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Selection probability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913984/basal-insulin-persistence-associated-factors-and-outcomes-after-treatment-initiation-a-retrospective-database-study-among-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-japan
#1
Irene Hadjiyianni, Urvi Desai, Shuichi Suzuki, Jasmina I Ivanova, Dachuang Cao, Noam Y Kirson, Dai Chida, Caroline Enloe, Howard G Birnbaum, Magaly Perez-Nieves
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess basal insulin persistence, associated factors, and economic outcomes for insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. METHODS: People aged at least 18 years with T2DM with first claim for basal insulin between May 2006 and April 2013 (index date), no insulin use before index date, and continuous insurance coverage for 6 months before (baseline) and 12 months after index date were selected from the Japan Medical Center Database...
December 2, 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913454/the-anti-bat-strategy-of-ultrasound-absorption-the-wings-of-nocturnal-moths-bombycoidea-saturniidae-absorb-more-ultrasound-than-the-wings-of-diurnal-moths-chalcosiinae-zygaenoidea-zygaenidae
#2
Athanasios Ntelezos, Francesco Guarato, James F C Windmill
The selection pressure from echolocating bats has driven the development of a diverse range of anti-bat strategies in insects. For instance, several studies have proposed that the wings of some moths absorb a large portion of the sound energy contained in a bat's ultrasonic cry; as a result, the bat receives a dampened echo, and the moth becomes invisible to the bat. To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to bat predation drives the development of higher ultrasound absorbance, we used a small reverberation chamber to measure the ultrasound absorbance of the wings of nocturnal (Bombycoidea: Saturniidae) and diurnal moths (Chalcosiinae: Zygaenoidea: Zygaenidae)...
December 2, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911816/rapid-emergence-and-mechanisms-of-resistance-by-u87-glioblastoma-cells-to-doxorubicin-in-an-in-vitro-tumor-microfluidic-ecology
#3
Jeonghun Han, Yukyung Jun, So Hyun Kim, Hong-Hoa Hoang, Yeonjoo Jung, Suyeon Kim, Jaesang Kim, Robert H Austin, Sanghyuk Lee, Sungsu Park
In vitro prediction of the probable rapid emergence of resistance to a drug in tumors could act to winnow out potential candidates for further costly development. We have developed a microfluidic device consisting of ∼500 hexagonal microcompartments that provides a complex ecology with wide ranges of drug and nutrient gradients and local populations. This ecology of a fragmented metapopulation induced the drug resistance in stage IV U87 glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin in 7 d. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of the resistant cells identified mutations and differentially expressed genes...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911775/how-constraints-affect-the-hunter-s-decision-to-shoot-a-deer
#4
Florian K Diekert, Andries Richter, Inger Maren Rivrud, Atle Mysterud
Hunting is the predominant way of controlling many wildlife populations devoid of large carnivores. It subjects animals to mortality rates that far exceed natural rates and that differ markedly in which age, sex, or size classes are removed relative to those of natural predators. To explain the emerging selection pattern we develop behavioral microfoundations for a hunting model, emphasizing in particular the constraints given by the formal and informal norms, rules, and regulations that govern the hunter's choice...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911534/structural-transitions-in-densifying-networks
#5
R Lambiotte, P L Krapivsky, U Bhat, S Redner
We introduce a minimal generative model for densifying networks in which a new node attaches to a randomly selected target node and also to each of its neighbors with probability p. The networks that emerge from this copying mechanism are sparse for p<1/2 and dense (average degree increasing with number of nodes N) for p≥1/2. The behavior in the dense regime is especially rich; for example, individual network realizations that are built by copying are disparate and not self-averaging. Further, there is an infinite sequence of structural anomalies at p=2/3, 3/4, 4/5, etc...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909978/il-17a-produced-by-peritoneal-macrophages-promote-the-accumulation-and-function-of-granulocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-the-development-of-colitis-associated-cancer
#6
Yue Zhang, Juan Wang, Wenxin Wang, Jie Tian, Kai Yin, Xinyi Tang, Jie Ma, Huaxi Xu, Shengjun Wang
It is widely acknowledged that a close relationship is between inflammation and colon cancer. Interleukin (IL)-17A and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play an important role in the development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). However, the precise changes of IL-17, MDSCs, and Th17 cells during the CAC progression have not been observed in the colorectal chronic inflammation-dependent tumor. In this study, we found the level of IL-17 was increased in pathogenic colon site during the early stage of CAC model...
