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venom snake dog

María Laura Fernández, Pablo Yunes Quartino, Ruth Arce-Bejarano, Julián Fernández, Luis F Camacho, José María Gutiérrez, Daniel Kuemmel, Gerardo Fidelio, Bruno Lomonte
A unique feature of the venom of Micrurus fulvius (Eastern coral snake) is its ability to induce severe intravascular hemolysis in particular species, such as dogs or mice. This effect was previously shown to be induced by distinct phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) isoforms which cause direct hemolysis in vitro, an uncommon finding for such enzymes. The functional profiles of PLA2 -17, a direct hemolytic enzyme, and PLA2 -12, a co-existing venom isoform lacking such effect, were compared. The enzymes differed not only in their ability to cause intravascular hemolysis: PLA2 -17 additionally displayed lethal, myotoxic, and anticoagulant actions, whereas PLA2 -12 lacked these effects...
April 2018: Toxicology Letters
A M Padula, E M Leister
Snakebite in dogs from Pseudechis porphyriacus (red-bellied black snake; RBBS) is a common envenomation treated by veterinarians in Australia where this snake occurs. This case report describes the successful treatment of a clinically severe RBBS envenomation in a dog with an experimental bivalent equine whole IgG antivenom and mechanical ventilation, following its presentation in a cyanotic state. The cause of the cyanosis and respiratory distress was considered due to paralysis from neurotoxins in RBBS venom...
November 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
A M Padula, E Leister
This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of 16 confirmed cases of snakebite from the Australian eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in dogs and cats. The clinical signs, brown snake venom antigen concentrations, coagulation parameters, and treatment outcomes following administration of an experimental caprylic acid fractionated bivalent whole IgG antivenom are documented. A brown snake venom antigen specific sandwich ELISA was used to retrospectively quantify venom levels in serum and urine. The characteristic clinical signs of envenomation in all cases were neurotoxicity to a variable extent and coagulation disturbances...
November 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
L V Wright, Y H Indrawirawan
CASE REPORT: A case of lowland copperhead snake (Austrelaps superbus) envenomation in a dog is described. The dog developed severe and prolonged neuromuscular paralysis, including ventilatory failure. The dog was treated successfully with antivenom, intravenous fluids and mechanical ventilation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The toxic components of lowland copperhead snake venom are reviewed.
June 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
Ok Hwan Kim, Kil-Sang Cho, Young Seomun, Jong-Tak Kim, Kwang-Hoe Chung
Recombinant batroxobin is a thrombin-like enzyme of Bothrops atrox moojeni venom. To evaluate its toxicological effect, it was highly expressed in Pichia pastorisand successfully purified to homogeneity from culture broth supernatant following Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). The maximum tolerated dose of the recombinant batroxobin was examined in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat and Beagle dogs following Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. The approximate lethal dose of recombinant batroxobin was 10 National Institute of Health (NIH) u/kg in male and female rats...
April 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Andrew M Padula, Kenneth D Winkel
The clinical signs, biochemical changes and serum and urine venom concentrations for a series of nine cases of Red bellied black snake [RBBS] (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in eight dogs seen in a regional Australian veterinary hospital are described. Although the resulting envenomation syndrome was, in most cases, relatively mild and responded rapidly to intravenous administration of a novel bivalent caprylic acid purified whole IgG equine antivenom for tiger (Notechis scutatus) and brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis), one fatality prior to antivenom treatment was recorded...
July 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Andrew M Padula, Kenneth D Winkel
This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s)...
May 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Michael Schaer, Gareth J Buckley, Bobbi J Conner, Laura C Cuddy, Alessio Vigani, Allison E Vansickle, James G Coisman, Deanna R DeVuyst, Carsten Bandt
This manuscript describes the extended clinical abnormalities that can occur in severe snake envenomation and the clinical signs associated with antivenom hypersensitivity in a 3 yr old dog. Treatment consisted of IV fluid therapy, analgesics, a vasopressor, cardiac antiarrhythmia drugs, and polyvalent pit viper antivenom. Following initial response to treatment, relapse of clinical signs occurred. Most interesting was the recrudescence of clinical signs on day 7 that may have been caused by the release of deposited venom during surgical debridement of necrotic skin...
September 2015: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
H M Ong, A Witham, K Kelers, M Boller
CASE SERIES: This case series describes secondary immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) in four dogs following elapid snake envenomation and its treatment. All the dogs initially presented with clinical signs commensurate with mainland tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation. None of the dogs was anaemic at the time of presentation. IMHA was diagnosed 3-9 days following snake envenomation. The trigger for IMHA was unclear in each case and may have been a component of the snake venom, antivenom, fresh frozen plasma, concurrent morbidity, administered drugs or a combination thereof...
September 2015: Australian Veterinary Journal
Judy Ou, Sebastien Haiart, Steven Galluccio, Julian White, Scott A Weinstein
CONTEXT: Several species of medically important Australian elapid snakes are frequently involved in human envenoming. The brown snake group (Pseudonaja spp., 9 species) is most commonly responsible for envenoming including life-threatening or fatal cases. Several Pseudonaja spp. can inflict human envenoming that features minor local effects, but may cause serious systemic venom disease including defibrination coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, micro-angiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and, rarely, paralysis...
