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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108852/missing-the-target-the-neural-processing-underlying-the-omission-error
#1
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
The omissions are infrequent errors consisting in missing responses to the target stimuli. This is the first study aimed at investigating the brain activities associated with omissions in a decision-making task. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 12 subjects which reported a suitable number of omissions in a visual go/no-go task. We investigated both the pre- and post-stimulus brain activities associated with correct and omitted trials. The electrical neuroimaging technique (BESA) was adopted to extract the anterior insula (aIns) activity associated with the prefrontal P2 component (pP2) peaking about 300 ms after the stimulus and reflecting the stimulus-response mapping process...
January 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104317/a-two-phase-sampling-survey-for-nonresponse-and-its-paradata-to-correct-nonresponse-bias-in-a-health-surveillance-survey
#2
G Santin, L Bénézet, B Geoffroy-Perez, J Bouyer, A Guéguen
BACKGROUND: The decline in participation rates in surveys, including epidemiological surveillance surveys, has become a real concern since it may increase nonresponse bias. The aim of this study is to estimate the contribution of a complementary survey among a subsample of nonrespondents, and the additional contribution of paradata in correcting for nonresponse bias in an occupational health surveillance survey. METHODS: In 2010, 10,000 workers were randomly selected and sent a postal questionnaire...
January 16, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104284/-fabry-disease
#3
F Stephan, R Haber
Fabry disease, also known as Anderson-Fabry disease or angiokeratoma corporis diffusum universale, is an X-linked recessive form of sphingolipidosis caused by total or partial deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase, alpha-galactosidase A. From the youngest age, it results in a gradual ubiquitous build-up of glycosphingolipids that are not degraded by the missing enzyme. Cutaneous, neurological, nephrologic, cardiac, gastrointestinal, ophthalmological, respiratory, cochleovestibular and haematological involvement are responsible for increased mortality and significant impairment of quality of life in subjects affected by the disease...
January 16, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103666/molecular-dynamics-simulations-reveal-isoform-specific-contact-dynamics-between-the-plexin-rho-gtpase-binding-domain-rbd-and-small-rho-gtpases-rac1-and-rnd1
#4
Liqun Zhang, Matthias Buck
The Plexin family of transmembrane receptors are unique in that their intracellular region interacts directly with small GTPases of the Rho family. The Rho GTPase Binding Domain of plexin (RBD) -that is responsible for these interactions- can bind with Rac1 as well as Rnd1 GTPases. GTPase complexes have been crystallized with the RBDs of plexinA1, -A2 and -B1. The protein association is thought to elicit different functional responses, possibly in a GTPase/plexin isoform specific manner. In this project, we investigated complexes between several RBD and Rac1/Rnd1 GTPases using multi-microsecond length all atom molecular dynamics simulations, also with reference to the free forms of the RBDs and GTPases...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103239/identifying-t-cell-receptors-from-high-throughput-sequencing-dealing-with-promiscuity-in-tcr%C3%AE-and-tcr%C3%AE-pairing
#5
Edward S Lee, Paul G Thomas, Jeff E Mold, Andrew J Yates
Characterisation of the T cell receptors (TCR) involved in immune responses is important for the design of vaccines and immunotherapies for cancer and autoimmune disease. The specificity of the interaction between the TCR heterodimer and its peptide-MHC ligand derives largely from the juxtaposed hypervariable CDR3 regions on the TCRα and TCRβ chains, and obtaining the paired sequences of these regions is a standard for functionally defining the TCR. A brute force approach to identifying the TCRs in a population of T cells is to use high-throughput single-cell sequencing, but currently this process remains costly and risks missing small clones...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102509/mice-optimize-timed-decisions-about-probabilistic-outcomes-under-deadlines
#6
Ezgi Gür, Fuat Balcı
Optimal performance in temporal decisions requires the integration of timing uncertainty with environmental statistics such as probability or cost functions. Reward maximization under response deadlines constitutes one of the most stringent examples of these problems. The current study investigated whether and how mice can optimize their timing behavior in a complex experimental setting under a response deadline in which reward maximization required the integration of timing uncertainty with a geometrically increasing probability/decreasing cost function...
January 19, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100258/association-between-work-time-loss-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-herpes-zoster-a-pooled-analysis-of-the-master-studies
#7
Emmanouil Rampakakis, Melissa Stutz, Kosuke Kawai, Tsen-Fang Tsai, Hee Jin Cheong, Jittima Dhitavat, Alejandro Ortiz-Covarrubias, Miguel Cashat-Cruz, Homero Monsanto, Kelly D Johnson, John S Sampalis, Camilo J Acosta
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) has a significant negative effect on the productive work life of individuals, and has been shown to be responsible for cases of absenteeism, presenteeism and decreased work effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate health utility scores and associated predictors in an actively employed population of Herpes Zoster (HZ) patients with and without work time loss (WTL). METHODS: This was a pooled analysis of the prospective, observational MASTER cohort studies, conducted in 8 countries across North America, Latin America and Asia...