December 1, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909937/exploring-the-migration-profiles-of-primary-healthcare-users-in-south-africa
#7
Jo Vearey, Thea de Gruchy, Mphatso Kamndaya, Helen L Walls, Candice M Chetty-Makkan, Johanna Hanefeld
South Africa's public healthcare system responses seldom engage with migration. Our exploratory study investigates migration profiles and experiences of primary healthcare (PHC) users. A cross-sectional survey involving non-probability sampling was conducted with 229 PHC users at six purposively selected PHC clinics in three districts of SA. The survey captured socio-demographic information, migration histories, and PHC experiences. Chi square and Fischer's exact tests were used to compare categorical variables, whilst Mann-Whitney U tests compared continuous variables between groups...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909523/comparison-of-the-influence-of-right-atrial-septal-pacing-and-appendage-pacing-on-an-atrial-function-and-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-clinical-situation
#8
Mariko Tanaka Md, Kanae Su Md, Maki Oi Md, Yasuyo Motohashi Md, Kousuke Takahashi Md, Euihong Ko Md, Koji Hanazawa Md, Mamoru Toyofuku Md, Masahiko Kitada Md, Yousuke Yuzuki Md, Takashi Tamura Md
INTRODUCTION: Recently right atrial septal (RAS) pacing is often selected, but the benefit brought by RAS pacing has not been clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between RAS pacing and right appendage (RAA) pacing. METHODS: 223 consecutive new patients with a right atrial (RA) electrode during the period from January 2004 to December 2012 were studied retrospectively. They were observed regularly at our pacemaker (PM) clinic, and we measured paced P - sensed QRS interval (pPQi) and left atrial dimension (LAD) during the observation period, furthermore the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) was assessed...
June 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909483/from-incidental-mechanically-induced-arrhythmias-to-reflex-defined-arrhythmogenicity-on-the-track-of-the-ternary-reflex-system-resemblance-to-the-infancy-of-new-era-or-rediscovery
#9
REVIEW
Petras Stirbys Md PhD
The underlying pathophysiology of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias remains a matter of intense investigation. Though evolving, the contemporary explanations do not encompass all aspects of arrhythmogenicity. An improved understanding of arrhythmia substrate is needed to augment therapeutic capabilities. Our observation and literature sources demonstrate relatively high incidence of transitory arrhythmias which are non-intentionally generated by the endocardial lead/catheter manipulation. These findings are interesting and potentially may crystallize the reflex-dependent proarrhythmic cardiac activity...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908880/an-anti-cd3-anti-cll-1-bispecific-antibody-for-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#10
Steven R Leong, Siddharth Sukumaran, Maria Hristopoulos, Klara Totpal, Shannon Stainton, Elizabeth Lu, Alfred Wong, Lucinda Tam, Robert Newman, Brian R Vuillemenot, Diego Ellerman, Chen Gu, Mary Mathieu, Mark S Dennis, Allen Nguyen, Bing Zheng, Crystal Zhang, Genee Lee, Yu-Waye Chu, Rodney A Prell, Kedan Lin, Steven T Laing, Andrew G Polson
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is major unmet medical need. Most patients have poor long-term survival and treatment has not significantly changed in 40 years. Recently, bispecific antibodies that redirect the cytotoxic activity of effector T-cells by binding to CD3, the signaling component of the T-cell receptor, and a tumor target have shown clinical activity. Notably, blinatumomab is approved to treat relapsed/refractory acute lymphoid leukemia. Here we describe the design, discovery, pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, and safety of a CD3 T-cell-dependent bispecific (TDB) full-length human IgG1 therapeutic antibody targeting CLL-1 that could potentially be used in humans to treat AML...
