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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426517/effects-of-betaine-supplementation-on-muscle-strength-and-power-a-systematic-review
#1
Ahmed Ismaeel
Betaine has recently gotten much attention for its potential role as an ergogenic aid and has become a common ingredient in peri-workout dietary supplements. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature was to investigate the effects of betaine supplementation on muscular strength and power. A computerized literature search of 3 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus) was performed. Included in the review were randomized controlled trials that measured muscle strength, power, and/or endurance in healthy participants...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423307/aspects-of-phosphorus-physiology-associated-with-phosphate-induced-polar-lipid-remodelling-in-marine-microalgae
#2
José Pedro Cañavate, Isabel Armada, Ismael Hachero-Cruzado
Marine microalgae exhibit a diversified phosphorus physiology and have also been recently found to show high inter-taxa variability in their phosphate induced-polar lipids' remodelling. Identification of phosphorus physiology aspects that are more related to lipid remodelling can contribute to better understanding of such intricate phytoplankton lipid metabolism. Therefore, some aspects of phosphorus physiology related to its uptake, storage and use were evaluated in a taxonomically diversified group of nine marine microalgae that was arranged into three subgroups, each of them including species showing similar polar lipid responses to phosphate...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421049/transcriptomic-and-metabolomics-profiling-of-phage-host-interactions-between-phage-pap1-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
Xia Zhao, Mengyu Shen, Xingyu Jiang, Wei Shen, Qiu Zhong, Yuhui Yang, Yinling Tan, Melissa Agnello, Xuesong He, Fuquan Hu, Shuai Le
The basic biology of bacteriophage-host interactions has attracted increasing attention due to a renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of bacteriophages. In addition, knowledge of the host pathways inhibited by phage may provide clues to novel drug targets. However, the effect of phage on bacterial gene expression and metabolism is still poorly understood. In this study, we tracked phage-host interactions by combining transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected with a lytic bacteriophage, PaP1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401154/cytotoxicity-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-oral-rinses-in-vitro
#4
Heinz-Dieter Müller, Sigrun Eick, Andreas Moritz, Adrian Lussi, Reinhard Gruber
While oral rinses used for cosmetic purposes only do not necessarily have to be antiseptic, antimicrobial activity is required for medical indications, including oral and periodontal surgery. So the question arises-is the antimicrobial activity of oral rinses associated with any destructive changes in cell viability in vitro? To answer this question, we examined twelve oral rinses with respect to their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Antimicrobial activity was screened against five bacterial strains using disc diffusion...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386731/comparative-metagenomics-reveals-insights-into-the-deep-sea-adaptation-mechanism-of-the-microorganisms-in-iheya-hydrothermal-fields
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hai-Liang Wang, Li Sun
In this study, comparative metagenomic analysis was performed to investigate the genetic profiles of the microbial communities inhabiting the sediments surrounding Iheya North and Iheya Ridge hydrothermal fields. Four samples were used, which differed in their distances from hydrothermal vents. The results showed that genes involved in cell surface structure synthesis, polyamine metabolism and homeostasis, osmoadaptation, pH and Na(+) homeostasis, and heavy-metal transport were abundant. Pathways for putrescine and spermidine synthesis and transport were identified in the four metagenomes, which possibly participate in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386093/higher-dietary-intakes-of-choline-and-betaine-are-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-primary-liver-cancer-a-case-control-study
#6
Rui-Fen Zhou, Xiao-Lin Chen, Zhong-Guo Zhou, Yao-Jun Zhang, Qiu-Ye Lan, Gong-Cheng Liao, Yu-Ming Chen, Hui-Lian Zhu
The dietary intake of methyl donors is favorably associated with many diseases, but the findings regarding primary liver cancer (PLC) risk are limited. This study investigated the association between the intake of choline, betaine and methionine and PLC risk in adults. This 1:1 matched case-control study enrolled 644 hospital-based PLC patients and 644 community-based controls who were matched by sex and age, in Guangzhou, China. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire were used to collect general information and dietary intake information...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382023/antiprotozoal-effect-of-saponins-in-the-rumen-can-be-enhanced-by-chemical-modifications-in-their-structure
#7
Eva Ramos-Morales, Gabriel de la Fuente, Stephane Duval, Christof Wehrli, Marc Bouillon, Martina Lahmann, David Preskett, Radek Braganca, Charles J Newbold
The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to the sapogenin by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We postulated that the substitution of the sugar moiety of the saponin with small polar residues would produce sapogen-like analogs which might be resistant to degradation in the rumen as they would not be enzymatically cleaved, allowing the antiprotozoal effect to persist over time. In this study, we used an acute assay based on the ability of protozoa to break down [(14)C] leucine-labeled Streptococcus bovis and a longer term assay based on protozoal motility over 24 h to evaluate both the antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect with fifteen hederagenin bis-esters esterified with two identical groups, and five cholesterol and cholic acid based derivatives carrying one to three succinate residues...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381531/ratios-of-one-carbon-metabolites-are-functional-markers-of-b-vitamin-status-in-a-norwegian-coronary-angiography-screening-cohort
