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Selection probability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779141/socioeconomic-factors-and-individual-lifestyles-influencing-the-incidence-of-patella-fractures-a-national-population-based-survey-in-china
#1
Yanbin Zhu, Song Liu, Wei Chen, Lin Wang, Xiaolin Zhang, Yingze Zhang
BACKGROUND: We aimed to do a national survey on the population-based incidence of patella fractures and related risk factors fracture in China. METHODS: All the data on patella fractures were available from the China National Fracture Survey (CNFS) between January and May in 2015. And in the CNFS, all eligible household members were selected from 24 urban cities and 24 rural counties of eight provinces of China, with stratified random sampling and the probability proportional to size method used...
May 19, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778607/cost-effectiveness-of-gastric-cancer-screening-according-to-race-and-ethnicity
#2
Monica Saumoy, Yecheskel Schneider, Nicole Shen, Michel Kahaleh, Reem Z Sharaiha, Shailja C Shah
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are marked racial and ethnic differences in noncardia gastric cancer prevalence within the United States (US). Although gastric cancer screening is recommended in regions of high prevalence, screening is not routinely performed in the US. Our objective was to determine whether selected noncardia gastric cancer screening for high-risk races and ethnicities within the US is cost effective. METHODS: We developed a decision analytic Markov model with the base case of a 50-year-old person of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, or Asian race or ethnicity...
May 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778183/high-genetic-diversity-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-producing-escherichia-coli-in-feces-of-horses
#3
Syndia Sadikalay, Yann Reynaud, Stéphanie Guyomard-Rabenirina, Mélanie Falord, Célia Ducat, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Antoine Talarmin, Séverine Ferdinand
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), especially those of the CTX-M type, represent a major public health problem throughout the world. Although the carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in feces of horses is now well recognized, little is known about the diversity of EPE after treatment of horses with antibiotics. We undertook this study to assess and follow the diversity of EP Escherichia coli isolated from horses after antibiotic treatment for an infection. Fecal samples from two horses treated and two that were untreated were tested for the presence of EPE on different days...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777716/probability-of-viral-labeling-of-neural-stem-cells-in-vivo
#4
Gregory W Kirschen, Shaoyu Ge, Il Memming Park
In the neuroscience field over the past several decades, viral vectors have become powerful gene delivery systems to study neural populations of interest. For neural stem cell (NSC) biology, such viruses are often used to birth-date and track NSCs over developmental time in lineage tracing experiments. Yet, the probability of successful infection of a given stem cell in vivo remains unknown. This information would be helpful to inform investigators interested in titrating their viruses to selectively target sparsely-populated clusters of cells in the nervous system...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777524/mercury-involvement-in-neuronal-damage-and-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Veronica Lanza Cariccio, Annalisa Samà, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis are characterized by a chronic and selective process of neuronal cell death. Although the causes of neurodegenerative diseases remain still unknown, it is now a well-established idea that more factors, such as genetic, endogenous, and environmental, are involved. Among environmental causes, the accumulation of mercury, a heavy metal considered a toxic agent, was largely studied as a probable factor involved in neurodegenerative disease course...
May 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777385/changes-in-selection-intensity-on-the-mitogenome-of-subterranean-and-fossorial-rodents-respective-to-aboveground-species
#6
William Corrêa Tavares, Hector N Seuánez
Several rodent lineages independently acquired the ability to dig complex networks of tunnels where fossorial and subterranean species spend part or their whole life, respectively. Their underground lifestyles imposed harsh physiological demands, presumably triggering strong selective pressures on genes involved in energy metabolism like those coding for mitochondrial proteins. Moreover, underground lifestyles must have increased inbreeding and susceptibility to population bottlenecks as well as restricted migration, leading to small effective population size (Ne ) that, in turn, must have reduced the effectiveness of selection...
May 18, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776768/-topical-anesthesia-without-the-use-of-an-anesthesiologist-in-adult-outpatient-cataract-surgery-assessment-of-selection-criteria-on-consultation-report-of-248-cases
#7
M Pepin, E Rineau, A Caignard, S Leruez, P Gohier
INTRODUCTION: This work aims to evaluate selection criteria used during the cataract surgery scheduling visit, to choose whether or not there will be an anesthesiologist available during the surgery, depending upon the patient's comorbidities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study performed in 2016 in Angers university medical center. Two groups were established on the cataract surgery scheduling visit, based on patients' comorbidities and vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate)...
