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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934698/visual-artificial-grammar-learning-in-dyslexia-a-meta-analysis
#1
Merel van Witteloostuijn, Paul Boersma, Frank Wijnen, Judith Rispens
BACKGROUND: Literacy impairments in dyslexia have been hypothesized to be (partly) due to an implicit learning deficit. However, studies of implicit visual artificial grammar learning (AGL) have often yielded null results. AIMS: The aim of this study is to weigh the evidence collected thus far by performing a meta-analysis of studies on implicit visual AGL in dyslexia. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Thirteen studies were selected through a systematic literature search, representing data from 255 participants with dyslexia and 292 control participants (mean age range: 8...
September 18, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932776/reactive-and-anticipatory-looking-in-6-month-old-infants-during-a-visual-expectation-paradigm
#2
Jeffry Quan, Jean-François Bureau, Adam B Abdul Malik, Johnny Wong, Anne Rifkin-Graboi
This article presents data from 278 six-month-old infants who completed a visual expectation paradigm in which audiovisual stimuli were first presented randomly (random phase), and then in a spatial pattern (pattern phase). Infants' eye gaze behaviour was tracked with a 60 Hz Tobii eye-tracker in order to measure two types of looking behaviour: reactive looking (i.e., latency to shift eye gaze in reaction to the appearance of stimuli) and anticipatory looking (i.e., percentage of time spent looking at the location where the next stimulus is about to appear during the inter-stimulus interval)...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926372/attrition-bias-related-to-missing-outcome-data-a-longitudinal-simulation-study
#3
Antoine Lewin, Ruben Brondeel, Tarik Benmarhnia, Frédérique Thomas, Basile Chaix
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal studies do not address potential selection biases due to selective attrition. Using empirical data and simulating additional attrition, we investigated the effectiveness of common approaches to handle missing outcome data from attrition in the association between individual education level and change in body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Using data from the two waves of the French RECORD Cohort Study (N = 7,172), we first examined how inverse probability weighting (IPW) and multiple imputation handled missing outcome data from attrition in the observed data (stage 1)...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917197/adolescent-socioeconomic-status-and-depressive-symptoms-in-later-life-evidence-from-structural-equation-models
#4
Elizabeth C Pino, Karla Damus, Brian Jack, David Henderson, Snezana Milanovic, Bindu Kalesan
BACKGROUND: The complex association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms is not entirely understood and the existing literature does not address the relationship between early-life SES and later-life depression from a life-course perspective, incorporating mediating events. METHODS: Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we employed structural equation modeling to examine how SES measured at age 18 affects depressive symptoms at age 54 directly and through mediating variables college graduation, marriage, and household income level at age 36...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910499/joint-model-selection-of-marginal-mean-regression-and-correlation-structure-for-longitudinal-data-with-missing-outcome-and-covariates
#5
Chung-Wei Shen, Yi-Hau Chen
This work develops a joint model selection criterion for simultaneously selecting the marginal mean regression and the correlation/covariance structure in longitudinal data analysis where both the outcome and the covariate variables may be subject to general intermittent patterns of missingness under the missing at random mechanism. The new proposal, termed "joint longitudinal information criterion" (JLIC), is based on the expected quadratic error for assessing model adequacy, and the second-order weighted generalized estimating equation (WGEE) estimation for mean and covariance models...
September 14, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903733/increasing-confidence-and-changing-behaviors-in-primary-care-providers-engaged-in-genetic-counselling
#6
Michael S Wilkes, Frank C Day, Tonya L Fancher, Haley McDermott, Erik Lehman, Robert A Bell, Michael J Green
BACKGROUND: Screening and counseling for genetic conditions is an increasingly important part of primary care practice, particularly given the paucity of genetic counselors in the United States. However, primary care physicians (PCPs) often have an inadequate understanding of evidence-based screening; communication approaches that encourage shared decision-making; ethical, legal, and social implication (ELSI) issues related to screening for genetic mutations; and the basics of clinical genetics...