January 18, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099436/a-new-approach-to-model-pitch-perception-using-sparse-coding
#8
Oded Barzelay, Miriam Furst, Omri Barak
Our acoustical environment abounds with repetitive sounds, some of which are related to pitch perception. It is still unknown how the auditory system, in processing these sounds, relates a physical stimulus and its percept. Since, in mammals, all auditory stimuli are conveyed into the nervous system through the auditory nerve (AN) fibers, a model should explain the perception of pitch as a function of this particular input. However, pitch perception is invariant to certain features of the physical stimulus...
January 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098335/not-an-exception-to-the-rule-the-functional-significance-of-intrinsically-disordered-protein-regions-in-enzymes
#9
Shelly DeForte, Vladimir N Uversky
Intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) are remarkably common and have unique and important biological functions. Enzymes have long been considered an exception to the rule of protein intrinsic disorder due to the structural requirements for catalysis. Although functionally significant IDPRs have been described in several enzymes, there has been no study quantifying the extent of this phenomenon. We have conducted a multilevel computational analysis of missing regions in X-ray crystal structures in the PDB and predicted disorder in 66 representative proteomes...
January 18, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097076/a-critical-issue-in-model-based-inference-for-studying-trait-based-community-assembly-and-a-solution
#10
Cajo J F Ter Braak, Pedro Peres-Neto, Stéphane Dray
Statistical testing of trait-environment association from data is a challenge as there is no common unit of observation: the trait is observed on species, the environment on sites and the mediating abundance on species-site combinations. A number of correlation-based methods, such as the community weighted trait means method (CWM), the fourth-corner correlation method and the multivariate method RLQ, have been proposed to estimate such trait-environment associations. In these methods, valid statistical testing proceeds by performing two separate resampling tests, one site-based and the other species-based and by assessing significance by the largest of the two p-values (the pmax test)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095299/african-and-asian-zika-virus-strains-differentially-induce-early-antiviral-responses-in-primary-human-astrocytes
#11
Rodolphe Hamel, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Fodé Diop, Loïc Talignani, Julien Pompon, Déborah Garcia, Florian Liégeois, Amadou A Sall, Hans Yssel, Dorothée Missé
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is a newly emerging arbovirus. Since its discovery 60years ago in Uganda, it has spread throughout the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, emphasizing the capacity of ZIKV to spread to non-endemic regions worldwide. Although infection with ZIKV often leads to mild disease, its recent emergence in the Americas has coincided with an increase in adults developing Guillain-Barré syndrome and neurological complications in new-borns, such as congenital microcephaly. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the complications caused by different primary isolates of ZIKV...
January 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090698/presentation-and-validation-of-the-duckees-child-and-adolescent-dynamic-facial-expressions-stimulus-set
#12
Nicole R Giuliani, John C Flournoy, Elizabeth J Ivie, Arielle Von Hippel, Jennifer H Pfeifer
The stimulus sets presently used to study emotion processing are primarily static pictures of individuals (primarily adults) making emotional facial expressions. However, the dynamic, stereotyped movements associated with emotional expressions contain rich information missing from static pictures, such as the difference between happiness and pride. We created a set of 1.1 s dynamic emotional facial stimuli representing boys and girls aged 8-18. A separate group of 36 individuals (mean [M] age = 19.5 years, standard deviation [SD] = 1...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090132/asymptotic-normality-of-quadratic-estimators
#13
James Robins, Lingling Li, Eric Tchetgen, Aad van der Vaart
We prove conditional asymptotic normality of a class of quadratic U-statistics that are dominated by their degenerate second order part and have kernels that change with the number of observations. These statistics arise in the construction of estimators in high-dimensional semi- and non-parametric models, and in the construction of nonparametric confidence sets. This is illustrated by estimation of the integral of a square of a density or regression function, and estimation of the mean response with missing data...
