhi-fuling-capsule-intervention-on-primary-dysmenorrheal-using-rp-uplc-ms-complementary-with-hilic-uplc-ms-technique
#8
Lang Lang, Zhaorui Meng, Lan Sun, Wei Xiao, Longshan Zhao, Zhili Xiong
Guizhi Fuling capsule (GFC), developed from the traditional Chinese prescription of Guizhi Fuling Wan, has been commonly used for the treatment of primary dysmenorrheal (PD). However, the intervention effective mechanism in vivo has not been well elucidated. In this study, an integrated plasma metabonomic strategy based on RP-UPLC-MS coupled with HILIC-UPLC-MS technique has been developed to investigate the global therapeutic effects and intervention mechanisms of Guizhi Fuling capsule (GFC) on dysmenorrhea rats induced by oxytocin...
September 14, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904377/kleptoplasty-does-not-promote-major-shifts-in-the-lipidome-of-macroalgal-chloroplasts-sequestered-by-the-sacoglossan-sea-slug-elysia-viridis
#9
Felisa Rey, Elisabete da Costa, Ana M Campos, Paulo Cartaxana, Elisabete Maciel, Pedro Domingues, M Rosário M Domingues, Ricardo Calado, Sónia Cruz
Sacoglossan sea slugs, also known as crawling leaves due to their photosynthetic activity, are highly selective feeders that incorporate chloroplasts from specific macroalgae. These "stolen" plastids - kleptoplasts - are kept functional inside animal cells and likely provide an alternative source of energy to their host. The mechanisms supporting the retention and functionality of kleptoplasts remain unknown. A lipidomic mass spectrometry-based analysis was performed to study kleptoplasty of the sacoglossan sea slug Elysia viridis fed with Codium tomentosum...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900731/selenium-mitigates-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l-plants-by-modulating-chlorophyll-fluorescence-osmolyte-accumulation-and-antioxidant-system
#10
Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam, Renu Bhardwaj, Parvaiz Ahmad
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of selenium in alleviating cadmium stress in Solanum lycopersicum seedlings. Cadmium (150 mg L(-1)) treatment caused a significant reduction in growth in terms of height and biomass accumulation and affected chlorophyll pigments, gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Selenium (10 μM) application mitigated the adverse effects of cadmium on growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, leaf relative water content, and other physiological attributes...
September 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898977/from-the-cover-metabolomics-reveals-a-role-of-betaine-in-prenatal-dbp-exposure-induced-epigenetic-transgenerational-failure-of-spermatogenesis-in-rats
#11
Beilei Yuan, Wei Wu, Minjian Chen, Hao Gu, Qiuqin Tang, Dan Guo, Ting Chen, Yiqiu Chen, Chuncheng Lu, Ling Song, Yankai Xia, Daozhen Chen, Virender K Rehan, Jiahao Sha, Xinru Wang
There is increasing concern that early-life exposure to endocrine disruptors affects male offspring reproduction. However, whether di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used endocrine disruptor, has transgenerational effects and, if so, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. In our study, 5 of time-mated pregnant SD rats were exposed to 0 and 500 mg/kg DBP with corn oil as the vehicle via oral gavage from embryonic days (E8-E14). Epigenetic and metabolomic of testis were analyzed after post-natal 60 days...
August 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895788/association-between-serum-unmetabolized-folic-acid-concentrations-and-folic-acid-from-fortified-foods
#12
Cecília Zanin Palchetti, Clóvis Paniz, Eduardo de Carli, Dirce M Marchioni, Célia Colli, Josiane Steluti, Christine M Pfeiffer, Zia Fazili, Elvira Maria Guerra-Shinohara
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) concentrations and folic acid from fortified foods and nutrients known as dietary methyl-group donors (folate, methionine, choline, betaine and vitamins B2, B6 and B12) in participants exposed to mandatory fortification of wheat and maize flours with folic acid. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with 144 healthy Brazilian participants, both sexes, supplement nonusers...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888960/complete-genome-sequence-of-endophyte-bacillus-flexus-klbmp-4941-reveals-its-plant-growth-promotion-mechanism-and-genetic-basis-for-salt-tolerance
#13
Tian-Tian Wang, Peng Ding, Pan Chen, Ke Xing, Juan-Luan Bai, Wen Wan, Ji-Hong Jiang, Sheng Qin
Bacillus flexus KLBMP 4941 is a halotolerant endophyte isolated from the halophyte Limonium sinense. This strain can improve host seedling growth under salt stress conditions. We here report the complete genome information of endophyte KLBMP 4941. It has a circular chromosome and two plasmids for a total genome 4,104,242 bp in size with a G+C content of 38.09%. Genes related to plant growth promotion (PGP), such as those associated with nitrogen fixation, siderophore, spermidine, and acetoin synthesis were found in the KLBMP 4941 genome...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888041/supplementation-with-the-methyl-donor-betaine-prevents-congenital-defects-induced-by-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#14
Ganga Karunamuni, Megan M Sheehan, Yong Qiu Doughman, Shi Gu, Jiayang Sun, Youjun Li, James P Strainic, Andrew M Rollins, Michael W Jenkins, Michiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of public education about dire consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, drinking alcohol during pregnancy remains prevalent. As high as 40% of live-born infants exposed to alcohol during gestation and diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have congenital heart defects that can be life-threatening. In animal models, the methyl donor betaine, found in foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but effects on heart development are unknown...