September 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899439/psychological-morbidity-and-parenting-stress-in-mothers-of-primary-school-children-by-timing-of-acquisition-of-hiv-infection-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-rural-south-africa
#7
T J Rochat, B Houle, A Stein, R M Pearson, M L Newell, R M Bland
Longitudinal maternal mental health data are needed from high HIV prevalence settings. The Siyakhula Cohort (SC) is a population-based cohort of HIV-positive and negative mothers (n=1506) with HIV-negative children (n=1536) from rural South Africa. SC includes 767 HIV-negative mothers; 465 HIV-positive in pregnancy; 272 HIV-positive since pregnancy (n=2 missing HIV status). A subgroup (n=890) participated in a non-randomized breastfeeding intervention [Vertical Transmission Study (VTS)]; the remaining (n=616) were resident in the same area and received antenatal care at the time of the VTS, but were not part of the VTS, instead receiving the standard of care Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programme...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898245/improving-data-sharing-in-research-with-context-free-encoded-missing-data
#8
Marieke P Hoevenaar-Blom, Juliette Guillemont, Tiia Ngandu, Cathrien R L Beishuizen, Nicola Coley, Eric P Moll van Charante, Sandrine Andrieu, Miia Kivipelto, Hilkka Soininen, Carol Brayne, Yannick Meiller, Edo Richard
Lack of attention to missing data in research may result in biased results, loss of power and reduced generalizability. Registering reasons for missing values at the time of data collection, or-in the case of sharing existing data-before making data available to other teams, can save time and efforts, improve scientific value and help to prevent erroneous assumptions and biased results. To ensure that encoding of missing data is sufficient to understand the reason why data are missing, it should ideally be context-free...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893309/efficacy-and-safety-of-controlled-release-oxycodone-naloxone-versus-controlled-release-oxycodone-in-korean-patients-with-cancer-related-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Kyung-Hee Lee, Tae Won Kim, Jung-Hun Kang, Jin-Soo Kim, Jin-Seok Ahn, Sun-Young Kim, Hwan-Jung Yun, Young-Jun Eum, Sung Ae Koh, Min Kyoung Kim, Yong Sang Hong, Jeong Eun Kim, Gyeong-Won Lee
BACKGROUND: Controlled-release oxycodone/naloxone (OXN-CR) maintains the effect of opioid-induced analgesia through oxycodone while reducing the occurrence rate of opioid-induced constipation through naloxone. The present study was designed to assess the non-inferiority of OXN-CR to controlled-release oxycodone (OX-CR) for the control of cancer-related pain in Korean patients. METHODS: In this randomized, open-labeled, parallel-group, phase IV study, we enrolled patients aged 20 years or older with moderate to severe cancer-related pain [numeric rating scale (NRS) pain score ≥4] from seven Korean oncology/hematology centers...
September 11, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888218/impact-of-non-adherence-on-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-uric-acid-lowering-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-gout
#10
Daniel Hill-McManus, Elena Soto, Scott Marshall, Steven Lane, Dyfrig Hughes
AIMS: Dual-urate lowering therapy (ULT) with xanthine oxidase inhibitor and uricosuric medications is a treatment option for severe gout. Uricosurics can cause hyperuricosuria, a risk factor for nephrolithiasis and acute uric acid nephropathy. The aims of this study were to simulate the relation between suboptimal drug adherence and efficacy, and to quantify the risk of hyperuricosuria in gout patients receiving mono and dual-ULTs. METHODS: The impact of poor medication adherence was studied using 2-compartment PK models based on published evidence and a semi-mechanistic, 4-compartment pharmacodynamic (PD) model...
September 9, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886277/a-comparison-of-multiple-imputation-methods-for-incomplete-longitudinal-binary-data
#11
Yusuke Yamaguchi, Toshihiro Misumi, Kazushi Maruo
Longitudinal binary data are commonly encountered in clinical trials. Multiple imputation is an approach for getting a valid estimation of treatment effects under an assumption of missing at random mechanism. Although there are a variety of multiple imputation methods for the longitudinal binary data, a limited number of researches have reported on relative performances of the methods. Moreover, when focusing on the treatment effect throughout a period that has often been used in clinical evaluations of specific disease areas, no definite investigations comparing the methods have been available...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880923/automatic-machine-learning-based-identification-of-jogging-periods-from-accelerometer-measurements-of-adolescents-under-field-conditions
#12
Eftim Zdravevski, Biljana Risteska Stojkoska, Marie Standl, Holger Schulz
BACKGROUND: Assessment of health benefits associated with physical activity depend on the activity duration, intensity and frequency, therefore their correct identification is very valuable and important in epidemiological and clinical studies. The aims of this study are: to develop an algorithm for automatic identification of intended jogging periods; and to assess whether the identification performance is improved when using two accelerometers at the hip and ankle, compared to when using only one at either position...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877666/multiple-imputation-for-handling-missing-outcome-data-when-estimating-the-relative-risk
#13
Thomas R Sullivan, Katherine J Lee, Philip Ryan, Amy B Salter
BACKGROUND: Multiple imputation is a popular approach to handling missing data in medical research, yet little is known about its applicability for estimating the relative risk. Standard methods for imputing incomplete binary outcomes involve logistic regression or an assumption of multivariate normality, whereas relative risks are typically estimated using log binomial models. It is unclear whether misspecification of the imputation model in this setting could lead to biased parameter estimates...
September 6, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874948/impact-of-internally-developed-electronic-prescription-on-prescribing-errors-at-discharge-from-the-emergency-department
#14
Eveline Hitti, Hani Tamim, Rinad Bakhti, Dina Zebian, Afif Mufarrij
INTRODUCTION: Medication errors are common, with studies reporting at least one error per patient encounter. At hospital discharge, medication errors vary from 15%-38%. However, studies assessing the effect of an internally developed electronic (E)-prescription system at discharge from an emergency department (ED) are comparatively minimal. Additionally, commercially available electronic solutions are cost-prohibitive in many resource-limited settings. We assessed the impact of introducing an internally developed, low-cost E-prescription system, with a list of commonly prescribed medications, on prescription error rates at discharge from the ED, compared to handwritten prescriptions...
