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Selection probability

Andrew Bastawrous, Wanjiku Mathenge, John Buchan, Fatima Kyari, Tunde Peto, Hillary Rono, Helen A Weiss, David Macleod, Allen Foster, Matthew Burton, Hannah Kuper
PURPOSE: Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in people of African descent. Minimal data is available from African population-based cohort studies. The primary aims of this study were to describe the normative distribution of glaucoma features to enable glaucoma classification and to assess risk factors for those with glaucoma at follow-up among people aged ≥50 years in Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Random cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size was used to select a representative cross-sectional sample of adults aged ≥50 years in 2007-8 in Nakuru District, Kenya...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Gurkamaljit Kaur, Bharati Pandey, Arbind Kumar, Naina Garewal, Abhinav Grover, Jagdeep Kaur
The lipolytic protein LipU was conserved in mycobacterium sp. including M. tuberculosis (MTB LipU) and M. leprae (MLP LipU). The MTB LipU was identified in extracellular fraction and was reported to be essential for the survival of mycobacterium. Therefore to address the problem of drug resistance in pathogen, LipU was selected as a drug target and the viability of finding out some FDA approved drugs as LipU inhibitors in both the cases was explored. Three dimensional (3D) model structures of MTB LipU and MLP LipU were generated and stabilized through molecular dynamics (MD)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Carlos A Alvear Rodriguez, José Rafael Tovar Cuevas
A key biomarker in the study of differentiated thyroid cancer is thyroglobulin. Measurements of the levels of this protein in the blood are determined using laboratory instruments that cannot detect very small concentrations below a threshold, generating left-censored measurements. In the presence of censoring, ordinary least-squares regression models generate biased parameter estimates; therefore, it is necessary to resort to more complex models that consider the censored observations and the behavior of the distribution of the response variable, such as censored and mixed regression models...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Hubert S Gabryś, Florian Buettner, Florian Sterzing, Henrik Hauswald, Mark Bangert
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether machine learning with dosiomic, radiomic, and demographic features allows for xerostomia risk assessment more precise than normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on the mean radiation dose to parotid glands. Material and methods: A cohort of 153 head-and-neck cancer patients was used to model xerostomia at 0-6 months (early), 6-15 months (late), 15-24 months (long-term), and at any time (a longitudinal model) after radiotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Il-Doo Kim, Hahnbie Lee, Seung-Woo Kim, Hye-Kyung Lee, Juli Choi, Pyung-Lim Han, Ja-Kyeong Lee
Post-stroke infection (PSI) is known to worsen functional outcomes of stroke patients and accounts to one-third of stroke-related deaths in hospital. In our previous reports, we demonstrated that massive release of high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), an endogenous danger signal molecule, is promoted by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced acute damage in the postischemic brain, exacerbating neuronal damage by triggering delayed inflammatory processes. Moreover, augmentation of proinflammatory function of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by HMGB1 via direct interaction has been reported...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Miguel Ángel Lozada Aguilar, Andrei Khrennikov, Klaudia Oleschko
As was recently shown by the authors, quantum probability theory can be used for the modelling of the process of decision-making (e.g. probabilistic risk analysis) for macroscopic geophysical structures such as hydrocarbon reservoirs. This approach can be considered as a geophysical realization of Hilbert's programme on axiomatization of statistical models in physics (the famous sixth Hilbert problem). In this conceptual paper , we continue development of this approach to decision-making under uncertainty which is generated by complexity, variability, heterogeneity, anisotropy, as well as the restrictions to accessibility of subsurface structures...