December 1, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907856/cdna-aflp-analysis-of-transcripts-induced-in-chickpea-plants-by-tio2-nanoparticles-during-cold-stress
#11
Saeed Amini, Reza Maali-Amiri, Rahmat Mohammadi, Seyyedeh-Sanam Kazemi-Shahandashti
We evaluated the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on cold tolerance (CT) development in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes (Sel96Th11439, cold tolerant, and ILC533, cold susceptible) by using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique during the first and sixth days of cold stress (CS) at 4 °C. Selective amplification by primer combinations generated 4200 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) while 100 of them (2.62%) were differentially expressed. During CS, 60 differentially expressed TDFs of TiO2 NPs-treated plants were cloned and 10 of them produced successfully readable sequences...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906829/evidence-for-cd16a-mediated-nk-cell-stimulation-in-antibody-mediated-kidney-transplant-rejection
#12
Michael D Parkes, Philip F Halloran, Luis G Hidalgo
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells localize in the microcirculation in antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) and have been postulated to be activated by donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies triggering their CD16a Fc receptors. However, direct evidence for NK cell CD16a triggering in ABMR is lacking. We hypothesized that CD16a-inducible NK cell-selective transcripts would be expressed in human ABMR biopsies and would offer evidence for CD16a triggering. METHODS: We stimulated human NK cells through CD16a in vitro, characterized CD16a-inducible transcripts, and studied their expression in human kidney transplant biopsies with ABMR and in an extended human cell panel to determine their selectivity...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906684/phase-i-study-of-the-gamma-secretase-inhibitor-pf-03084014-in-combination-with-docetaxel-in-patients-with-advanced-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#13
Marzia A Locatelli, Philippe Aftimos, E Claire Dees, Patricia M LoRusso, Mark D Pegram, Ahmad Awada, Bo Huang, Rossano Cesari, Yuqiu Jiang, M Naveed Shaik, Kenneth A Kern, Giuseppe Curigliano
BACKGROUND: The NOTCH signaling pathway may be involved in the survival of stem cell-like tumor-initiating cells and contribute to tumor growth. In this phase Ib, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01876251), we evaluated PF-03084014, a selective gamma-secretase inhibitor in patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer. METHODS: The dose-finding part was based on a 2×3 matrix design using the modified toxicity probability interval method. Oral PF-03084014 was administered twice daily continuously in combination with intravenous docetaxel given on day 1 of each 21-day cycle...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906334/hyperspectral-face-recognition-using-improved-inter-channel-alignment-based-on-qualitative-prediction-models
#14
Woon Cho, Jinbeum Jang, Andreas Koschan, Mongi A Abidi, Joonki Paik
A fundamental limitation of hyperspectral imaging is the inter-band misalignment correlated with subject motion during data acquisition. One way of resolving this problem is to assess the alignment quality of hyperspectral image cubes derived from the state-of-the-art alignment methods. In this paper, we present an automatic selection framework for the optimal alignment method to improve the performance of face recognition. Specifically, we develop two qualitative prediction models based on: 1) a principal curvature map for evaluating the similarity index between sequential target bands and a reference band in the hyperspectral image cube as a full-reference metric; and 2) the cumulative probability of target colors in the HSV color space for evaluating the alignment index of a single sRGB image rendered using all of the bands of the hyperspectral image cube as a no-reference metric...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906279/adaptive-multifocus-image-fusion-using-block-compressed-sensing-with-smoothed-projected-landweber-integration-in-the-wavelet-domain
#15
Unni V S, Deepak Mishra, G R K S Subrahmanyam
The need for image fusion in current image processing systems is increasing mainly due to the increased number and variety of image acquisition techniques. Image fusion is the process of combining substantial information from several sensors using mathematical techniques in order to create a single composite image that will be more comprehensive and thus more useful for a human operator or other computer vision tasks. This paper presents a new approach to multifocus image fusion based on sparse signal representation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906259/spatiotemporal-blue-noise-coded-aperture-design-for-multi-shot-compressive-spectral-imaging