#8
Arve Ulvik, Steinar Hustad, Adrian McCann, Øivind Midttun, Ottar K Nygård, Per M Ueland
Background: Functional (metabolic) markers of B-vitamin status, including plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) for folate and plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) for vitamin B-12, suffer from moderate sensitivity and poor specificity. Ratios of metabolites belonging to the same pathway may have better performance characteristics.Objective: We evaluated the ratios of tHcy to total cysteine (tCys; Hcy:Cys), tHcy to creatinine (Hcy:Cre), and tHcy to tCys to creatinine (Hcy:Cys:Cre) as functional markers of B-vitamin status represented by a summary score composed of folate, cobalamin, betaine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin concentrations measured in plasma...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379688/effects-of-doxorubicin-cisplatin-and-tamoxifen-on-the-metabolic-profile-of-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells-as-determined-by-1-h-high-resolution-magic-angle-spinning-nuclear-magnetic-resonance
#9
Roberta M Maria, Wanessa F Altei, Heloisa S Selistre-de-Araujo, Luiz A Colnago
Doxorubicin (Doxo), cisplatin (Cis), and tamoxifen (Tamo) are part of many chemotherapeutic regimens. However, there have been limited studies of the way metabolism in breast cancer is affected by chemotherapy. We studied, through (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, the metabolic profile of human breast cancer MCF-7 control (Con) cells as well as MCF-7 cells treated with Tamo, Cis, and Doxo. (1)H HR-MAS NMR single-pulse spectra evidenced signals from the cell compounds, including fatty acids (membranes), water-soluble proteins, and metabolites...
April 12, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378100/physiological-responses-of-three-soybean-species-glycine-soja-g-gracilis-and-g-max-cv-melrose-to-salinity-stress
#10
Haoran Liu, Jinhui Song, Lijun Dong, Di Wang, Shuling Zhang, Jianfeng Liu
Understanding the mechanism for salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) can help researchers improve that trait in cultivated soybean lines. We analyzed the effects of excess NaCl on the growth, physiology, and ion distribution in three soybean species: wild G. soja (W8), semi-wild G. gracilis (SW18), and the cultivated salt-sensitive G. max (cv. Melrose). These comparisons revealed that, under salt stress, shoot and root lengths and biomass (either shoot or root dry weights) were significantly higher for the W8 genotype than for the other two...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377746/genome-guided-insights-into-the-plant-growth-promotion-capabilities-of-the-physiologically-versatile-bacillus-aryabhattai-strain-ab211
#11
Chandrima Bhattacharyya, Utpal Bakshi, Ivy Mallick, Shayantan Mukherji, Biswajit Bera, Abhrajyoti Ghosh
Bacillus aryabhattai AB211 is a plant growth promoting, Gram-positive firmicute, isolated from the rhizosphere of tea (Camellia sinensis), one of the oldest perennial crops and a major non-alcoholic beverage widely consumed all over the world. The whole genome of B. aryabhattai AB211 was sequenced, annotated and evaluated with special focus on genomic elements related to plant microbe interaction. It's genome sequence reveals the presence of a 5,403,026 bp chromosome. A total of 5226 putative protein-coding sequences, 16 rRNA, 120 tRNA, 8 ncRNAs, 58 non-protein coding genes, and 11 prophage regions were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375902/ergothioneine-antioxidant-function-from-chemistry-to-cardiovascular-therapeutic-potential
#12
Luigi Servillo, Nunzia DʼOnofrio, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Ergothioneine (ESH), the betaine of 2-mercapto-L-histidine, is a water-soluble naturally occurring amino acid with antioxidant properties. ESH accumulates in several human and animal tissues up to millimolar concentration through its high affinity transporter, namely the organic cation transporter 1 (OCTN1). ESH, first isolated from the ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea), is synthesized only by Actinomycetales and non-yeast-like fungi. Plants absorb ESH via symbiotic associations between their roots and soil fungi, whereas mammals acquire it solely from dietary sources...
April 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370821/antibacterial-activity-of-polihexanide-formulations-in-a-co-culture-of-hacat-keratinocytes-and-staphylococcus-aureus-and-at-different-ph-levels
#13
Cornelia Wiegand, Thomas Eberlein, Anneke Andriessen
Complex stalled wounds feature an alkaline milieu that favors tissue destruction and microbial growth. The presence of bacteria in turn perpetuates the inflammatory response. However, only limited knowledge exists of pH dependency on the antibacterial efficacy of PHMB or the influence of surfactants or delivery vehicle used in antiseptic formulations. So far, PHMB alone has been shown to protect the keratinocytes from bacterial damage in such a co-culture system as well as exhibiting increased antimicrobial activity at higher pH values...
April 1, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369960/chronic-alcohol-exposure-differentially-alters-one-carbon-metabolism-in-rat-liver-and-brain
#14
James Auta, Huaibo Zhang, Subhash C Pandey, Alessandro Guidotti
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation play an important role in regulating the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Chronic alcohol exposure leads to behavioral changes as well as decreased expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity. In the liver, it has been documented that chronic alcohol exposure impairs methionine synthase (Ms) activity leading to a decrease in SAM/SAH ratio which results in DNA hypomethylation; however it is not known whether similar alterations of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) levels are also produced in brain...
