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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097715/c-di-amp-modulates-listeria-monocytogenes-central-metabolism-to-regulate-growth-antibiotic-resistance-and-osmoregulation
#1
Aaron T Whiteley, Nicholas E Garelis, Bret N Peterson, Philip H Choi, Liang Tong, Joshua J Woodward, Daniel A Portnoy
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a conserved nucleotide second messenger critical for bacterial growth and resistance to cell wall-active antibiotics. In Listeria monocytogenes, the sole diadenylate cyclase, DacA, is essential in rich, but not synthetic media and ΔdacA mutants are highly sensitive to the β-lactam antibiotic cefuroxime. In this study, loss of function mutations in the oligopeptide importer (oppABCDF) and glycine betaine importer (gbuABC) allowed ΔdacA mutants to grow in rich medium...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092160/discovery-of-metabolite-biomarkers-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-progression
#2
Peifang Liu, Ruiting Li, Anton A Antonov, Lihua Wang, Wei Li, Yunfei Hua, Huimin Guo, Lijuan Wang, Peijia Liu, Lixia Chen, Yuan Tian, Fengguo Xu, Zunjian Zhang, Yulan Zhu, Yin Huang
Stroke remains a major public health problem worldwide; it causes severe disability and is associated with high mortality rates. However, early diagnosis of stroke is difficult, and no reliable biomarkers are currently established. In this study, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was utilized to characterize the metabolic features of the serum of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) to identify novel sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis and progression. First, global metabolic profiling was performed on a training set of 80 human serum samples (40 cases and 40 controls)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087883/defining-genetic-and-chemical-diversity-in-wheat-grain-by-1h-nmr-spectroscopy-of-polar-metabolites
#3
Peter R Shewry, Delia I Corol, Huw D Jones, Michael H Beale, Jane L Ward
SCOPE: The application of high throughput 1H-NMR of unpurified extracts to determine to determine genetic diversity and the contents of polar components in grain of wheat. METHODS AND RESULTS: milled whole wheat grain was extracted with 80:20 D2O:CD3OD containing 0.05% d4- trimethylsilylpropionate (TSP). 1H-NMR spectra were acquired under automation at 300 °K using an Avance Spectrometer operating at 600.0528 MHz. Regions for individual metabolites were identified by comparison to a library of known standards run under identical conditions...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077733/identification-of-potential-plasma-biomarkers-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-integrating-transcriptomics-and-proteomics-in-laying-hens
#4
Meng-Tsz Tsai, Yu-Jen Chen, Ching-Yi Chen, Mong-Hsun Tsai, Chia-Li Han, Yu-Ju Chen, Harry J Mersmann, Shih-Torng Ding
BACKGROUND: Prevalent worldwide obesity is associated with increased incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome. The identification of noninvasive biomarkers for NAFLD is of recent interest. Because primary de novo lipogenesis occurs in chicken liver as in human liver, adult chickens with age-associated steatosis resembling human NAFLD is an appealing animal model. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to screen potential biomarkers in the chicken model for NAFLD by transcriptomic and proteomic analysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077427/serum-trimethylamine-n-oxide-carnitine-choline-and-betaine-in-relation-to-colorectal-cancer-risk-in-the-alpha-tocopherol-and-beta-carotene-study
#5
Kristin A Guertin, Xinmin S Li, Barry I Graubard, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, James J Goedert, Zeneng Wang, Stanley L Hazen, Rashmi Sinha
BACKGROUND: TMAO, a choline-derived metabolite produced by gut microbiota, and its biomarker precursors have not been adequately evaluated in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of TMAO and its biomarker precursors (choline, carnitine and betaine) and incident colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study of male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study...
January 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071804/differential-scanning-calorimetry-analysis-of-the-effects-of-heat-and-pressure-on-protein-denaturation-in-soy-flour-mixed-with-various-types-of-plasticizers
#6
Meera Kweon, Louise Slade, Harry Levine
The effects of heat and pressure on protein denaturation in soy flour were explored by an experimental design that used pressure (atmospheric to 600 MPa), temperature (room to 90 °C), time (1 to 60 min), and type of aqueous plasticizer (NaCl, sucrose, betaine, and lactobionic acid (LBA)) as factors. When 50% (w/w) soy flour-water paste was high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated for 20 min at 25 °C, the treatment at 200 MPa showed a small effect on denaturation of only the 7S soy globulin, but the treatment at 600 MPa showed a significant effect on denaturation of both the 7S and 11S soy globulins...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069796/high-dietary-folate-in-pregnant-mice-leads-to-pseudo-mthfr-deficiency-and-altered-methyl-metabolism-with-embryonic-growth-delay-and-short-term-memory-impairment-in-offspring
#7
Renata H Bahous, Nafisa M Jadavji, Liyuan Deng, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Jessica Lu, Olga Malysheva, Kit-Yi Leung, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Nicholas DE Greene, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C>T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063937/cerebrospinal-fluid-metabolomic-profiling-in-tuberculous-and-viral-meningitis-screening-potential-markers-for-differential-diagnosis
#8
Zihui Li, Boping Du, Jing Li, Jinli Zhang, Xiaojing Zheng, Hongyan Jia, Aiying Xing, Qi Sun, Fei Liu, Zongde Zhang
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe and frequent form of central nervous system tuberculosis. The current lack of efficient diagnostic tests makes it difficult to differentiate TBM from other common types of meningitis, especially viral meningitis (VM). Metabolomics is an important tool to identify disease-specific biomarkers. However, little metabolomic information is available on adult TBM. METHODS: We used (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics to investigate the metabolic features of the CSF from 18 TBM and 20 VM patients...
