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Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Gabriella P Rimmer, Pratul K Agarwal, Elizabeth E Howell
Folate, or vitamin B9, is an important compound in one carbon metabolism. Previous studies have found weaker binding of dihydrofolate to dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of osmolytes. In other words, osmolytes are more difficult to remove from the dihydrofolate solvation shell than water; this shifts the equilibrium towards the free ligand and protein species. This study uses vapor pressure osmometry to explore the interaction of folate with the model osmolyte, glycine betaine. This method yields a preferential interaction potential (μ23/RT value)...
October 21, 2016: Biochemistry
Caitlin G Howe, Xinhua Liu, Megan N Hall, Vesna Ilievski, Marie A Caudill, Olga Malysheva, Angela M Lomax-Luu, Faruque Parvez, Abu B Siddique, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammad N Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Joseph H Graziano, Max Costa, Mary V Gamble
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational histone modifications (PTHMs) are altered by arsenic, an environmental carcinogen. PTHMs are also influenced by nutritional methyl donors involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM), which may protect against epigenetic dysregulation. METHODS: We measured global levels of three PTHMs, which are dysregulated in cancers (H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 324 participants enrolled in the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Demin Cai, Mengjie Yuan, Haoyu Liu, Shifeng Pan, Wenqiang Ma, Jian Hong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) gene expression, but decreasing bile acids content and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) expression in the liver of weaning piglets...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Junwei Ma, Qingbin Meng, Xiaoshi Hu, Bin Li, Suxiang Ma, Bingwen Hu, Jian Li, Xueshun Jia, Chunju Li
The first water-soluble biphen[4]arene containing eight carboxylato moieties (carboxylatobiphen[4]arene, CBP4) has been synthesized. Selective molecular recognition of acetylcholine (ACh) against choline (Ch) and betaine (Bt) and pH-responsive host-guest complexation in aqueous media are described.
October 19, 2016: Organic Letters
Shanwen Sun, Xiao Li, Anjing Ren, Mulong Du, Haina Du, Yongqian Shu, Lingjun Zhu, Wei Wang
A number of human and animal in vitro or in vivo studies have investigated the relationship between dietary choline and betaine and cancer risk, suggesting that choline and betaine consumption may be protective for cancer. There are also a few epidemiologic studies exploring this relationship, however, with inconsistent conclusions. The PubMed and Embase were searched, from their inception to March 2016, to identify relevant studies and we brought 11 articles into this meta-analysis eventually. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of cancer for the highest versus the lowest range were 0...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Seu Ping Guiraud, Ivan Montoliu, Laeticia Da Silva, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Martin Kussmann, Francois-Pierre Martin
The methionine cycle is a key pathway contributing to the regulation of human health, with well-established involvement in cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. Changes in one-carbon cycle metabolites have also been associated with mild cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is no single analytical method to monitor both metabolites and co-factors of the methionine cycle. To address this limitation, we here report for the first time a new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 17 metabolites in the methionine cycle, which are homocysteic acid, taurine, serine, cysteine, glycine, homocysteine, riboflavin, methionine, pyridoxine, cystathionine, pyridoxamine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Benjamin A Webb, K Karl Compton, Rafael Castañeda Saldaña, Timofey Arapov, W Keith Ray, Richard F Helm, Birgit E Scharf
The bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti is attracted to seed exudates of its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Since quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are exuded by germinating seeds, we assayed chemotaxis of S. meliloti towards betonicine, choline, glycine betaine, stachydrine, and trigonelline. The wild type displayed a positive response to all QACs. Using LC-MS, we determined that each germinating alfalfa seed exuded QACs in the nanogram range. Compared to the closely related non-host species, spotted medic (Medicago arabica), unique profiles were released...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Cédric Gaillard, Yunhui Wang, Rudy Covis, Thomas Vives, Maud Benoit, Thierry Benvegnu
This article contains data on the Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images related to multi-scaled self-assemblies resulting from 'green' cationic glycine betaine surfactant/anionic kappa-carrageenan interactions. These data gave clear evidence of the evolution of the micron-, nano-sized structures obtained at two surfactant/polymer molar ratios (3.5 and 0.8) and after the dilution of the aqueous dispersions with factors of 5 and 10 times. This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Monitoring the architecture of anionic ĸ-carrageenan/cationic glycine betaine amide surfactant assemblies by dilution: A multiscale approach" (Gaillard et al...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Bo Sun, Xubin Wang, Ruili Cao, Qi Zhang, Qiao Liu, Meifeng Xu, Ming Zhang, Xiangbo Du, Fangting Dong, Xianzhong Yan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fuzi, the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for its analgesic, antipyretic, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-inflammation effects; however, it is also well known for its toxicity. Gancao, the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., is often used concurrently with Fuzi to alleviate its toxicity. However, the mechanism of detoxication is still not well clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effect of Gancao on the metabolic changes induced by Fuzi was investigated by NMR-based metabonomic approaches...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Xiangfeng He, Fei Xue, Shufa Xu, Wenhe Wang
Lily symptomless virus (LSV) is one of the most prevalent viruses that infect lily plants worldwide. A rapid and sensitive reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for detection of LSV, using two primer pairs that specifically amplified the conserved sequence of LSV coat protein. The optimum reaction conditions were as follows: 4mM MgCl2 and 0.8M betaine with incubation at 64°C for 30min. The limit of detection of LSV from infected lily leaves was 10-fold higher for RT-LAMP than for conventional RT-PCR...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Jennifer Popko, Cornelia Herrfurth, Kirstin Feussner, Till Ischebeck, Tim Iven, Richard Haslam, Mary Hamilton, Olga Sayanova, Jonathan Napier, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Ivo Feussner
Oleaginous microalgae are considered as a promising resource for the production of biofuels. Especially diatoms arouse interest as biofuel producers since they are most productive in carbon fixation and very flexible to environmental changes in the nature. Naturally, triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in algae only occurs under stress conditions like nitrogen-limitation. We focused on Phaeodactylum strain Pt4 (UTEX 646), because of its ability to grow in medium with low salinity and therefore being suited when saline water is less available or for wastewater cultivation strategies...
