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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156712/radiolabelled-polymeric-iga-from-biodistribution-to-a-new-molecular-imaging-tool-in-colorectal-cancer-lung-metastases
#1
Helene Carpenet, Armelle Cuvillier, Aurélie Perraud, Ophélie Martin, Gaël Champier, Marie-Odile Jauberteau, Jacques Monteil, Isabelle Quelven
By radiolabelling monomeric (m) and polymeric (p) IgA with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc), this study assessed IgA biodistribution and tumour-targeting potency. IgA directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a colorectal cancer marker, was selected to involve IgA mucosal tropism. Ig was radiolabelled with (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl after derivatisation by 2-iminothiolane. (99m)Tc-IgA was evaluated by in vitro analysis. The biodistributions of radiolabelled anti-CEA mIgA, pIgA and IgG were compared in normal mice. Anti-CEA pIgA tumour uptake was studied in mice bearing the WiDr caecal orthotopic graft...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156492/bayesian-monotonic-errors-in-variables-models-with-applications-to-pathogen-susceptibility-testing
#2
Glen DePalma, Bruce A Craig
Drug dilution (MIC) and disk diffusion (DIA) are the 2 most common antimicrobial susceptibility assays used by hospitals and clinics to determine an unknown pathogen's susceptibility to various antibiotics. Since only one assay is commonly used, it is important that the 2 assays give similar results. Calibration of the DIA assay to the MIC assay is typically done using the error-rate bounded method, which selects DIA breakpoints that minimize the observed discrepancies between the 2 assays. In 2000, Craig proposed a model-based approach that specifically models the measurement error and rounding processes of each assay, the underlying pathogen distribution, and the true monotonic relationship between the 2 assays...
November 20, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155274/polysaccharides-from-the-south-african-medicinal-plant-artemisia-afra-structure-and-activity-studies
#3
Paula Marie Braünlich, Kari Tvete Inngjerdingen, Marit Inngjerdingen, Quinton Johnson, Berit Smestad Paulsen, Wilfred Mabusela
Artemisia afra (Jacq. Ex. Willd), is an indigenous plant in South Africa and other parts of the African continent, where it is used as traditional medicine mostly for respiratory conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural features of the polysaccharides from the leaves of this plant, as well as the biological activities of the polysaccharide fractions against the complement assay. Leaves of Artemisia afra were extracted sequentially with organic solvents (dichloromethane and methanol), 50% aqueous ethanol, and water at 50 and 100°C respectively...
November 15, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155218/the-collective-influence-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-with-physiological-fluid-shear-stress-on-osteoblasts
#4
Yan Li, Jiafeng Yuan, Qianwen Wang, Lijie Sun, Yunying Sha, Yanxiang Li, Lizhong Wang, Zhonghua Wang, Yonggang Ma, Hui Cao
1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 (OH)2 D3) and mechanical stimuli in physiological environment contributes greatly to osteoporosis pathogenesis. Wide investigations have been conducted on how 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and mechanical stimuli separately impact osteoblasts. This study reports the collective influences of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and flow shear stress (FSS) on biological functions of osteoblasts. 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 were prepared in various kinds of concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 nmmol/L), while physiological fluid shear stress (12 dynes/cm(2)) was produced by using a parallel-plate fluid flow system...
November 16, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155197/dyrk2-mediated-the-release-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-lps-induced-bv2-cells
#5
Li Xu, Yuxiang Sun, Mengmeng Li, Xin Ge
NF-κB pathway and p38MAPK (p38mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway have been shown to play a key role in neuroinflammation, however, the phosphorylation modification is an important process that affects the activation of above pathways. Dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 2(Dyrk2), as a phosphokinase that can phosphorylate signal molecules, has been demonstrated to regulate Type I Interferon(TIF) by promoting ser527 phosphorylation of TBK1. Therefore, to investigate the role of Dyrk2 in neuroinflammation, we analyzed the effect of Dyrk2 on LPS-induced the activation of microglia...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155186/prediction-of-prostate-cancer-risk-among-men-undergoing-combined-mri-targeted-and-systematic-biopsy-using-novel-pre-biopsy-nomograms-that-incorporate-mri-findings
#6
Marc A Bjurlin, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Saradwata Sarkar, Herbert Lepor, William C Huang, Richard Huang, Rajesh Venkataraman, Samir S Taneja
OBJECTIVE: To develop nomograms that predict the probability of overall PCa and clinically significant PCa (Gleason ≥7) on MRI targeted, and combined MRI-targeted and systematic, prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2012 to August 2014, MR-US fusion targeted prostate biopsy was performed on 464 men with suspicious regions identified on pre-biopsy 3T MRI along with systematic 12 core biopsy. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate predictors of overall and clinically significant PCa, and corresponding nomograms were generated for men who were not previously biopsied or had one or more prior negative biopsies...
