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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676713/-deep-brain-stimulation-for-psychiatric-disorders
#1
M Figee, P R Schuurman, D Denys
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS) corrects pathological activity of neuropsychiatric brain networks with high frequency current via implanted brain electrodes.- DBS is an effective and safe treatment for therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and potentially also for therapy-refractory major depressive disorder.- Experimental psychiatric indications for DBS are Tourette syndrome, addiction, anorexia nervosa, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism and schizophrenia.- DBS influences brain networks that are relevant for a variety of psychiatric symptoms...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675956/clonidine-modulates-the-activity-of-the-subthalamic-supplementary-motor-loop-evidence-from-a-pharmacological-study-combining-dbs-and-eeg-recordings-in-parkinsonian-patients
#2
Charlotte Spay, Marion Albares, Guillaume Lio, Stephane Thobois, Emmanuel Broussolle, Brian Lau, Benedicte Ballanger, Philippe Boulinguez
Clonidine is an anti-hypertensive medication which acts as an alpha-adrenergic receptors agonist. As the noradrenergic system is likely to support cognitive functions including attention and executive control, other clinical uses of clonidine have recently gained popularity for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome, but the mechanism of action is still unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that the noradrenergic system regulates the activity of subthalamo-motor cortical loops, and that this influence can be modulated by clonidine...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656800/dopaminergic-disturbances-in-tourette-syndrome-an-integrative-account
#3
REVIEW
Tiago V Maia, Vasco A Conceição
Tourette syndrome (TS) is thought to involve dopaminergic disturbances, but the nature of those disturbances remains controversial. Existing hypotheses suggest that TS involves 1) supersensitive dopamine receptors, 2) overactive dopamine transporters that cause low tonic but high phasic dopamine, 3) presynaptic dysfunction in dopamine neurons, or 4) dopaminergic hyperinnervation. We review evidence that contradicts the first two hypotheses; we also note that the last two hypotheses have traditionally been considered too narrowly, explaining only small subsets of findings...
March 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619935/tourette-syndrome-in-a-longitudinal-perspective-clinical-course-of-tics-and-comorbidities-coexisting-psychopathologies-phenotypes-and-predictors
#4
Camilla Groth
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics and frequent associated comorbidities. The developmental trajectory of tic shows tic-onset in the age of 4-6, peak in the age of 10-12 and decline during adolescence, although only few and small longitudinal studies form the basis of this evidence. Recent studies suggest that comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and coexisting psychopathologies tend to persist and become more dominant in adolescence...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616382/phase-model-based-neuron-stabilization-into-arbitrary-clusters
#5
Timothy D Matchen, Jeff Moehlis
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a common method of combating pathological conditions associated with Parkinson's disease, Tourette syndrome, essential tremor, and other disorders, but whose mechanisms are not fully understood. One hypothesis, supported experimentally, is that some symptoms of these disorders are associated with pathological synchronization of neurons in the basal ganglia and thalamus. For this reason, there has been interest in recent years in finding efficient ways to desynchronize neurons that are both fast-acting and low-power...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608989/advances-challenges-and-promises-in-pediatric-neuroimaging-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Haley M Bednarz, Rajesh K Kana
Recent years have witnessed the proliferation of neuroimaging studies of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), particularly of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette's syndrome (TS). Neuroimaging offers immense potential in understanding the biology of these disorders, and how it relates to clinical symptoms. Neuroimaging techniques, in the long run, may help identify neurobiological markers to assist clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, methodological challenges have affected the progress of clinical neuroimaging...
March 31, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608131/do-patients-with-different-psychiatric-disorders-show-altered-social-decision-making-a-systematic-review-of-ultimatum-game-experiments-in-clinical-populations
#7
Barbara Hinterbuchinger, Alexander Kaltenboeck, Josef Severin Baumgartner, Nilufar Mossaheb, Fabian Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Impairments in social functioning are a common feature of psychiatric disorders. Game paradigms pose a unique way for studying how people make decisions in interpersonal contexts. In the last decade, researchers have started to use these paradigms to study social decision-making in patients with psychiatric disorders. PURPOSE: The aim of this systematic literature review is to summarise the currently available evidence on the behaviour of patients with psychiatric disorders in the commonly used Ultimatum Game (UG)...