March 30, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363467/investigation-of-the-electrostatic-and-hydration-properties-of-dna-minor-groove-binding-by-a-heterocyclic-diamidine-by-osmotic-pressure
#15
Noa Erlitzki, Kenneth Huang, Suela Xhani, Abdelbasset A Farahat, Arvind Kumar, David W Boykin, Gregory M K Poon
Previous investigations of sequence-specific DNA binding by model minor groove-binding compounds showed that the ligand/DNA complex was destabilized in the presence of compatible co-solutes. Inhibition was interpreted in terms of osmotic stress theory as the uptake of significant numbers of excess water molecules from bulk solvent upon complex formation. Here, we interrogated the AT-specific DNA complex formed with the symmetric heterocyclic diamidine DB1976 as a model for minor groove DNA recognition using both ionic (NaCl) and non-ionic cosolutes (ethylene glycol, glycine betaine, maltose, nicotinamide, urea)...
March 20, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358008/modified-sjh-alleviates-ffas-induced-hepatic-steatosis-through-leptin-signaling-pathways
#16
Dong-Woo Lim, Shambhunath Bose, Jing-Hua Wang, Han Seok Choi, Young-Mi Kim, Young-Won Chin, Song-Hee Jeon, Jai-Eun Kim, Hojun Kim
Samjunghwan (SJH) is an herbal formula used in traditional Korean medicine. This prescription has long been used in treatment of aging and lifestyle diseases. The current study showed the effect and mechanisms of anti-hepatic steatosis action of modified SJH (mSJH) in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with mSJH resulted in significantly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation in steatosis-induced cells. Furthermore, mSJH triggered the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase as well as increased the expression of leptin at both protein and gene levels...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356272/choline-and-its-metabolites-are-differently-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-history-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-mri-documented-cerebrovascular-disease-in-older-adults
#17
Annie J Roe, Shucha Zhang, Rafeeque A Bhadelia, Elizabeth J Johnson, Alice H Lichtenstein, Gail T Rogers, Irwin H Rosenberg, Caren E Smith, Steven H Zeisel, Tammy M Scott
Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism.Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular pathology.Design: A cross-sectional subset of the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders cohort who had undergone MRI of the brain (n = 296; mean ± SD age: 73 ± 8.1 y) was assessed...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353361/enhancement-of-the-antitumor-effect-of-methotrexate-on-colorectal-cancer-cells-via-lactate-calcium-salt-targeting-methionine-metabolism
#18
Young-Kwon Jo, Min Hee Park, Hyunju Choi, HooKeun Lee, Jong-Moon Park, Jae Jun Sim, Chonghwan Chang, Keun-Yeong Jeong, Hwan Mook Kim
Methionine (Met) is involved in one-carbon de novo nucleotide synthesis and is an essential amino acid for cell survival. The impact of lactate calcium salt (CaLa) on the Met metabolism was investigated to evaluate the enhanced antitumor effect of methotrexate (MTX) on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Met dependency relating to homocysteine (Hcy) and betaine was investigated in human CRC cells (HCT-116 and HT-29) using a viability assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Expression of betaine transporter-1 (BGT-1) following treatment with MTX alone or with CaLa was determined by Western blot...
March 29, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350402/metabolomics-approach-for-multibiomarkers-determination-to-investigate-dengue-virus-infection-in-human-patients
#19
Nurul Shahfiza, Hasnah Osman, Tang Thean Hock, Abdel-Hamid Zaki Abdel-Hamid
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the major public health problems in the world, affecting more than fifty million cases in tropical and subtropical region every year. The metabolome, as pathophysiological end-points, provide significant understanding of the mechanism and progression of dengue pathogenesis via changes in the metabolite profile of infected patients. Recent developments in diagnostic technologies provide metabolomics for the early detection of infectious diseases. METHODS: The mid-stream urine was collected from 96 patients diagnosed with dengue fever at Penang General Hospital (PGH) and 50 healthy volunteers...
March 30, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341134/metabolic-changes-in-droplet-vitrified-semen-of-wild-endangered-persian-sturgeon-acipenser-persicus-borodin-1997
#20
Amirreza Abed-Elmdoust, Hamid Farahmand, Bagher Mojazi-Amiri, Gholamreza Rafiee, Ruhollah Rahimi
Comparative quantitative metabolite profiling can be used for better understanding of cell functions and dysfunctions in particular circumstances such as sperm banking which is an important approach for cryopreservation of endangered species. Cryopreservation techniques have some deleterious effects on spermatozoa which put the obtained results in controversy. Therefore, in the present study, quantitative (1)H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) based metabolite profiling was conducted to evaluate metabolite changes related to energetics and some other detected metabolites in vitrified semen of critically endangered wild Acipenser persicus...
March 21, 2017: Cryobiology
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