May 15, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776179/geometric-evolution-of-complex-networks-with-degree-correlations
#8
Charles Murphy, Antoine Allard, Edward Laurence, Guillaume St-Onge, Louis J Dubé
We present a general class of geometric network growth mechanisms by homogeneous attachment in which the links created at a given time t are distributed homogeneously between a new node and the existing nodes selected uniformly. This is achieved by creating links between nodes uniformly distributed in a homogeneous metric space according to a Fermi-Dirac connection probability with inverse temperature β and general time-dependent chemical potential μ(t). The chemical potential limits the spatial extent of newly created links...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776155/how-directional-mobility-affects-coexistence-in-rock-paper-scissors-models
#9
P P Avelino, D Bazeia, L Losano, J Menezes, B F de Oliveira, M A Santos
This work deals with a system of three distinct species that changes in time under the presence of mobility, selection, and reproduction, as in the popular rock-paper-scissors game. The novelty of the current study is the modification of the mobility rule to the case of directional mobility, in which the species move following the direction associated to a larger (averaged) number density of selection targets in the surrounding neighborhood. Directional mobility can be used to simulate eyes that see or a nose that smells, and we show how it may contribute to reduce the probability of coexistence...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776054/least-rattling-feedback-from-strong-time-scale-separation
#10
Pavel Chvykov, Jeremy England
In most interacting many-body systems associated with some "emergent phenomena," we can identify subgroups of degrees of freedom that relax on dramatically different time scales. Time-scale separation of this kind is particularly helpful in nonequilibrium systems where only the fast variables are subjected to external driving; in such a case, it may be shown through elimination of fast variables that the slow coordinates effectively experience a thermal bath of spatially varying temperature. In this paper, we investigate how such a temperature landscape arises according to how the slow variables affect the character of the driven quasisteady state reached by the fast variables...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775203/optimal-two-stage-dynamic-treatment-regimes-from-a-classification-perspective-with-censored-survival-data
#11
Rebecca Hager, Anastasios A Tsiatis, Marie Davidian
Clinicians often make multiple treatment decisions at key points over the course of a patient's disease. A dynamic treatment regime is a sequence of decision rules, each mapping a patient's observed history to the set of available, feasible treatment options at each decision point, and thus formalizes this process. An optimal regime is one leading to the most beneficial outcome on average if used to select treatment for the patient population. We propose a method for estimation of an optimal regime involving two decision points when the outcome of interest is a censored survival time, which is based on maximizing a locally efficient, doubly robust, augmented inverse probability weighted estimator for average outcome over a class of regimes...
May 18, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774668/varicocele-and-testicular-pain-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Sunghyun Paick, Woo Suk Choi
Varicocele is the dilatation of the scrotal portion of pampiniform plexus and the internal spermatic venous system. About 15% of men suffer from scrotal varicocele and 2% to 10% of them complain of pain. The probable mechanisms for pain include compression of the surrounding neural fibers by the dilated venous complex, elevated testicular temperature, increased venous pressure, hypoxia, oxidative stress, hormonal imbalances, and the reflux of toxic metabolites of adrenal or renal origin. Testicular pain associated with varicoceles is typically described as a dull, aching, or throbbing pain in the testicle, scrotum, or groin; rarely, it can be acute, sharp, or stabbing...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774591/causal-estimands-and-confidence-intervals-associated-with-wilcoxon-mann-whitney-tests-in-randomized-experiments
#13
Michael P Fay, Erica H Brittain, Joanna H Shih, Dean A Follmann, Erin E Gabriel
Although the P value from a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is used often with randomized experiments, it is rarely accompanied with a causal effect estimate and its confidence interval. The natural parameter for the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is the Mann-Whitney parameter, ϕ, which measures the probability that a randomly selected individual in the treatment arm will have a larger response than a randomly selected individual in the control arm (plus an adjustment for ties). We show that the Mann-Whitney parameter may be framed as a causal parameter and show that it is not equal to a closely related and nonidentifiable causal effect, ψ, the probability that a randomly selected individual will have a larger response under treatment than under control (plus an adjustment for ties)...
May 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774571/clustering-and-variable-selection-in-the-presence-of-mixed-variable-types-and-missing-data
#14
C B Storlie, S M Myers, S K Katusic, A L Weaver, R G Voigt, P E Croarkin, R E Stoeckel, J D Port
We consider the problem of model-based clustering in the presence of many correlated, mixed continuous, and discrete variables, some of which may have missing values. Discrete variables are treated with a latent continuous variable approach, and the Dirichlet process is used to construct a mixture model with an unknown number of components. Variable selection is also performed to identify the variables that are most influential for determining cluster membership. The work is motivated by the need to cluster patients thought to potentially have autism spectrum disorder on the basis of many cognitive and/or behavioral test scores...