April 2, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593638/tourette-syndrome-a-mini-review
#8
REVIEW
Michal Novotny, Martin Valis, Blanka Klimova
The purpose of this mini-review is to provide the latest information on epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). The authors conducted a literature search of available sources describing the issue of tic disorders with special focus on TS and made a comparison and evaluation of relevant findings. The results of this mini-review indicate that TS is a complex disorder, which has a significant impact on the quality of life of both the patients and his/her family. Therefore, early and proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary in order to reduce or even eliminate both symptoms and social burden of the patient...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563235/haloperidol-ameliorates-androgen-induced-behavioral-deficits-in-developing-male-rats
#9
Chunxiao Qi, Xiaoming Ji, Guoliang Zhang, Yunxiao Kang, Yuanxiang Huang, Rui Cui, Shuangcheng Li, Huixian Cui, Geming Shi
The purpose of present study was to infer the potential effects of testosterone increase in some male-based childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Tourette syndrome. Thus, the influence of early postnatal androgen exposure upon the neurobehaviors and its possible neural basis were investigated in the study. Male pup rats received consecutive 14-day testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneous injection from postnatal day (PND) 7. The TP treatment produced the hyperactive motor behavior and grooming behavior as well as the increased levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter in the mesodopaminergic system and the elevated levels of serotonin in the nucleus accumbens, without affecting the levels of glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine and histamine in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens of PND21 and PND49 rats...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560306/global-network-modulation-during-thalamic-stimulation-for-tourette-syndrome
#10
Hang Joon Jo, Kevin W McCairn, William S Gibson, Paola Testini, Cong Zhi Zhao, Krzysztof R Gorny, Joel P Felmlee, Kirk M Welker, Charles D Blaha, Bryan T Klassen, Hoon-Ki Min, Kendall H Lee
Background and objectives: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a promising therapeutic alternative for treating medically refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). However, few human studies have examined its mechanism of action. Therefore, the networks that mediate the therapeutic effects of thalamic DBS remain poorly understood. Methods: Five participants diagnosed with severe medically refractory TS underwent bilateral thalamic DBS stereotactic surgery. Intraoperative fMRI characterized the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response evoked by thalamic DBS and determined whether the therapeutic effectiveness of thalamic DBS, as assessed using the Modified Rush Video Rating Scale test, would correlate with evoked BOLD responses in motor and limbic cortical and subcortical regions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559228/sensory-aspects-of-tourette-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Joanna H Cox, Stefano Seri, Andrea E Cavanna
Motor and vocal tics have long been recognised as the core features of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, patients' first-person accounts have consistently reported that these involuntary motor manifestations have specific sensory correlates. These sensory symptoms are often described as feelings of mounting inner tension ("premonitory urges") and are transiently relieved by tic expression. Multimodal hypersensitivity to external stimuli, perceived as triggers and/or exacerbating factors for specific tic symptoms, is also commonly reported by patients with TS...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556956/hyperactivity-in-mice-lacking-one-allele-of-the-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-67-gene
#12
Karen Müller Smith
GABAergic interneuron loss, maturational delay or imbalance of glutamatergic to GABAergic signaling has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In schizophrenia, decreases in parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (Sst) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) RNA have been observed and seem to indicate a failure in maturation in PV and Sst neurons. In Tourette syndrome, which has a high level of comorbid ADHD, reduced numbers of parvalbumin expressing neurons have been observed in the basal ganglia of affected patients...
March 19, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554545/seroprevalance-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-children-and-adolescents-with-tourette-syndrome-chronic-motor-or-vocal-tic-disorder-a-case-control-study
#13
İsmail Akaltun, Tayfun Kara, Soner Sertan Kara, Hamza Ayaydın
Toxoplasma gondii infection may be associated with psychiatric disorders due to its neurological effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between tic disorders in children and adolescents and Anti-Toxoplasma IgG. 43 children diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome(TS) and 87 with chronic motor or vocal tic disorder(CMVTD), and 130 healthy volunteers, all aged 7-18, were enrolled. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody levels obtained from blood specimens were investigated. Toxoplasma IgG positivity was determined in 16(37...