2016: PloS One
Ashley E Mohrman, Mahmoud Farrag, He Huang, Stephan Ossowski, Stephanie Haft, Leah P Shriver, Nic D Leipzig
Syringomyelia is a condition of the spinal cord in which a syrinx, or fluid-filled cavity, forms from trauma, malformation, or general disorder. Previous work has shown that in noncanalicular syringomyelia irregular flow and pressure conditions enhance the volumetric growth of syrinxes. A better understanding of the underlying molecular pathways associated with syrinx formation will unveil targets for treatments and possibly prevention of syringomyelia in the future. In this study, we performed an established surgical induction of a syrinx using quisqualic acid and kaolin injections in rats to characterize the injury at the molecular level by RNA sequencing and metabolomics techniques at three and six weeks post-injury...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jose M Colomina, Pere Cavallé-Busquets, Sílvia Fernàndez-Roig, Pol Solé-Navais, Joan D Fernandez-Ballart, Mónica Ballesteros, Per M Ueland, Klaus Meyer, Michelle M Murphy
: The effect of the betaine: homocysteine methyltransferase BHMT c.716G>A (G: guanosine; A: adenosine) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the BHMT pathway is unknown during pregnancy. We hypothesised that it impairs betaine to dimethylglycine conversion and that folate status modifies its effect. We studied 612 women from the Reus Tarragona Birth Cohort from ≤12 gestational weeks (GW) throughout pregnancy. The frequency of the variant BHMT c.716A allele was 30.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 28...
October 9, 2016: Nutrients
Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Stacey K Johnson, Caitlyn M Getty, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Ryan N Dilger
BACKGROUND: Choline is essential for synthesis of phospholipids, neurodevelopment, and DNA methylation. It is unknown whether dietary perinatal choline deficiency affects maternal milk composition. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether perinatal maternal dietary choline deficiency influences porcine-milk composition. METHODS: Yorkshire sows were fed choline-deficient (CD) or choline-sufficient (CS) gestation diets [544 or 1887 mg choline/kg dry matter (DM), respectively] from 65 d before to 48 h after parturition and then fed lactation diets (517 or 1591 mg choline/kg DM, respectively) through day 19 of lactation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Liya D Funt, Olesya A Tomashenko, Alexander F Khlebnikov, Mikhail Sergeevich Novikov, Alexander Yu Ivanov
Unprecedented pyrrole- and 1,2,4-triazole-containing ensembles, substituted 1-(1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium bromides and 4-(1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium bromides, were prepared from 2H-azirines and triazolium phenacyl bromides using a simple procedure. N-(1H-Pyrrol-3-yl)-N'-benzyltriazolium bromides undergo reductive debenzylation on Pd/C to give substituted 1-(1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazoles and 4-(1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazoles in high yields. Betaines (triazoliumylpyrrolides) and pyrrolyltriazole NHCs, which are possible products of dehydrobromination of pyrrolyltriazolium salts, have comparable thermodynamic stabilities in nonpolar solvents according to the calculations at the DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d) level...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Adel Zarei, Christopher P Trobacher, Barry J Shelp
Polyamines represent a potential source of 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) in plants exposed to abiotic stress. Terminal catabolism of putrescine in Arabidopsis thaliana involves amine oxidase and the production of 4-aminobutanal, which is a substrate for NAD(+)-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH). Here, two AMADH homologs were chosen (AtALDH10A8 and AtALDH10A9) as candidates for encoding 4-aminobutanal dehydrogenase activity for GABA synthesis. The two genes were cloned and soluble recombinant proteins were produced in Escherichia coli...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Seo Yeon Lee, Kwang Suk Ko
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ethanol abuse and severe oxidative stress are risk factors for hepatocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and its combinations with taurine and/or betaine on the level of glutathione (GSH), a powerful antioxidant in the liver, in acute hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol. METHODS: To examine the effects of SAMe and its combinations with taurine and/or betaine on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity, AML12 cells and C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with SAMe, taurine, and/or betaine, followed by ethanol challenge...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Seo Yeon Lee, Kwang Suk Ko
BACKGROUND: Several mechanisms for the pathogenesis of many liver diseases are related with oxidative stress, endotoxins, and infections by many microorganisms. These can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and its combinations with taurine and/or betaine against hepatotoxicites induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C). METHODS: RAW 264...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
L W Hall, F R Dunshea, J D Allen, S Rungruang, J L Collier, N M Long, R J Collier
Betaine (BET), a natural, organic osmolyte, improves cellular efficiency by acting as a chaperone, refolding denatured proteins. To test if dietary BET reduced the effect of heat stress (HS) in lactating dairy cows, multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (n = 24) were blocked by days in milk (101.4 ± 8.6 d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 daily intakes of dietary BET: the control (CON) group received no BET, mid intake (MID) received 57 mg of BET/kg of body weight, and high dose (HI) received 114 mg of BET/kg of body weight...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Abhigyan Sengupta, Hsuan-Lei Sung, David J Nesbitt
In light of the current models for an early RNA-based universe, the potential influence of simple amino acids on tertiary folding of ribozymal RNA into biochemically competent structures is speculated to be of significant evolutionary importance. In the present work, the folding-unfolding kinetics of a ubiquitous tertiary interaction motif, the GAAA tetraloop-tetraloop receptor (TL-TLR), is investigated by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy in the presence of natural amino acids both with (e...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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