April 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
J C Bader, E A Lakota, Shawn Flanagan, V Ong, Taylor Sandison, C M Rubino, S M Bhavnani, P G Ambrose
Rezafungin (CD101) is a novel echinocandin antifungal agent with activity against Aspergillus and Candida species, including azole- and echinocandin-resistant isolates. The objective of these analyses was to conduct pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) target attainment analyses to evaluate single and once-weekly rezafungin dosing to provide dose selection support for future clinical studies. Using a previously developed rezafungin population PK model, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted utilizing the following three IV rezafungin dosing regimens: (i) single 400-mg dose, (ii) 400 mg for Week 1 followed by 200 mg weekly for 5 weeks, and (iii) 400 mg weekly for 6 weeks...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Massimiliano Alvioli, Massimo Melillo, Fausto Guzzetti, Mauro Rossi, Elisa Palazzi, Jost von Hardenberg, Maria Teresa Brunetti, Silvia Peruccacci
The relation between climate change and its potential effects on the stability of slopes remains an open issue. For rainfall induced landslides, the point consists in determining the effects of the projected changes in the duration and amounts of rainfall that can initiate slope failures. We investigated the relationship between fine-scale climate projections obtained by downscaling and the expected modifications in landslide occurrence in Central Italy. We used rainfall measurements taken by 56 rain gauges in the 9-year period 2003-2011, and the RainFARM technique to generate downscaled synthetic rainfall fields from regional climate model projections for the 14-year calibration period 2002-2015, and for the 40-year projection period 2010-2049...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Małgorzata Proćków, Jarosław Proćków, Paweł Błażej, Paweł Mackiewicz
Trochulus hispidus and T. sericeus are hairy snails widely distributed in Europe. They differ in shell morphology and are usually found in various land habitats. However, their morphology does not match genetic distance as they do not form distinct clades. Therefore, it is interesting to determine to what extent environmental factors can control their phenotypes. We analysed the morphological traits and many environmental features of their habitats to find relationships between these parameters and explain ecological reasons for this plasticity...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Md Saiful Islam, M Belal Hossain, Abdul Matin, Md Shafiqul Islam Sarker
Heavy metal pollution in sediment resources may pose serious threat to ecosystem and human health through food web. In this study, surface sediment samples of 10 stations along the Feni River estuary were analyzed to profile the accumulation, sources and pollution levels of heavy metals. The results revealed that the average contents (μg g-1 ) of eight selected heavy metals followed the order of Mn (37.85) > Cr (35.28) > Ni (33.27) > Co (31.02) > Pb (6.47) > Ag (1.09) > As (0...
March 13, 2018: Chemosphere
Mark Onslow, Mark Jones, Sue O'Brian, Ann Packman, Ross Menzies, Robyn Lowe, Simone Arnott, Kate Bridgman, Caroline de Sonneville, Marie-Christine Franken
Purpose: This report investigates whether parent-reported stuttering severity ratings (SRs) provide similar estimates of effect size as percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for randomized trials of early stuttering treatment with preschool children. Method: Data sets from 3 randomized controlled trials of an early stuttering intervention were selected for analyses. Analyses included median changes and 95% confidence intervals per treatment group, Bland-Altman plots, analysis of covariance, and Spearman rho correlations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Federica Cavalera, Mario Zanoni, Valeria Merico, Thi Thu Hien Bui, Martina Belli, Lorenzo Fassina, Silvia Garagna, Maurizio Zuccotti
Infertility clinics would benefit from the ability to select developmentally competent vs. incompetent oocytes using non-invasive procedures, thus improving the overall pregnancy outcome. We recently developed a classification method based on microscopic live observations of mouse oocytes during their in vitro maturation from the germinal vesicle (GV) to the metaphase II stage, followed by the analysis of the cytoplasmic movements occurring during this time-lapse period. Here, we present detailed protocols of this procedure...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alhassane Diallo, Heike Jacobi, Arron Cook, Robyn Labrum, Alexandra Durr, Alexis Brice, Perrine Charles, Cecilia Marelli, Caterina Mariotti, Lorenzo Nanetti, Marta Panzeri, Maria Rakowicz, Anna Sobanska, Anna Sulek, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Ludger Schöls, Holger Hengel, Bela Melegh, Alessandro Filla, Antonella Antenora, Jon Infante, José Berciano, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Dagmar Timmann, Sylvia Boesch, Massimo Pandolfo, Jörg B Schulz, Peter Bauer, Paola Giunti, Jun-Suk Kang, Thomas Klockgether, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited progressive ataxia disorders that can lead to premature death. We aimed to study the overall survival of patients with the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6) and to identify the strongest contributing predictors that affect survival. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women, aged 18 years or older, from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries; participants had positive genetic test results for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and progressive, otherwise unexplained, ataxias...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
David A Broniatowski
Design decisions often require input from multiple stakeholders or require balancing multiple design requirements. However, leading axiomatic approaches to decision-based design suggest that combining preferences across these elements is virtually guaranteed to result in irrational outcomes. This has led some to conclude that a single "dictator" is required to make design decisions. In contrast, proponents of heuristic approaches observe that aggregate decisions are frequently made in practice, and argue that this widespread usage justifies the value of these heuristics to the engineering design community...