March 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549877/reduced-specificity-of-autobiographical-memories-in-young-people-with-tic-disorders
#14
Victoria Pile, Sally Robinson, Elystan Roberts, Marta Topor, Tammy Hedderly, Jennifer Y F Lau
OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders (TS/CTD) and contributes to significant impairment. The specificity of autobiographical memories is implicated in an individual's sense of self and their daily functioning but also in the onset and development of depression in the general population. Here, we examined whether memory specificity is reduced in young people with TS/CTD, relative to control participants, and whether memory specificity is associated with depression...
March 6, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509270/medical-use-of-cannabis-italian-and-european-legislation
#15
S Zaami, A Di Luca, N M Di Luca, G Montanari Vergallo
This review illustrates some brief considerations of the medical use of cannabis recently issued in Italy. History and uses of cannabis throughout centuries and different countries are illustrated together with a description of botany and active phytocannabinoids. Then, medical use of cannabis anti-pain treatment for patients resistant to conventional therapies is described in case of chronic neuropathic pain, spasticity, for anticinetosic and antiemetic effect in nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, for appetite stimulating effect in cachexia, anorexia, loss of appetite in cancer patients or patients with AIDS and in anorexia nervosa, hypotensive effect in glaucoma resistant to conventional therapies and for reduction of involuntary body and facial movements in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508917/voluntary-inhibitory-motor-control-over-involuntary-tic-movements
#16
REVIEW
Christos Ganos, John Rothwell, Patrick Haggard
Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature...
March 6, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497206/tourette-s-syndrome-and-schizophrenia-about-a-case-report
#17
Hentati Salma, Sellami Rim, Abida Imen, Masmoudi Jaweher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487562/aripiprazole-selectively-reduces-motor-tics-in-a-young-animal-model-for-tourette-s-syndrome-and-comorbid-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Francesca Rizzo, Ester Nespoli, Alireza Abaei, Izhar Bar-Gad, Dinesh K Deelchand, Jörg Fegert, Volker Rasche, Bastian Hengerer, Tobias M Boeckers
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized primarily by motor and vocal tics. Comorbidities such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are observed in over 50% of TS patients. We applied aripiprazole in a juvenile rat model that displays motor tics and hyperactivity. We additionally assessed the amount of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) as an indicator for the presence of vocal tics and evaluated the changes in the striatal neurometabolism using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 11...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484607/treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia-a-general-overview-with-focus-on-the-vesicular-monoamine-transporter-2-inhibitors
#19
Nicki Niemann, Joseph Jankovic
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) encompasses the spectrum of iatrogenic hyperkinetic movement disorders following exposure to dopamine receptor-blocking agents (DRBAs). Despite the advent of atypical or second- and third-generation antipsychotics with a presumably lower risk of complications, TD remains a persistent and challenging problem. Prevention is the first step in mitigating the risk of TD, but early recognition, gradual withdrawal of offending medications, and appropriate treatment are also critical. As TD is often a persistent and troublesome disorder, specific antidyskinetic therapies are often needed for symptomatic relief...
February 26, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481900/biochemical-markers-of-striatal-desensitization-in-cortical-limbic-hyperglutamatergic-ts-ocd-like-transgenic-mice
#20
Kylie B O'Brien, Anjail Z Sharrief, Eric J Nordstrom, Anthony J Travanty, Mailee Huynh, Megan P Romero, Katie C Bittner, Michael T Bowser, Frank H Burton
Tics and compulsions in comorbid Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with chronic hyperactivity of parallel cortico/amygdalo-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop circuits. Comorbid TS- & OCD-like behaviors have likewise been observed in D1CT-7 mice, in which an artificial neuropotentiating transgene encoding the cAMP-elevating intracellular subunit of cholera toxin (CT) is chronically expressed selectively in somatosensory cortical & amygdalar dopamine (DA) D1 receptor-expressing neurons that activate cortico/amygdalo-striatal glutamate (GLU) output...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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