September 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888035/analysis-of-earthworm-sub-lethal-toxic-responses-to-atrazine-exposure-using-1-h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-nmr-based-metabolomics
#15
Vivek D Dani, André J Simpson, Myrna J Simpson
Atrazine toxicity to earthworms is still not fully understood, particularly at sub-lethal concentrations. Because of the ubiquity of atrazine in the environment, it is imperative to understand the impacts of atrazine presence on soil-dwelling organisms. To examine this in detail, we used (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics to elucidate earthworm (Eisenia fetida) responses after a 48 h of atrazine exposure in contact tests. Earthworms were exposed to four sub-lethal concentrations of 362...
September 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883917/betaine-affects-muscle-lipid-metabolism-via-regulating-the-fatty-acid-uptake-and-oxidation-in-finishing-pig
#16
Sisi Li, Haichao Wang, Xinxia Wang, Yizhen Wang, Jie Feng
BACKGROUND: Betaine affects fat metabolism in animals, but the specific mechanism is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible mechanisms of betaine in altering lipid metabolism in muscle tissue in finishing pigs. METHODS: A total of 120 crossbred gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an average initial body weight of 70.1 kg were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments. The treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 1250 or 2500 mg/kg betaine...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881317/modulation-of-antioxidative-defense-expression-and-osmolyte-content-by-co-application-of-24-epibrassinolide-and-salicylic-acid-in-pb-exposed-indian-mustard-plants
#17
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Shagun Bali, Saroj Arora, Anket Sharma, Ravdeep Kaur, Renu Bhardwaj
The study focuses on potential of combined pre-soaking treatment of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) and Salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating Pb phytotoxicity in Brassica juncea L. plants. The seeds after treatment with combination of both the hormones were sown in mixture of soil, sand and manure (3:1:1) and were exposed to Pb concentrations (0.25mM, 0.50mM and 0.75mM). After 30 days of growth, the plants were harvested and processed, for quantification of various metabolites. It was found that pre-sowing of seeds in combination of EBL and SA, mitigated the adverse effects of metal stress by modulating antioxidative defense response and enhanced osmolyte contents...
September 4, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881202/the-effect-of-solvent-polarity-on-wormlike-micelles-using-dipropylene-glycol-dpg-as-a-cosolvent-in-an-anionic-zwitterionic-mixed-surfactant-system
#18
Hanqiu Jiang, Gregory Beaucage, Karsten Vogtt, Michael Weaver
HYPOTHESIS: The behavior/properties of micellar solutions are governed by Coulombic interactions that are influenced by the polarity of the surfactant head groups, hydrophobic tails, and solvent molecules. The addition of co-solvent should have a direct impact on solvent polarity and the size of the micelles are expected to decrease accordingly. EXPERIMENTS: In this study, a mixed surfactant system is studied composed of a common anionic surfactant, sodium laureth sulfate-1, modified by a zwitterionic surfactant, cocamidopropyl betaine in deuterated water...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880323/wormlike-micelles-versus-water-soluble-polymers-as-rheology-modifiers-similarities-and-differences
#19
Ji Wang, Yujun Feng, Niti R Agrawal, Srinivasa R Raghavan
Wormlike micelles (WLMs) formed from surfactants have attracted much attention for their ability to thicken water in a manner similar to water-soluble polymers. It is known that WLMs are cylindrical filaments that can attain very long contour lengths (∼few μm), akin to chains of polymers with ultra-high molecular weights (UHMWs). In this study, we aim to make a direct comparison between the thickening capabilities of WLMs and UHMW polymers. The chosen surfactant is erucyl dimethyl amidopropyl betaine (EDAB), a C22-tailed zwitterionic surfactant known to form particularly long WLMs independent of salt...
September 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873731/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-by-itraq-provides-insights-into-response-to-desiccation
#20
Shuangfang Hu, Yigang Yu, Xinwei Wu, Xingzhou Xia, Xinglong Xiao, Hui Wu
Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen throughout the world and survives extremely desiccation stress. However, the molecular basis involved in desiccation resistance of C. sakazakii is still unknown. In this study, the potential desiccation resistance factors of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544 were determined using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. A total of 2775 proteins were identified by iTRAQ, of which 233 showed a different protein expression between control group and desiccation stress group...
October 2017: Food Research International
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