November 16, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154268/patient-characteristics-and-outcomes-associated-with-receiving-an-earlier-versus-later-diagnosis-of-probable-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Noam Y Kirson, J Scott Andrews, Urvi Desai, Sarah B King, Sophie Schonfeld, Howard G Birnbaum, Daniel E Ball, Kristin Kahle-Wrobleski
BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatments may depend critically on the timeliness of intervention. OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics and outcomes of patients diagnosed with probable AD (prAD) based on time elapsed from first onset of cognitive decline. METHODS: Patients with ≥1 prAD diagnosis and ≥1 follow-up visit were selected from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Uniform Data Set (UDS; 9/2005-6/2015) and stratified based on the time between the perceived onset of cognitive decline at baseline and first prAD diagnosis (i...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154203/unbending-mind-individuals-with-hoarding-disorder-do-not-modify-decision-strategy-in-response-to-feedback-under-risk
#8
Helen Pushkarskaya, David F Tolin, Daniel Henick, Ifat Levy, Christopher Pittenger
Cognitive-behavioral models of hoarding disorder emphasize impairments in information processing and decision making in the genesis of hoarding symptomology. We propose and test the novel hypothesis that individuals with hoarding are maladaptively biased towards a deliberative decision style. While deliberative strategies are often considered normative, they are not always adaptable to the limitations imposed by many real-world decision contexts. We examined decision-making patterns in 19 individuals with hoarding and 19 healthy controls, using a behavioral task that quantifies selection of decision strategies in a novel environment with known probabilities (risk) in response to feedback...
November 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154196/analysis-of-potential-genotoxic-impurities-in-rabeprazole-active-pharmaceutical-ingredient-via-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-following-quality-by-design-principles-for-method-development
#9
Katerina Iliou, Anđelija Malenović, Yannis L Loukas, Yannis Dotsikas
A novel Liquid Chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is presented for the quantitative determination of two potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs) in rabeprazole active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). In order to overcome the analytical challenges in the trace analysis of PGIs, a development procedure supported by Quality-by-Design (QbD) principles was evaluated. The efficient separation between rabeprazole and the two PGIs in the shortest analysis time was set as the defined analytical target profile (ATP) and to this purpose utilization of a switching valve allowed the flow to be sent to waste when rabeprazole was eluted...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154106/diagnostic-criteria-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-fleischner-society-white-paper
#10
REVIEW
David A Lynch, Nicola Sverzellati, William D Travis, Kevin K Brown, Thomas V Colby, Jeffrey R Galvin, Jonathan G Goldin, David M Hansell, Yoshikazu Inoue, Takeshi Johkoh, Andrew G Nicholson, Shandra L Knight, Suhail Raoof, Luca Richeldi, Christopher J Ryerson, Jay H Ryu, Athol U Wells
This Review provides an updated approach to the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), based on a systematic search of the medical literature and the expert opinion of members of the Fleischner Society. A checklist is provided for the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The role of CT is expanded to permit diagnosis of IPF without surgical lung biopsy in select cases when CT shows a probable UIP pattern. Additional investigations, including surgical lung biopsy, should be considered in patients with either clinical or CT findings that are indeterminate for IPF...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153973/airborn-gamma-ray-spectrometric-data-as-guide-for-probable-hydrocarbon-accumulations-at-al-laqitah-area-central-eastern-desert-of-egypt
#11
Ahmed A Nigm, Mohamed A S Youssef, Fatema M Abdelwahab
An exploration method has been developed to understand the relation between the radiometric measurements and the subsurface petroleum accumulations, where subtle anomalous patterns of radiation flux are detected over subsurface hydrocarbon basins. This technique is mainly based on utilizing the aerial gamma-ray spectral data in the prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Al-Laqitah area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data...
November 1, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153584/the-effect-of-selected-molecules-influencing-the-detrimental-host-immune-response-on-a-course-of-rabies-virus-infection-in-a-murine-model
#12
Marcin Smreczak, Anna Marzec, Anna Orłowska, Paweł Trębas, Michał Reichert, Anna Kycko, Penelopa Koraka, Ab Osterhaus, Jan Franciszek Żmudziński
Rabies is invariably fatal, when post-exposure prophylaxis is administered after the onset of clinical symptoms. In many countries, rabies awareness is very low and the availability of post-exposure prophylaxis, as recommended by WHO guidelines, is very limited or non-existent, probably as a consequence of high cost. Therefore, new concepts for rabies therapy are needed. Innate immune mechanisms involving the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, activated after rabies infection, are thought to be involved in the neuropathogenesis of rabies...