January 4, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063639/characterization-of-the-polarity-of-subcritical-water
#9
Zahra M Alghoul, Phillip B Ogden, John G Dorsey
The polarity of subcritical water was studied solvatochromically with betaine dye (33) across a temperature range of 30°C-180°C and a pressure range of 13.8bar (200psi) to 124bar (1800psi). It was observed that temperature has a greater effect than pressure on the polarity of subcritical water. In addition, subcritical water was compared with traditional hydro-organic mobile phases and the polarity of subcritical water was found to be comparable to a range of 30%-50% methanol/water and a range of 20%-30% acetonitrile/water mobile phases...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063211/nmr-metabolomics-investigates-the-influence-of-flavonoid-enriched-rations-on-chicken-plasma
#10
Charalambos Fotakis, Dimitra Z Lantzouraki, Michael Goliomytis, Panagiotis E Simitzis, Maria Charismiadou, Stelios G Deligeorgis, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis
The use of flavonoids as dietary supplements is well established, mainly due to their intense antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, hesperidin, naringin, and vitamin E were used as additives at different concentrations in poultry rations in order to achieve meat of improved quality. NMR metabolomics was applied to chicken blood serum samples to discern whether and how the enriched rations affected the animals’ metabolic profile. Variations in the metabolic patterns according to sustenance consumption were traced by orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models and were attributed to specific metabolites by using S-line plots...
January 7, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062893/prenatal-alcohol-induced-neuroapoptosis-in-rat-brain-cerebral-cortex-protective-effect-of-folic-acid-and-betaine
#11
Ibrahim Sogut, Onur Uysal, Aysegul Oglakci, Ferruh Yucel, Kazim Kartkaya, Gungor Kanbak
PURPOSE: Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the infant. This study aims to investigate prenatal alcohol exposure related neuroapoptosis on the cerebral cortex tissues of newborn rats and possible neuroprotective effects of betaine, folic acid, and combined therapy. METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into five experimental groups: control, ethanol, ethanol + betaine, ethanol + folic acid, and ethanol + betaine + folic acid combined therapy groups...
January 6, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062279/nitric-oxide-induced-synthesis-of-hydrogen-sulfide-alleviates-osmotic-stress-in-wheat-seedlings-through-sustaining-antioxidant-enzymes-osmolyte-accumulation-and-cysteine-homeostasis
#12
M Nasir Khan, M Mobin, Zahid Khorshid Abbas, Manzer H Siddiqui
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been shown to act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, play significant roles in plant cellular processes, and also mediate responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The present investigation was carried out to test the effect of exogenous NO on endogenous synthesis of H2S in osmotic-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. The results show that application of NO to wheat seedlings, suffered from PEG8000-induced osmotic stress, considerably enhanced the activities of H2S-synthesizing enzymes l-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) and d-cysteine desulfhydrase (DCD) leading to enhanced level of endogenous H2S content...
January 3, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059170/in-ovo-injection-of-betaine-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-fatty-liver-in-chickens-through-epigenetic-modifications
#13
Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Jie Liu, Yimin Jia, Demin Cai, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine alleviates high-fat diet-induced fatty liver and prenatal betaine programs offspring hepatic lipid metabolism. Excessive corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes fatty liver in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether and how prenatal betaine modulates the susceptibility of CORT-induced fatty liver later in life. In this study, fertilized eggs were injected with saline or betaine before incubation, and the hatchlings were raised at 8 weeks of age followed by 7 days of subcutaneous CORT injection. CORT-induced fatty liver was less severe in betaine-treated chickens, with significantly reduced oil-red staining and hepatic triglyceride content (P < 0...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056502/environmental-occurrence-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-novel-fluorotelomer-surfactants-in-the-freshwater-fish-catostomus-commersonii-and-sediments-following-firefighting-foam-deployment-at-the-lac-m%C3%A3-gantic-railway-accident
#14
Gabriel Munoz, Mélanie Desrosiers, Sung Vo Duy, Pierre Labadie, Helene Budzinski, Jinxia Liu, Sébastien Sauvé
: On July 6(th) 2013, an unmanned train laden with almost 8 million liters of crude oil careened off the rails downtown Lac-Mégantic (Québec, Canada). In the aftermath of the derailment accident, the emergency response entailed the deployment of 33,000 L of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) concentrate that contained proprietary fluorosurfactants. The present study examines the environmental occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and newly-identified per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the benthic fish white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and sediments from Lake Mégantic and Chaudière River...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040883/simultaneous-structural-identification-of-diacylglyceryl-n-trimethylhomoserine-dgts-anddiaclyglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-n-n-n-trimethyl-%C3%AE-alanine-dgta-in-microalgae-using-dual-li-h-adduct-ion-mode-by-ultraperformance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight
#15
Yanrong Li, Yamin Lou, Tong Mu, Jilin Xu, Chengxu Zhou, Xiaojun Yan
RATIONALE: Diacylgycerol-N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) and diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-β-alanine (DGTA) are structural isomers, and they are the most commonly described betaine lipids in microalgae. The structural differentiation and precise identification of DGTS and DGTA in microalgae need to be established during mass spectrometry analysis. METHODS: Total lipid was extracted from Amphora sp. with CHCl3 /CH3 OH (1:1, v/v). The qualitative analysis of DGTS and DGTA in Amphora sp...