August 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873433/overview-of-preventive-practices-provided-by-primary-care-physicians-a-cross-sectional-study-in-switzerland-and-france
#15
Paul Sebo, Hubert Maisonneuve, Bernard Cerutti, Jean-Pascal Fournier, Nicolas Senn, Cédric Rat, Dagmar M Haller
BACKGROUND: A range of preventive practices are recommended to reduce the burden of chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to describe the preventive practices of French-speaking primary care physicians. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 in a randomly selected sample of 1100 primary care physicians (700 in Switzerland, 400 in France). The physicians were asked how often they performed the following recommended preventive practices: blood pressure, weight and height measurements, screening for dyslipidemia, screening for alcohol use and brief intervention, screening for smoking (and brief advice for smokers), colon and prostate cancer screening, and influenza immunization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864871/eltrombopag-for-thrombocytopenia-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors-receiving-gemcitabine-based-chemotherapy-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-phase-2-study
#16
Eric S Winer, Howard Safran, Boguslawa Karaszewska, Sebastian Bauer, Dilawar Khan, Steffen Doerfel, Paul Burgess, Stacey Kalambakas, Yasser Mostafa Kamel, Frederic Forget
In this phase 2 study, patients with solid tumors receiving gemcitabine monotherapy or gemcitabine plus cisplatin/carboplatin were randomized 2:1 to eltrombopag 100 mg (n = 52) or placebo (n = 23) for 5 days before and after chemotherapy was started. The primary endpoint was prechemotherapy (Day 1) platelet count across ≤6 cycles. Prechemotherapy platelet counts were numerically higher with eltrombopag than placebo. Frequencies of grades 3/4 thrombocytopenia were lower with eltrombopag in both the combination therapy (77 vs...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854714/routine-serum-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-testing-optimizing-pre-conception-health-or-generating-toxic-knowledge
#17
Abha Maheshwari, Priya Bhide, Jyotsna Pundir, Siladitya Bhattacharya
Monitoring subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in women is believed to be important in terms of preventing overt hypothyroidism and optimizing the health and cognitive development of their children. Current systematic reviews have suggested an association between maternal SCH and adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. However, initiating the administration of thyroxine during pregnancy has failed to demonstrate appreciable health benefits. Hence there are calls by professional endocrine societies for optimizing serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels pre-conception...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853051/patient-predictors-of-weight-loss-following-a-behavioral-weight-management-intervention-among-us-veterans-with-severe-obesity
#18
Luke M Funk, Janet M Grubber, Megan A McVay, Maren K Olsen, William S Yancy, Corrine I Voils
PURPOSE: Identification of patient characteristics that are associated with behavioral weight loss success among bariatric surgery candidates could inform selection of optimal bariatric surgery candidates. We examined the associations between psychosocial characteristics and weight loss in a group of Veterans with severe obesity who participated in a behavioral weight loss intervention. METHODS: The MAINTAIN trial involved a 16-week weight loss program followed by randomization among participants losing at least 4 kg to a maintenance intervention or usual care...
August 29, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837718/adjuvant-chemotherapy-vs-observation-for-patients-with-adverse-pathologic-features-at-radical-cystectomy-previously-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#19
Thomas Seisen, Asha Jamzadeh, Jeffrey J Leow, Morgan Rouprêt, Alexander P Cole, Stuart R Lipsitz, Adam S Kibel, Paul L Nguyen, Maxine Sun, Mani Menon, Joaquim Bellmunt, Toni K Choueiri, Quoc-Dien Trinh
Importance: Despite existing evidence of a benefit associated with cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) after radical cystectomy (RC) for chemotherapy-naive patients with pT3/T4 and/or pN+ urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effectiveness of AC in those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) before surgery. Objective: To assess the comparative effectiveness of AC vs observation for patients with pT3/T4 and/or pN+ UCB previously treated with NAC and RC...
August 24, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837691/population-genetic-structure-of-guiana-dolphin-sotalia-guianensis-from-the-southwestern-atlantic-coast-of-brazil
#20
Juliana Ywasaki Lima, Filipe Brum Machado, Ana Paula Cazerta Farro, Lupércio de Araújo Barbosa, Leonardo Serafim da Silveira, Enrique Medina-Acosta
Sotalia guianensis is a small dolphin that is vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Along the Brazilian Atlantic coast, this species is threatened with extinction. A prioritized action plan for conservation strategies relies on increased knowledge of the population. The scarcity of studies about genetic diversity and assessments of population structure for this animal have precluded effective action in the region. Here, we assessed, for the first time, the genetic differentiation at 14 microsatellite loci in 90 S...
2017: PloS One
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