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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088357/joint-genome-wide-prediction-in-several-populations-accounting-for-randomness-of-genotypes-a-hierarchical-bayes-approach-ii-multivariate-spike-and-slab-priors-for-marker-effects-and-derivation-of-approximate-bayes-and-fractional-bayes-factors-for-the-complete
#1
Carlos Alberto Martínez, Kshitij Khare, Arunava Banerjee, Mauricio A Elzo
This study corresponds to the second part of a companion paper devoted to the development of Bayesian multiple regression models accounting for randomness of genotypes in across population genome-wide prediction. This family of models considers heterogeneous and correlated marker effects and allelic frequencies across populations, and has the ability of considering records from non-genotyped individuals and individuals with missing genotypes in any subset of loci without the need for previous imputation, taking into account uncertainty about imputed genotypes...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087928/factors-associated-with-non-completion-of-follow-up-33-month-latent-tuberculous-infection-treatment-trial
#2
R N Moro, T R Sterling, J Saukkonen, A Vernon, C R Horsburgh, R E Chaisson, C D Hamilton, M E Villarino, S Goldberg
<h2>SETTING:</h2><p>A post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized, open-label clinical trial thatenrolled 8053 participants from the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Spain.</p><h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2><p>To assess factors associated with non-completion of study follow-up (NCF) in a 33-month latent tuberculous infection treatment trial, PREVENT TB.</p><h2>DESIGN:</h2><p>Participants were randomized to receive 3 months of weekly directly observed therapy vs...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076926/yoga-treatment-for-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain
#3
REVIEW
L Susan Wieland, Nicole Skoetz, Karen Pilkington, Ramaprabhu Vempati, Christopher R D'Adamo, Brian M Berman
BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of yoga for treating chronic non-specific low back pain, compared to no specific treatment, a minimal intervention (e...
January 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073767/analyses-of-sensitivity-to-the-missing-at-random-assumption-using-multiple-imputation-with-delta-adjustment-application-to-a-tuberculosis-hiv-prevalence-survey-with-incomplete-hiv-status-data
#4
Finbarr P Leacy, Sian Floyd, Tom A Yates, Ian R White
Multiple imputation with delta adjustment provides a flexible and transparent means to impute univariate missing data under general missing-not-at-random mechanisms. This facilitates the conduct of analyses assessing sensitivity to the missing-at-random (MAR) assumption. We review the delta-adjustment procedure and demonstrate how it can be used to assess sensitivity to departures from MAR, both when estimating the prevalence of a partially observed outcome and when performing parametric causal mediation analyses with a partially observed mediator...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068910/outcome-sensitive-multiple-imputation-a-simulation-study
#5
Evangelos Kontopantelis, Ian R White, Matthew Sperrin, Iain Buchan
BACKGROUND: Multiple imputation is frequently used to deal with missing data in healthcare research. Although it is known that the outcome should be included in the imputation model when imputing missing covariate values, it is not known whether it should be imputed. Similarly no clear recommendations exist on: the utility of incorporating a secondary outcome, if available, in the imputation model; the level of protection offered when data are missing not-at-random; the implications of the dataset size and missingness levels...
January 9, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067624/modelling-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-mice-how-much-oxygen-is-enough
#6
Claudio Nardiello, Ivana Mižíková, Diogo M Silva, Jordi Ruiz-Camp, Konstantin Mayer, István Vadász, Susanne Herold, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty
Progress in developing new therapies for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is sometimes complicated by the lack of a standardised animal model. Our objective was to develop a robust hyperoxia‑based mouse model of BPD that recapitulated the pathological perturbations to lung structure noted in infants with BPD. Newborn mouse pups were exposed to a varying fraction of oxygen in the inspired air (FiO2) and a varying window of hyperoxia exposure, after which lung structure was assessed by design‑based stereology with systemic uniform random sampling...
