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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782696/routine-antenatal-ultrasound-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-first-look-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#1
Robert L Goldenberg, Robert O Nathan, David Swanson, Sarah Saleem, Waseem Mirza, Fabian Esamai, David Muyodi, Ana L Garces, Lester Figueroa, Elwyn Chomba, Melody Chiwala, Musaku Mwenechanya, Antoinette Tshefu, Adrien Lokangako, Victor Lokomba Bolamba, Janet L Moore, Holly Franklin, Jonathan Swanson, Edward A Liechty, Carl L Bose, Nancy F Krebs, K Michael Hambidge, Waldemar A Carlo, Nancy Kanaiza, Farnaz Naqvi, Irma Sayury Pineda, Walter López-Gomez, Dorothy Hamsumonde, Margo S Harrison, Marion Koso-Thomas, Menachem Miodovnik, Dennis D Wallace, Elizabeth M McClure
OBJECTIVE: Ultrasound is widely regarded as an important adjunct to antenatal care (ANC) to guide practice and reduce perinatal mortality. We assessed the impact of ANC ultrasound use at health centers in resource-limited countries. DESIGN: Cluster randomized trial. SETTING: Clusters within five countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Guatemala, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia). METHODS: Clusters were randomized to standard ANC or standard care plus two ultrasounds and referral for complications...
May 21, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777866/considerations-of-multiple-imputation-approaches-for-handling-missing-data-in-clinical-trials
#2
Hui Quan, Li Qi, Xiaodong Luo, Loic Darchy
Missing data exist in all clinical trials and missing data issue is a very serious issue in terms of the interpretability of the trial results. There is no universally applicable solution for all missing data problems. Methods used for handling missing data issue depend on the circumstances particularly the assumptions on missing data mechanisms. In recent years, if the missing at random mechanism cannot be assumed, conservative approaches such as the control-based and returning to baseline multiple imputation approaches are applied for dealing with the missing data issues...
May 16, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773527/acceptability-and-feasibility-of-real-time-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-interventions-in-rural-uganda-mixed-method-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Angella Musiimenta, Esther C Atukunda, Wilson Tumuhimbise, Emily E Pisarski, Melanie Tam, Monique A Wyatt, Norma C Ware, Jessica E Haberer
BACKGROUND: Wireless electronic adherence monitors can detect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence lapses and trigger interventions in real time, thus potentially avoiding unnecessary HIV viremia. Evidence about the acceptability and feasibility of these monitors and associated interventions, however, is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of real-time adherence monitoring linked to text messaging (short message service, SMS) reminders and notifications to support adherence among individuals living with HIV who are taking ART in rural southwestern Uganda...
May 17, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767209/chemically-non-perturbing-sers-detection-of-a-catalytic-reaction-with-black-silicon
#4
E Mitsai, A Kuchmizhak, E Pustovalov, A Sergeev, A Mironenko, S Bratskaya, D P Linklater, A Balčytis, E Ivanova, S Juodkazis
All-dielectric resonant micro- and nano-structures made of high-index dielectrics have recently emerged as a promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform which can complement or potentially replace the metal-based counterparts in routine sensing measurements. These unique structures combine the highly-tunable optical response and high field enhancement with the non-invasiveness, i.e. chemically non-perturbing the analyte, simple chemical modification and recyclability. Meanwhile, commercially competitive fabrication technologies for mass production of such structures are still missing...
May 16, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764795/mapping-of-crowdsourcing-in-health-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Perrine Créquit, Ghizlène Mansouri, Mehdi Benchoufi, Alexandre Vivot, Philippe Ravaud
BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing involves obtaining ideas, needed services, or content by soliciting Web-based contributions from a crowd. The 4 types of crowdsourced tasks (problem solving, data processing, surveillance or monitoring, and surveying) can be applied in the 3 categories of health (promotion, research, and care). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to map the different applications of crowdsourcing in health to assess the fields of health that are using crowdsourcing and the crowdsourced tasks used...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757374/statistical-primer-how-to-deal-with-missing-data-in-scientific-research
#6
Grigorios Papageorgiou, Stuart W Grant, Johanna J M Takkenberg, Mostafa M Mokhles
Missing data are a common challenge encountered in research which can compromise the results of statistical inference when not handled appropriately. This paper aims to introduce basic concepts of missing data to a non-statistical audience, list and compare some of the most popular approaches for handling missing data in practice and provide guidelines and recommendations for dealing with and reporting missing data in scientific research. Complete case analysis and single imputation are simple approaches for handling missing data and are popular in practice, however, in most cases they are not guaranteed to provide valid inferences...
May 10, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756637/withdrawal-of-immunosuppressant-or-biologic-therapy-for-patients-with-quiescent-crohn-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Ray K Boyapati, Joana Torres, Carolina Palmela, Claire E Parker, Orli M Silverberg, Sonam D Upadhyaya, Tran M Nguyen, Jean-Frédéric Colombel
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing and remitting disease of the gastrointestinal tract that can cause significant morbidity and disability. Current treatment guidelines recommend early intervention with immunosuppressant or biological therapy in high-risk patients with a severe disease phenotype at presentation. The feasibility of therapeutic de-escalation once remission is achieved is a commonly encountered question in clinical practice, driven by patient and clinician concerns regarding safety, adverse events, cost and national regulations...