January 2018: Research in Engineering Design
Cameron D Hassall, Patrick C Connor, Thomas P Trappenberg, John J McDonald, Olave E Krigolson
The visual environment is filled with complex, multi-dimensional objects that vary in their value to an observer's current goals. When faced with multi-dimensional stimuli, humans may rely on biases to learn to select those objects that are most valuable to the task at hand. Here, we show that decision making in a complex task is guided by the sparsity bias: the focusing of attention on a subset of available features. Participants completed a gambling task in which they selected complex stimuli that varied randomly along three dimensions: shape, color, and texture...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Crystle J Kelly, Marco Martina
Functional deactivation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a critical step in the neuropathic pain phenotype. We performed optogenetic circuit dissection to study the properties of ventral hippocampal (vHipp) and thalamic (MDTh) inputs to L5 pyramidal cells in acute mPFC slices and to test whether alterations in these inputs contribute to mPFC deactivation in neuropathic pain. We found that: (1) both the vHipp and MDTh inputs elicit monosynaptic excitatory and polysynaptic inhibitory currents. (2) The strength of the excitatory MDTh input is uniform, while the vHipp input becomes progressively stronger along the dorsal-ventral axis...
March 17, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Sumit Malhotra, Praveen Vashist, Mani Kalaivani, Noopur Gupta, Suraj Singh Senjam, Ramashankar Rath, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, causes and associated factors for visual impairment (VI) in rural population of Jhajjar district, Haryana, north India. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in two blocks of Jhajjar district. A total of 34 villages were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling method. Adults aged 50 years and above were selected using compact segment cluster sampling approach. Presenting visual acuity using LogMAR E chart was measured along with collection of other demographic details as part of the house-to-house survey...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Thai Hoang, Hong Nguyen, Ray W Shiraishi, Mai Nguyen, Trista Bingham, Diep Nguyen, Tam Nguyen, Hao Duong, Sheryl Lyss, Hien Tran
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is highly effective for reducing heroin use and HIV transmission among people who inject opioids. We sought to measure and understand factors associated with continued heroin use, a critical factor affecting treatment outcome among MMT patients in Vietnam. METHOD: We collected data from medical charts of a nationally representative sample of patients who were on MMT from May 2008 to December 2013. We selected 10 MMT clinics using probability proportional to size and 50 patients/clinic by systematic random sampling...
March 15, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Pawel Sowa, Maciej Misiolek, Boguslawa Orecka, Eugeniusz Czecior, Monika Adamczyk-Sowa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and IL-6 in patients with pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin's tumor and acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected from 30 patients with pleomorphic adenoma, 21 patients with Warthin's tumor and 8 patients with acinic cell carcinoma. Serum adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, IL-6 and CRP concentrations were determined...
March 14, 2018: Cytokine
Silvia Carraro, Eugenio Baraldi, Giuseppe Giordano, Paola Pirillo, Matteo Stocchero, Michiel Houben, Louis Bont
OBJECTIVES: To apply metabolomic analysis of amniotic fluid in a discovery cohort to see whether a specific biochemical-metabolic profile at birth is associated with the subsequent onset of wheezing over the first year of life. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective exploratory study was conducted in a healthy term-born Dutch cohort recruited at 2 hospitals in Utrecht (UMCU, Utrecht, and Diakonessenhuis, Utrecht), The Netherlands. A metabolomic approach based on mass spectrometry was applied to analyze 142 amniotic fluid samples collected at birth...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
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