December 14, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063913/systematic-survey-of-randomized-trials-evaluating-the-impact-of-alternative-diagnostic-strategies-on-patient-important-outcomes
#7
Regina El Dib, Kari A O Tikkinen, Elie A Akl, Huda A Goma, Reem A Mustafa, Arnav Agarwal, Christopher R Carpenter, Yuchen Zhang, Eliane C Jorge, Ricardo A M B Almeida, Paulo do Nascimento Junior, Joao Vitor P Doles, Ahmad A Mustafa, Behnam Sadeghirad, Luciane C Lopes, Cristiane C Bergamaschi, Erica A Suzumura, Marília M A Cardoso, Marluci Betini, José Eduardo Corrente, Samuel B Stone, Holger J Schunemann, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE: To provide a perspective on the current practice of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of diagnostic strategies focusing on patient-important outcomes. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a comprehensive search of Medline and included RCTs published in full-text reports that evaluated alternative diagnostic strategies. RESULTS: Of 56,912 unique citations we sampled 7,500 and included 103 eligible RCTs, therefore suggesting that Medline includes approximately 781 diagnostic RCTs...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060195/quality-of-life-and-parental-worrying-in-a-national-cohort-of-biliary-atresia-children-living-with-their-native-livers
#8
Hanna Lampela, Mikko P Pakarinen, Timo Jahnukainen, Hannu Jalanko, Silja Kosola
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate health related quality of life (HRQoL) and parental distress in a national cohort of children with biliary atresia (BA) with their native livers in relation to BA complications and HRQoL of normal population controls. METHODS: We invited all Finnish children with BA surviving with their native livers at age 2-18 years to participate in 2009 and in 2014. Parents filled the PedsQL proxy questionnaire, a survey of their child's health and evaluated parental distress on a visual analogue scale from 0 to 7...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057876/academic-performance-in-adolescents-born-after-art-a-nationwide-registry-based-cohort-study
#9
A L Spangmose, S S Malchau, L Schmidt, D Vassard, S Rasmussen, A Loft, J Forman, A Pinborg
STUDY QUESTION: Is academic performance in adolescents aged 15-16 years and conceived after ART, measured as test scores in ninth grade, comparable to that for spontaneously conceived (SC) adolescents? SUMMARY ANSWER: ART singletons had a significantly lower mean test score in the adjusted analysis when compared with SC singletons, yet the differences were small and probably not of clinical relevance. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies have shown similar intelligence quotient (IQ) levels in ART and SC children, but only a few have been on adolescents...
January 5, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052111/8-way-randomized-controlled-trial-of-doxylamine-pyridoxine-and-dicyclomine-for-nausea-and-vomiting-during-pregnancy-restoration-of-unpublished-information
#10
Rujun Zhang, Navindra Persaud
OBJECTIVES: We report information about an unpublished 1970s study ("8-way" Bendectin Study) that aimed to evaluate the relative therapeutic efficacy of doxylamine, pyridoxine, and dicyclomine in the management of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. We are publishing the trial's findings according to the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative because the trial was never published. DESIGN: Double blinded, multi-centred, randomized placebo-controlled study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049010/a-rct-to-compare-two-scalable-interventions-for-luts-prevention-main-outcomes-of-the-tulip-study
#11
Carolyn M Sampselle, Diane K Newman, Janis M Miller, Keri Kirk, Mary Ann DiCamillo, Todd H Wagner, Trivellor E Raghunathan, Ananias C Diokno
PURPOSE: To compare two-year urinary incontinence (UI) and urgency scores of older women who attended a two-hour bladder health class (2hrClass) versus those who viewed a 20-minute abbreviated class video (20minVideo) for the purpose of UI prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, two-arm, parallel design tested the superiority of the 20minVideo over the 24hClass. Outcomes were scores on the International Consultation on Incontinence Short Form (questions 1-3) (ICIQ-SF) (primary outcome) and the Indevus Urgency Severity Scale (IUSS) at baseline, 3-, 12-, and 24-months...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048575/we-ab-207a-04-random-undersampled-cone-beam-ct-theoretical-analysis-and-a-novel-reconstruction-method
#12
C Shen, Y Lou, L Chen, X Jia
PURPOSE: Reducing x-ray exposure and speeding up data acquisition motived studies on projection data undersampling. It is an important question that for a given undersampling ratio, what the optimal undersampling approach is. In this study, we propose a new undersampling scheme: random-ray undersampling. We will mathematically analyze its projection matrix properties and demonstrate its advantages. We will also propose a new reconstruction method that simultaneously performs CT image reconstruction and projection domain data restoration...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046734/su-g-jep1-15-sliding-window-prior-data-assisted-compressed-sensing-for-mri-lung-tumor-tracking
#13
E Yip, J Yun, K Wachowicz, Z Gabos, S Rathee, B Fallone
PURPOSE: Prior Data Assisted Compressed Sensing (PDACS) is a partial k-space acquisition and reconstruction method for mobile tumour (i.e. lung) tracking using on-line MRI in radiotherapy. PDACS partially relies on prior data acquired at the beginning of dynamic scans, and is therefore susceptible to artifacts in longer duration scan due to slow drifts in MR signal. A novel sliding window strategy is presented to mitigate this effect. METHODS: MRI acceleration is simulated by retrospective removal of data from the fully sampled sets...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045979/intensive-patient-education-improves-glycaemic-control-in-diabetes-compared-to-conventional-education-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-a-nigerian-tertiary-care-hospital
#14
Okon Essien, Akaninyene Otu, Victor Umoh, Ofem Enang, Joseph Paul Hicks, John Walley
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is now a global epidemic, but most cases are now in low- and middle-income countries. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is key to enabling patients to manage their chronic condition and can reduce the occurrence of costly and devastating complications. However, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of different DSME programmes in resource limited settings. METHODS: We conducted an unblinded, parallel-group, individually-randomised controlled trial at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (Nigeria) to evaluate whether an intensive and systematic DSME programme, using structured guidelines, improved glycaemic control compared to the existing ad hoc patient education (clinical practice was unchanged)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045314/efficacy-of-a-casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-cpp-acp-paste-in-preventing-white-spot-lesions-in-patients-with-fixed-orthodontic-appliances-a-prospective-clinical-trial
#15
E Esenlik, E Uzer Çelik, E Bolat
AIM: The aim of this prospective study was to test the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste applied in-office to prevent white spot lesions (WSL) in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design: this study was designed as a randomised controlled clinical trial. Fifty-seven patients undergoing nonextraction fixed orthodontic treatment were enrolled and divided randomly into two groups (control n = 28, experimental n = 29)...