May 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755389/evidence-for-sequential-performance-effects-in-professional-darts
#8
John F Stins, Gur Yaari, Kevin Wijmer, Joost F Burger, Peter J Beek
Objectives: The study of sequential effects in aiming tasks might shed light on the organization of repetitive motor performances over time. To date, investigations of such effects in sports have been limited and yielded mixed results. Given the relatively short time intervals between successive attempts, and the absence of defensive interventions, dart throwing provides a potentially fruitful testing ground for examining the presence of sequential performance effects in the motor domain. Methods and Results: A total of 80 competitive darts matches of 10 of the world's best players were scored from publicly available video footage in terms of sequences of hits and misses of triple 20...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751399/arsenic-exposure-diabetes-related-genes-and-diabetes-prevalence-in-a-general-population-from-spain
#9
Maria Grau-Perez, Ana Navas-Acien, Inmaculada Galan-Chilet, Laisa S Briongos-Figuero, David Morchon-Simon, Jose D Bermudez, Ciprian M Crainiceanu, Griselda de Marco, Pilar Rentero-Garrido, Tamara Garcia-Barrera, Jose L Gomez-Ariza, Jose A Casasnovas, Juan C Martin-Escudero, Josep Redon, F Javier Chaves, Maria Tellez-Plaza
Inorganic arsenic exposure may be associated with diabetes, but the evidence at low-moderate levels is not sufficient. Polymorphisms in diabetes-related genes have been involved in diabetes risk. We evaluated the association of inorganic arsenic exposure on diabetes in the Hortega Study, a representative sample of a general population from Valladolid, Spain. Total urine arsenic was measured in 1451 adults. Urine arsenic speciation was available in 295 randomly selected participants. To account for the confounding introduced by non-toxic seafood arsenicals, we designed a multiple imputation model to predict the missing arsenobetaine levels...
April 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750924/predictors-for-follow-up-among-postpartum-patients-enrolled-in-a-clinical-trial
#10
Maureen K Baldwin, Kyle D Hart, Maria I Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for failure to attend postpartum follow-up within three months of delivery, including social support, intrinsic motivation, insurance type, and prenatal care attendance. STUDY DESIGN: This planned secondary analysis is derived from a randomized controlled trial of patients intending intrauterine device (IUD) use following their delivery (n=197). Subjects were postpartum from a vaginal or cesarean birth at≥32weeks gestation. We obtained baseline demographics and certainty about their plan to receive a postpartum IUD...
May 8, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742136/impact-on-birth-weight-and-child-growth-of-participatory-learning-and-action-women-s-groups-with-and-without-transfers-of-food-or-cash-during-pregnancy-findings-of-the-low-birth-weight-south-asia-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-lbwsat-in-nepal
#11
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sen, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Raghbendra Sah, Puskar Paudel, Andrew Copas, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brännström, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Machhindra Basnet, Saskia de Pee, Andrew Hall, Jayne Harthan, Meelan Thondoo, Sonja Klingberg, Janice Messick, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition during pregnancy leads to low birthweight, poor growth and inter-generational undernutrition. We did a non-blinded cluster-randomised controlled trial in the plains districts of Dhanusha and Mahottari, Nepal to assess the impact on birthweight and weight-for-age z-scores among children aged 0-16 months of community-based participatory learning and action (PLA) women's groups, with and without food or cash transfers to pregnant women. METHODS: We randomly allocated 20 clusters per arm to four arms (average population/cluster = 6150)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741798/a-pilot-rct-of-an-internet-intervention-to-reduce-the-risk-of-alcohol-exposed-pregnancy
#12
Karen Ingersoll, Christina Frederick, Kirsten MacDonnell, Lee Ritterband, Holly Lord, Brogan Jones, Lauren Truwit
BACKGROUND: Preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEPs) could reduce the incidence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Previous face-to-face interventions significantly reduced risk for AEP, but a scalable intervention is needed to reach more women at risk. METHODS: This study compared a 6 Core automated, interactive, and tailored Internet intervention, the Contraception and Alcohol Risk Reduction Internet Intervention (CARRII), to a static patient education (PE) website for its effect on AEP risk...