December 2016: Stochastic Processes and Their Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089294/the-american-academy-of-pediatrics-workforce-survey-for-the-section-on-urology-2015
#14
E Shapiro, Christopher S Cooper, S Greenfield
INTRODUCTION: In 2013, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Division of Workforce and Medical Education Policy assumed the task of organizing the updated AAP Workforce Survey, which was modeled after the Future of Pediatric Education II study. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in practice patterns of all pediatric medical and surgical specialists over time, to facilitate advocacy work by the Academy at federal and state levels...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088368/pollutants-and-biomarker-responses-in-two-reef-fish-species-haemulon-aurolineatum-and-ocyurus-chrysurus-in-the-southern-gulf-of-mexico
#15
Gerardo Gold-Bouchot, J Rubio-Piña, J Montero-Muñoz, N Ramirez-Miss, A Echeverría-García, V Patiño-Suarez, C A Puch-Hau, O Zapata-Pérez
The environmental quality differences between two groups of reefs in the Veracruz Reef System were evaluated. The North group of reefs is very close to Veracruz, an urban and port zone, whereas the South group is more isolated, with minor anthropogenic disturbances. To prove the hypothesis that the North group is more affected by anthropogenic activities, the concentrations of hydrocarbons in liver, metals and metalloids such as Se, As, Ba, Cd, Hg and V in muscle, and PAH metabolites in bile were evaluated, and related to biomarkers (transcript abundance of cytochrome P4501A, Vitellogenin, and Glutathione-S-transferase) in two species of fish: Haemulon aurolineatum and Ocyurus chysurus...
January 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081273/assessing-the-impact-of-retreat-mechanisms-in-a-simple-antarctic-ice-sheet-model-using-bayesian-calibration
#16
Kelsey L Ruckert, Gary Shaffer, David Pollard, Yawen Guan, Tony E Wong, Chris E Forest, Klaus Keller
The response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to changing climate forcings is an important driver of sea-level changes. Anthropogenic climate change may drive a sizeable AIS tipping point response with subsequent increases in coastal flooding risks. Many studies analyzing flood risks use simple models to project the future responses of AIS and its sea-level contributions. These analyses have provided important new insights, but they are often silent on the effects of potentially important processes such as Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI) or Marine Ice Cliff Instability (MICI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079561/-single-checked-patient-group-directions-during-initial-nurse-assessment-within-paediatric-emergency-departments-of-the-uk-and-ireland
#17
Chris K Bird, Anthony G Sinclair, Stuart Hartshorn
OBJECTIVE: Double checking medications at initial assessment within paediatric emergency departments (EDs) has the potential to delay patient flow, and doubt has been cast on the efficacy of double checking in all but high-risk medications. We aimed to benchmark current practice for the use of Patient Group Direction (PGD) medications at initial assessment in EDs within the Paediatric Emergency Research UK and Ireland (PERUKI) network, with a focus on the use of 'single-checker' PGDs...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078070/stem-cells-and-tissue-niche-two-faces-of-the-same-coin-of-muscle-regeneration
#18
Bianca Maria Scicchitano, Gigliola Sica, Antonio Musarò
Capacity of adult muscle to regenerate in response to injury stimuli represents an important homeostatic process. Regeneration is a highly coordinated program that partially recapitulates the embryonic developmental program. However, muscle regeneration is severely compromised in several pathological conditions. It is likely that the restricted tissue repair program under pathological conditions is due to either progressive loss of stem cell populations or to missing signals that limit the damaged tissues to efficiently activate a regenerative program...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077673/outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-opat-in-asia-missing-an-opportunity
#19
Dale Fisher, Jessica Michaels, Ryota Hase, Jing Zhang, Sushila Kataria, Benedict Sim, Joseph Kay-Yan Tsang, James Pollard, Monica Chan, Subramanian Swaminathan
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare facilities internationally have grown outpatient parenteral antibiotic administration services for the last few decades. The literature contains publications from dozens of countries describing systematized processes with specialist oversight and their levels of service provision and outcomes. Such descriptions are absent in the majority of Asian countries. We sought to elucidate the extent and nature of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) in Asia and to consider the ramifications and opportunities for improvement METHODS: Utilizing colleagues and their personal networks, we surveyed healthcare facilities across 17 countries in Asia to ascertain the current means (if any) of providing OPAT...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077428/reproductive-experiences-of-women-who-cryopreserved-oocytes-for-non-medical-reasons
#20
Karin Hammarberg, Maggie Kirkman, Natasha Pritchard, Martha Hickey, Michelle Peate, John McBain, Franca Agresta, Chris Bayly, Jane Fisher
STUDY QUESTION: What are the reproductive experiences of women who cryopreserve oocytes for non-medical reasons? SUMMARY ANSWER: One in three women had been pregnant at some stage in their lives and while most still wanted to have a child or another child, very few had used their stored oocytes, predominantly because they did not want to be single parents. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The number of healthy women who freeze oocytes to avoid age-related infertility is increasing...
January 6, 2017: Human Reproduction
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