January 1, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039067/prenatal-betaine-exposure-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-inhibition-of-cyp27a1-expression-in-the-liver-of-juvenile-chickens-associated-with-its-promoter-dna-methylation
#16
Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Yibo Zong, Jie Liu, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Ruqian Zhao
Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis by degrading cholesterol to bile acids. Betaine can alleviate high-fat diet-induced hepatic cholesterol accumulation and maternal betaine treatment programs the hepatic expression of CYP27A1 in offspring. Excessive corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes hepatic cholesterol deposition in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether prenatal betaine modulates CORT-induced cholesterol accumulation in chicken liver later in life and whether it involves epigenetic gene regulation of CYP27A1...
December 27, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035596/biosynthesis-and-uptake-of-glycine-betaine-as-cold-stress-response-to-low-temperature-in-fish-pathogen-vibrio-anguillarum
#17
Yue Ma, Qiyao Wang, Xiating Gao, Yuanxing Zhang
Fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a mesophile bacterium, is usually found in estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems worldwide that pose a constant stress to local organism by its fluctuation in salinity as well as notable temperature change. Though V. anguillarum is able to proliferate while maintain its pathogenicity under low temperature (5-18°C), so far, coldadaption molecular mechanism of the bacteria is unknown. In this study, V. anguillarum was found possessing a putative glycine betaine synthesis system, which is encoded by betABI and synthesizes glycine betaine from its precursor choline...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028768/meal-effects-confound-attempts-to-counteract-rabeprazole-induced-hypochlorhydria-decreases-in-atazanavir-absorption
#18
Kathleen Panter Faber, Hsin-Fang Wu, Marc R Yago, Xiaohui Xu, Pathanjali Kadiyala, Lynda A Frassetto, Leslie Z Benet
PURPOSE: Clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions exist between gastric acid-reducing agents and certain weakly basic drugs that rely on acidic environments for optimal oral absorption. In this study, we examine whether the administration of betaine hydrochloride under fed conditions can enhance the absorption of atazanavir, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor, during pharmacologically-induced hypochlorhydria. METHODS: In this randomized, single-dose, 3 period, crossover study healthy volunteers received ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg) alone, following pretreatment with the proton pump inhibitor rabeprazole (20 mg twice daily), and with 1500 mg of betaine HCl after rabeprazole pretreatment...
December 27, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007169/uptake-and-transformation-of-arsenic-during-the-reproductive-life-stage-of-agaricus-bisporus-and-agaricus-campestris
#19
Michelle M Nearing, Iris Koch, Kenneth J Reimer
Fruiting bodies from the Agaricus genus have been found to contain non-toxic arsenobetaine (AB) as a major compound. It is unknown whether AB is formed during the vegetative or reproductive life stages of the fungus, or by the surrounding microbial community, but AB's structural similarity to glycine betaine has led to the hypothesis that AB may be adventitiously accumulated as an osmolyte. To investigate the potential formation of AB during the reproductive life stage of Agaricus species, growth substrate and fungi were collected during the commercial growth of Agaricus bisporus and analyzed for arsenic speciation using HPLC-ICP-MS...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001411/nhc-as-the-guiding-factor-in-a-copper-catalyzed-intramolecular-c-arylation-of-pyrrolylimidazolium-salts-synthesis-of-luminescent-heterotetracyclic-frameworks
#20
Olesya A Tomashenko, Mikhail S Novikov, Alexander F Khlebnikov
3-(2/4-(2-Bromophenyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium bromides undergo a copper-catalyzed intramolecular direct C arylation under mild conditions to give new heterocyclic frameworks. The cyclizations involve the formation of betaines (imidazoliumylpyrrolides) under basic conditions and the tautomerizaton of the betaines to the corresponding NHCs, which are the reactive species responsible for the selectivity of the arylation via the formation of NHC-Cu complexes. The primary salt arylation products were dehydrohalogenated to obtain the first representatives of 7H-imidazo[2,1-a]pyrrolo[3,2-c]isoquinoline and 1H-imidazo[2,1-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]isoquinoline heterocyclic skeletons, which were further transformed into thermodynamically more stable 1H- and 6H-tautomers, respectively, by removing of the benzyl-PG...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
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