December 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044225/simple-mssm-a-simple-and-efficient-method-for-simultaneous-multi-site-saturation-mutagenesis
#16
Feng Cheng, Jian-Miao Xu, Chao Xiang, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Li-Qing Zhao, Yu-Guo Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To develop a practically simple and robust multi-site saturation mutagenesis (MSSM) method that enables simultaneously recombination of amino acid positions for focused mutant library generation. RESULTS: A general restriction enzyme-free and ligase-free MSSM method (Simple-MSSM) based on prolonged overlap extension PCR (POE-PCR) and Simple Cloning techniques. As a proof of principle of Simple-MSSM, the gene of eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) was used as a template gene for simultaneous mutagenesis of five codons...
January 2, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043872/extensively-hydrolysed-casein-formula-containing-l-rhamnosus-gg-reduces-the-occurrence-of-other-allergic-manifestations-in-children-with-cow-s-milk-allergy-3-year-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Roberto Berni Canani, Margherita Di Costanzo, Giorgio Bedogni, Antonio Amoroso, Linda Cosenza, Carmen Di Scala, Viviana Granata, Rita Nocerino
BACKGROUND: Children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) have an increased risk of developing other allergic manifestations (AMs). OBJECTIVE: We performed a parallel-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test whether the administration of an extensively hydrolysed casein formula (EHCF) containing the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) can reduce the occurrence of other AMs in CMA children. METHODS: Children with IgE-mediated CMA were randomly allocated to EHCF or EHCF+LGG groups and followed for 36 months...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043819/joint-genome-wide-prediction-in-several-populations-accounting-for-randomness-of-genotypes-a-hierarchical-bayes-approach-i-multivariate-gaussian-priors-for-marker-effects-and-derivation-of-the-joint-probability-mass-function-of-genotypes
#18
Carlos Alberto Martínez, Kshitij Khare, Arunava Banerjee, Mauricio A Elzo
It is important to consider heterogeneity of marker effects and allelic frequencies in across population genome-wide prediction studies. Moreover, all regression models used in genome-wide prediction overlook randomness of genotypes. In this study, a family of hierarchical Bayesian models to perform across population genome-wide prediction modeling genotypes as random variables and allowing population-specific effects for each marker was developed. Models shared a common structure and differed in the priors used and the assumption about residual variances (homogeneous or heterogeneous)...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042351/evaluating-community-pharmacy-practice-in-qatar-using-simulated-patient-method-acute-gastroenteritis-management
#19
Mohamed I Ibrahim, Subish Palaian, Fatima Al-Sulaiti, Somia El-Shami
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Qatari pharmacists' prescribing, labeling, dispensing and counseling practices in response to acute community-acquired gastroenteritis. METHODS: The simulated patient method was used in this study. Thirty pharmacies in Doha were randomly selected and further randomized into two groups: Face-to-Face (n=15) vs. Telephone-call (n=15) per simulated patient; 2 simulated patients were involved. Prescribing, labeling, dispensing and counseling practices were assessed...
October 2016: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032137/teachers-support-and-depression-among-japanese-adolescents-a-multilevel-analysis
#20
Akiko Mizuta, Kohta Suzuki, Zentaro Yamagata, Toshiyuki Ojima
PURPOSE: Depression is a major cause of suicide among adolescents. Therefore, childhood and adolescent depression is an important public health concern. This study explored factors as class and individual levels that may influence depression among adolescents in Japan. METHODS: A questionnaire survey among junior high school students (N = 2968) from two cities in Japan was conducted. Depression was assessed using the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children; teachers' support was assessed using the Scale of Expectancy for Social Support...
December 28, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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