May 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774520/implantation-of-bioresorbable-scaffolds-under-guidance-of-optical-coherence-tomography-feasibility-and-pilot-clinical-results-of-a-systematic-protocol
#15
Juan Luis Gutiérrez-Chico, Carlos Cortés, Michele Schincariol, Ula Limon, Meric Yalcinli, María-Alexandra Durán-Cortés, Milosz Jaguszewski
BACKGROUND: We hypothesise that a comprehensive optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided implantation protocol for bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) might improve expansion and apposition, thus translating into better clinical outcomes, particularly reducing thrombotic events. METHODS: Patients considered suitable for BRS therapy in de novo coronary lesions underwent OCT. The predominant type of plaque was classified as lipidic, fibrous or calcific, undergoing tailored plaque preparation accordingly...
May 18, 2018: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773560/establishment-of-locally-adapted-mutations-under-divergent-selection
#16
Matteo Tomasini, Stephan Peischl
We study the establishment probabilities of locally adapted mutations using a multi-type branching process framework. We find a surprisingly simple and intuitive analytical approximation for the establishment probabilities in a symmetric two-deme model under the assumption of weak (positive) selection. This is the first analytical closed-form approximation for arbitrary migration rate to appear in the literature. We find that the establishment probability lies between the weak and the strong migration limits if we condition the origin of the mutation to the deme where it is advantageous...
May 17, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772538/targeting-fibroblast-activation-protein-in-cancer-prospects-and-caveats
#17
Petr Busek, Rosana Mateu, Michal Zubal, Lenka Kotackova, Aleksi Sedo
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP, seprase) is a serine protease with post-proline dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase enzymatic activity. FAP is upregulated in several tumor types, while its expression in healthy adult tissues is scarce. FAP molecule itself and FAP+ stromal cells play an important although probably context-dependent and tumor type-specific pathogenetic role in tumor progression. We provide an overview of FAP expression under both physiological and pathological conditions with focus on human malignancies...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772062/a-three-part-bayesian-network-for-modeling-dwelling-fires-and-their-impact-upon-people-and-property
#18
D B Matellini, A D Wall, I D Jenkinson, J Wang, R Pritchard
In the United Kingdom, dwelling fires are responsible for the majority of all fire-related fatalities. The development of these incidents involves the interaction of a multitude of variables that combine in many different ways. Consequently, assessment of dwelling fire risk can be complex, which often results in ambiguity during fire safety planning and decision making. In this article, a three-part Bayesian network model is proposed to study dwelling fires from ignition through to extinguishment in order to improve confidence in dwelling fire safety assessment...
May 17, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771458/preferential-cation-vacancies-in-perovskite-hydroxide-for-oxygen-evolution-reaction
#19
Shuangyin Wang, Dawei Chen, Man Qiao, Yingrui Lu, L I Hao, Dongdong Liu, Chungli Dong, Yafei Li
Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is an ideal model to study the relationship between the activity and the surface properties of catalysts. Defect engineering has been extensively developed to tune the electrocatalytic activity for OER. Compared to the anion vacancies in metal oxides, cation vacancies are more challenging to selectively generate, and the insight into the structure and activity of cation vacancies-rich catalysts are lacked. Herein, using SnCoFe perovskite hydroxide as precursors, we have preferentially produced abundant Sn vacancies on the surface by Ar plasma...
May 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771192/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-and-within-tree-distribution-of-mating-types-of-venturia-effusa-cause-of-pecan-scab-in-the-u-s-a
#20
Clive Bock, Carolyn Young, Katherine Stevenson, Nikki Charlton
Scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is the major disease of pecan in the southeastern U.S.A. There is no information available on the fine scale population genetic diversity, or the occurrence of clonal types at small spatial scales that provides insight into inoculum sources and dispersal mechanisms, and potential opportunity for sexual reproduction. To investigate fine scale genetic diversity, 4 trees (cv. Wichita = populations) were sampled hierarchically: within each tree canopy, 4 approximately evenly spaced terminals (subpopulations) were selected and up to 6 leaflets (sub-subpopulations) were sampled from different compound leaves on each terminal...
May 17, 2018: Phytopathology
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