November 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153521/efficacy-of-colostrum-replacer-versus-maternal-colostrum-on-immunological-status-health-and-growth-of-preweaned-dairy-calves
#13
A Lago, M Socha, A Geiger, D Cook, N Silva-Del-Río, C Blanc, R Quesnell, C Leonardi
Commercially available colostrum replacers (CR) are commonly used when maternal colostrum (MC) is unavailable, for managerial convenience, to ensure quality consistency at first feeding, or in disease control and eradication programs. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of feeding First Day Formula (Accelerated Genetics, Baraboo, WI) CR versus pooled MC on immunological status, growth, and health of preweaned dairy calves. A total of 1,220 Jersey and Jersey × Holstein calves born on a California Central Valley dairy farm were assigned after birth to receive either CR or MC following a systematic allocation procedure...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153520/retrospective-analysis-of-austrian-health-recording-data-of-antibiotic-or-nonantibiotic-dry-off-treatment-on-milk-yield-somatic-cell-count-and-frequency-of-mastitis-in-subsequent-lactation
#14
T Wittek, A Tichy, B Grassauer, C Egger-Danner
Typically, dairy cows are dried off at the end of lactation. During the dry period, intramammary infections may be cured or persist, and new infections may occur. Traditionally, antibiotics (AB) have been used at dry-off. However, blanket antibiotic dry-off treatment may no longer be justifiable and, recently, selective use of antibiotics at dry off has been proposed and different decision criteria suggested. The objective of the study was to evaluate cows receiving antibiotic treatment at dry off (AB group) compared with cows dried off without antibiotics (non-AB group) using a large data set...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153265/hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-as-prevention-in-an-extended-network-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-usa-a-modelling-study
#15
Alexei Zelenev, Jianghong Li, Alyona Mazhnaya, Sanjay Basu, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Chronic infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are highly prevalent in the USA and concentrated in people who inject drugs. Treatment as prevention with highly effective new direct-acting antivirals is a prospective HCV elimination strategy. We used network-based modelling to analyse the effect of this strategy in HCV-infected people who inject drugs in a US city. METHODS: Five graph models were fit using data from 1574 people who inject drugs in Hartford, CT, USA...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153074/is-being-punished-at-school-an-indicator-of-psychosocial-risk
#16
Ana Isabel Corchado, María José Díaz-Aguado Jalón, Rosario Martínez-Arias
Research carried out in different cultural contexts shows that the use of exclusively coercive disciplinary measures does not improve the behavior of those punished, and may even increase the risks underpinning those behaviors. The aim of this research was to study whether there is a link between repeatedly suffering punishment at school and psychosocial risks in adolescence. A non-experimental design was implemented with selected groups. The participants were 507 adolescents from four groups with different risk levels: in social protection (n = 189); subject to court measures (n = 104); in treatment for drug abuse (n = 25); and comparison group (n = 189)...
November 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152886/a-contrast-based-computational-model-of-surprise-and-its-applications
#17
Luis Macedo, Amílcar Cardoso
We review our work on a contrast-based computational model of surprise and its applications. The review is contextualized within related research from psychology, philosophy, and particularly artificial intelligence. Influenced by psychological theories of surprise, the model assumes that surprise-eliciting events initiate a series of cognitive processes that begin with the appraisal of the event as unexpected, continue with the interruption of ongoing activity and the focusing of attention on the unexpected event, and culminate in the analysis and evaluation of the event and the revision of beliefs...
November 19, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152176/phytophagous-insect-oviposition-shifts-in-response-to-probability-of-flower-abortion-owing-to-the-presence-of-basal-fruits
#18
Shivani Jadeja, Brigitte Tenhumberg
Phytophagous insects use a wide range of indicators or associated cues to avoid laying eggs in sites where offspring survival is low. For insects that lay eggs in flowers, these unsuitable sites may be created by the host plant's resource allocation to flowers. In the sequentially flowering host plant, Yucca glauca, late-opening distal flowers are more likely to be aborted in the presence of already-initiated basal fruits because they are strong resource sinks. If flowers are aborted, all eggs of the phytophagous insect, Tegeticula yuccasella, within the flower die...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152112/capsaicin-exerts-synergistic-antitumor-effect-with-sorafenib-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-through-ampk-activation
#19
Alicia Bort, Elena Spínola, Nieves Rodríguez-Henche, Inés Díaz-Laviada
In this study, we investigated the antitumoral effects of combined treatment using sorafenib and capsaicin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Here we showed that the combination of the two drugs had a much stronger inhibitory effect on both HepG2 and Huh-7 human HCC cells growth than either drug alone. The isobolograms demonstrated that the combinations investigated in this study produced a synergistic interaction. In the combination treatment using capsaicin and sorafenib, increased apoptosis, followed by the activation of caspase-9 and PARP, was observed...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152110/comparison-of-the-effect-of-spinal-anesthesia-and-general-anesthesia-on-5-year-tumor-recurrence-rates-after-transurethral-resection-of-bladder-tumors
#20
Woo-Jong Choi, Seunghee Baek, Eun-Young Joo, Syn-Hae Yoon, Eunkyul Kim, Bumsik Hong, Jai-Hyun Hwang, Young-Kug Kim
Non-muscle invasive bladder tumors are early-stage tumors with high recurrence rates. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) is performed under spinal or general anesthesia; however, the effect of the two anesthetic techniques on non-muscle invasive bladder tumor recurrence is unknown. Thus, we compared their effects on tumor recurrence rates five years after TURB. Data from 876 patients who underwent TURB from 2000 to 2007 was reviewed. Patients received spinal or general anesthesia based on their choice or the clinician's preference...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
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