#16
Claudia V Correa, Henry Arguello, Gonzalo R Arce
Multi-shot coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) systems capture the spectral information of a scene using a small set of coded focal plane array (FPA) compressive measurements. Compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction algorithms are then used to reconstruct the underlying spectral 3D data cube from an underdetermined system of linear equations. Multiple snapshots result in a less ill-posed inverse problem and improved reconstructions. The only varying components in CASSI are the coded apertures, whose structure is crucial inasmuch as they determine the minimum number of FPA measurements needed for correct image reconstruction and the corresponding attainable quality...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905966/rapid-assessment-of-disability-in-the-philippines-understanding-prevalence-well-being-and-access-to-the-community-for-people-with-disabilities-to-inform-the-w-dare-project
#17
Manjula Marella, Alexandra Devine, Graeme Ferdinand Armecin, Jerome Zayas, Ma Jesusa Marco, Cathy Vaughan
BACKGROUND: International recognition that people with disabilities were excluded from the Millennium Development Goals has led to better inclusion of people with disabilities in the recently agreed Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs) 2015-2030. Given the current global agenda for disability inclusion, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the situation of people with disabilities in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disability and compare the well-being and access to the community between people with and without disabilities...
August 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905961/estimating-average-alcohol-consumption-in-the-population-using-multiple-sources-the-case-of-spain
#18
Luis Sordo, Gregorio Barrio, María J Bravo, Joan R Villalbí, Albert Espelt, Montserrat Neira, Enrique Regidor
BACKGROUND: National estimates on per capita alcohol consumption are provided regularly by various sources and may have validity problems, so corrections are needed for monitoring and assessment purposes. Our objectives were to compare different alcohol availability estimates for Spain, to build the best estimate (actual consumption), characterize its time trend during 2001-2011, and quantify the extent to which other estimates (coverage) approximated actual consumption. METHODS: Estimates were: alcohol availability from the Spanish Tax Agency (Tax Agency availability), World Health Organization (WHO availability) and other international agencies, self-reported purchases from the Spanish Food Consumption Panel, and self-reported consumption from population surveys...
June 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905060/perioperative-risk-adjustment-for-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-are-simple-clinically-driven-models-sufficient
#19
David N Bernstein, Aakash Keswani, David Ring
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in value-based health care in the United States. Statistical analysis of large databases can inform us of the factors associated with and the probability of adverse events and unplanned readmissions that diminish quality and add expense. For example, increased operating time and high blood urea nitrogen (BUN) are associated with adverse events, whereas patients on antihypertensive medications were more likely to have an unplanned readmission. Many surgeons rely on their knowledge and intuition when assessing the risk of a procedure...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904627/antimicrobial-effects-of-chlorhexidine-matrica-drop-mouthwash-chamomile-extract-and-normal-saline-on-hospitalized-patients-with-endotracheal-tubes
#20
Maryam Azimi, Leila Jouybari, Shahram Moghadam, Ezatolah Ghaemi, Naser Behnampoor, Akram Sanagoo, Moslem Hesam
BACKGROUND: The functions and use of mouthwashes are variable depending on their type. Oral care in patients with endotracheal tubes is important to prevent side effects such as pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine, drop of Matrica mouthwash (chamomile extract), and normal saline on hospitalized patients with endotracheal tube in an intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 39 patients admitted to the ICU were selected by convenience sampling, were matched based on age and sex, and randomly assigned to three groups (chlorhexidine, Matrica, saline)...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
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