May 9, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741409/healthcare-resource-utilization-with-ixazomib-or-placebo-plus-lenalidomide-dexamethasone-in-the-randomized-double-blind-phase-3-tourmaline-mm1-study-in-relapsed-refractory-multiple-myeloma
#13
Parameswaran Hari, Huamao Mark Lin, Yanyan Zhu, Deborah Berg, Paul G Richardson, Philippe Moreau
AIMS: The aim of this analysis was to assess healthcare resource utilization in the pivotal phase 3 TOURMALINE-MM1 study of the oral proteasome inhibitor ixazomib or placebo plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study (NCT01564537), 722 patients with RRMM following 1-3 prior lines of therapy received Rd plus ixazomib (ixazomib-Rd; N = 360) or matching placebo (placebo-Rd; N = 362) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739619/analysing-truck-harsh-braking-incidents-to-study-roundabout-accident-risk
#14
Jwan Kamla, Tony Parry, Andrew Dawson
In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall, this approach has become problematic as accident 'black spots' have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen, making previous accident history a less reliable indicator of future accident risk. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened but was avoided)...
May 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739371/effectiveness-of-three-interventions-for-secondary-prevention-of-low-back-pain-in-the-occupational-health-setting-a-randomised-controlled-trial-with-a-natural-course-control
#15
J Rantonen, J Karppinen, A Vehtari, S Luoto, E Viikari-Juntura, M Hupli, A Malmivaara, S Taimela
BACKGROUND: We assessed the effectiveness of three interventions that were aimed to reduce non-acute low back pain (LBP) related symptoms in the occupational health setting. METHODS: Based on a survey (n = 2480; response rate 71%) on LBP, we selected a cohort of 193 employees who reported moderate LBP (Visual Analogue Scale VAS > 34 mm) and fulfilled at least one of the following criteria during the past 12 months: sciatica, recurrence of LBP ≥ 2 times, LBP ≥ 2 weeks, or previous sickness absence...
May 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734473/treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-mixed-cryoglobulinaemia
#16
REVIEW
Nuria Montero, Alexandre Favà, Eva Rodriguez, Clara Barrios, Josep M Cruzado, Julio Pascual, Maria Jose Soler
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemia is the manifestation of an inflammation of small and medium-sized vessels produced by a pathogenic IgM with rheumatoid factor activity generated by an expansion of B-cells. The immune complexes formed precipitate mainly in the skin, joints, kidneys or peripheral nerve fibres. Current therapeutic approaches are aimed at elimination of HCV infection, removal of cryoglobulins and also of the B-cell clonal expansions. The optimal treatment for it has not been established...
May 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731731/the-ir-responsibility-of-under-estimating-missing-data
#17
María P Fernández-García, Guillermo Vallejo-Seco, Pablo Livácic-Rojas, Ellian Tuero-Herrero
It is practically impossible to avoid losing data in the course of an investigation, and it has been proven that the consequences can reach such magnitude that they could even invalidate the results of the study. This paper describes some of the most likely causes of missing data in research in the field of clinical psychology and the consequences they may have on statistical and substantive inferences. When it is necessary to recover the missing information, analyzing the data can become extremely complex...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729957/comparison-of-adherence-to-glimepiride-metformin-sustained-release-once-daily-versus-glimepiride-metformin-immediate-release-bid-fixed-combination-therapy-using-the-medication-event-monitoring-system-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Jong-Dai Kim, Cheol-Young Park, Bong-Yun Cha, Kyu Jeung Ahn, In Joo Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Hyung Woo Lee, Kyung-Wan Min, Jong Chul Won, Min Young Chung, Jae-Taek Kim, Jun Goo Kang, Sung-Woo Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the adherence of the glimepiride/metformin sustained release (GM-SR) once-daily fixed-dose combination and glimepiride/metformin immediate release (GM-IR) BID fixed-dose combination in type 2 diabetes therapies. METHODS: An open-label, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group study was conducted at 11 hospitals in the Republic of Korea. A total of 168 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with >4 mg of glimepiride and 1000 mg of metformin by using free or fixed-dose combination therapy for at least 2 weeks were enrolled...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728889/comparative-evaluation-of-soft-and-hard-tissue-changes-following-endosseous-implant-placement-using-flap-and-flapless-techniques-in-the-posterior-edentulous-areas-of-the-mandible-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Divya Kumar, G Sivaram, B Shivakumar, Tss Kumar
BACKGROUND: Dental implant-supported restorations have long been used as a successful modality for replacing missing teeth. There are two well-established methods of implant placement. The traditional approach to implant surgery involves raising a mucoperiosteal flap and the alternative approach does not involve reflecting a flap, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of the present study was to compare and evaluate the soft and hard tissue changes around endosseous implants placed using flap and flapless surgery in mandibular posterior edentulous sites over a period of time...
May 5, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728327/managing-complexity-in-evidence-analysis-a-worked-example-in-pediatric-weight-management
#20
James Scott Parrott, Beverly Henry, Kyle L Thompson, Jane Ziegler, Deepa Handu
Nutrition interventions are often complex and multicomponent. Typical approaches to meta-analyses that focus on individual causal relationships to provide guideline recommendations are not sufficient to capture this complexity. The objective of this study is to describe the method of meta-analysis used for the Pediatric Weight Management (PWM) Guidelines update and provide a worked example that can be applied in other areas of dietetics practice. The effects of PWM interventions were examined for body mass index (BMI), body mass index z-score (BMIZ), and waist circumference at four different time periods...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
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