2015: Clinical Toxicology
Sindhuja Sridharan, R Manjunatha Kini
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are potent vasoactive hormones, which maintain pressure-volume homoeostasis. Snake venom NPs exhibit distinct biological activity compared with mammalian NPs due to subtle changes in their sequences. We recently identified a new NP from krait venom (KNP), with an unusual 38-residue long C-terminal tail, which has a propensity to form an α-helix. KNP mediates vasodilation via NP receptor (NPR) independent mechanisms on pre-contracted aortic strips in contrast with classical NPs. The infusion of KNP in anaesthetized rats resulted in a prolonged and sustained drop in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) with no renal effects in contrast with mammalian counterparts...
July 15, 2015: Biochemical Journal
Kathleen Walker-Meikle
By end of the thirteenth century, surgeons and university-trained physicians in Western Europe had a plethora of authorities from the Greco-Roman and Arabic tradition from which to consult for the treatment of snake-bites. Venomous animals receive the largest share of attention in the literature on biting animals. Nearly all of the sources focus on the idea of the animal biting or puncturing the skin's surface with their mouths and few poisonous animals where the venom is passed on through the skin or hairs are mentioned...
December 1, 2014: Korot
Susanna S Nagel, Johan P Schoeman, Peter N Thompson, Bo Wiinberg, Amelia Goddard
OBJECTIVE: To investigate hemostatic changes in dogs envenomed by cytotoxic (African puffadder) and neurotoxic snakes (snouted cobra) using thromboelastography (TEG) and plasma-based coagulation assays. DESIGN: Prospective observational clinical study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Eighteen client-owned dogs; 9 envenomed by African puffadder (Bitis arietans) and 9 by snouted cobra (Naja annulifera)...
November 2014: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Ruth Arce-Bejarano, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez
Intravascular hemolysis has been described in envenomings by the Eastern coral snake, Micrurus fulvius, in dogs. An experimental model of intravascular hemolysis was developed in mice after intravenous (i.v.) injection of M. fulvius venom. Within one hr, there was prominent hemolysis, associated with a drastic drop in hematocrit, morphological alterations of erythrocytes, hemoglobinemia, and hemoglobinuria. Hemoglobin was identified in urine by mass spectrometry. Histological sections of kidney revealed abundant hyaline casts, probably corresponding to hemoglobin...
November 2014: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Robert A Armentano, Carsten Bandt, Michael Schaer, John Pritchett, Andre Shih
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the overall hemostatic changes in dogs envenomated by crotaline snakes via kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG), and to determine any prognostic/monitoring value from a TEG tracing on presentation, as well as during treatment with antivenom therapy. DESIGN: Prospective observational, cohort study. SETTING: University teaching hospital and primary emergency hospital. ANIMALS: Thirty-eight dogs envenomated by crotaline snakes...
March 2014: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
F M S Bolton, N R Casewell, I Al-Abdulla, J Landon
Medically important venomous snakes in Western Europe are Vipera ammodytes, Vipera aspis, Vipera berus and Vipera latastei. Envenomation of dogs and other animals by these snakes receives limited attention despite the relative frequency and potential mortality and morbidity. This reflects, in part, the lack of a dedicated veterinary antivenom. Successful antivenoms are derived from antisera containing high levels of specific polyclonal antibodies that bind to, and neutralise, all the toxins present. This requires a careful choice of immunogen, animals and immunisation schedule...
April 19, 2014: Veterinary Record
Xin Chen, Aaron M Fleming, James G Muller, Cynthia J Burrows
8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (dOG), a well-studied oxidation product of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), is prone to facile further oxidation forming spiroiminodihydantoin 2'-deoxyribonucleoside (dSp) in the nucleotide pool and in single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). Many methods for quantification of damaged lesions in the genome rely on digestion of DNA with exonucleases or endonucleases and dephosphorylation followed by LC-MS analysis of the resulting nucleosides. In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis of dSp-containing ODNs was investigated with snake venom phosphodiesterase (SVPD), spleen phosphodiesterase (SPD) and nuclease P1...
November 1, 2013: New Journal of Chemistry, Nouveau Journal de Chimie
Rebecca Langhorn, Frida Persson, Björn Ablad, Amelia Goddard, Johan P Schoeman, Jakob L Willesen, Inge Tarnow, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of myocardial injury in dogs hospitalized for snake envenomation and to examine its relationship with systemic inflammation. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: University teaching hospital and small animal referral hospital. ANIMALS: Dogs naturally envenomed by the European viper (Vipera berus; n = 24), African puff adder (Bitis arietans; n = 5), or snouted cobra (Naja annulifera; n = 9)...
March 2014: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Heidi S Lund, Veronica Kristiansen, Anna V Eggertsdóttir, Ellen Skancke, Birgit Ranheim
OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of acute and delayed adverse reactions following the administration of an equine-derived F(ab')2 -antivenin in dogs with Vipera berus berus envenomation. DESIGN: Prospective study (2006-2009). SETTING: Private small animal clinics and university small animal teaching hospital in Norway. ANIMALS: Fifty-four dogs with Vipera berus berus envenomation treated with F(ab')2 -antivenin...
September 2013: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Florian J Weise, Rudie J van Vuuren, Katherine E Echement, Matthew P Cleverley, Marlice van Vuuren
This article reports the first documented treatment of venomous snakebite with a polyvalent snake antivenom from the South African Institute for Medical Research in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Three juvenile male animals (6.5 months of age) showed clinical signs after being bitten by an unidentified venomous snake. The signs included loss of appetite, disorientation, impaired locomotion, excessive facial swelling, profuse salivation, reduced respiratory effort and an apparent depressed mental state...
2013: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
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