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Estimating equation

Daniel Schwarzkopf, Carolin Fleischmann-Struzek, Hendrik Rüddel, Konrad Reinhart, Daniel O Thomas-Rüddel
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a major cause of preventable deaths in hospitals. Feasible and valid methods for comparing quality of sepsis care between hospitals are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a risk-adjustment model suitable for comparing sepsis-related mortality between German hospitals. METHODS: We developed a risk-model using national German claims data. Since these data are available with a time-lag of 1.5 years only, the stability of the model across time was investigated...
2018: PloS One
Mandip S Dhamoon, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Yeseon Moon, Janet DeRosa, Ralph Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on MRI are common and associated with vascular and functional outcomes. However, the relationship between WMHs and longitudinal trajectories of functional status is not well characterized. We hypothesized that whole brain WMHs are associated with functional decline independently of intervening clinical vascular events and other vascular risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), a population-based racially/ethnically diverse prospective cohort study, 1,290 stroke-free individuals underwent brain MRI and were followed afterwards for a mean 7...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Ghaneh Fananapazir, Robert Benzl, Michael T Corwin, Ling-Xin Chen, Junichiro Sageshima, Susan L Stewart, Christoph Troppmann
Purpose To determine whether the predonation computed tomography (CT)-based volume of the future remnant kidney is predictive of postdonation renal function in living kidney donors. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, retrospective, HIPAA-compliant study included 126 live kidney donors who had undergone predonation renal CT between January 2007 and December 2014 as well as 2-year postdonation measurement of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The whole kidney volume and cortical volume of the future remnant kidney were measured and standardized for body surface area (BSA)...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Yury I Kostyukevich, Alexey S Kononikhin, Igor A Popov, Eugene N Nikolaev
We present the accurate analytical solution obtained for the system of rate equations describing the isotope exchange process for molecule containing arbitrary number of equivalent labile atoms. The exact solution was obtained using Mathematica 7.0 software and this solution has the form of the time-dependent Gaussian distribution. For the case when forward exchange considerable overlaps the back exchange it is possible to estimate the activation energy of the reaction by obtaining a temperature dependence of the reaction degree...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Lisa B VanWagner, Samantha Montag, Lihui Zhao, Norrina B Allen, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Arighno Das, Anton I Skaro, Samuel Hohmann, John J Friedewald, Josh Levitsky
BACKGROUND: In the general population, even mild renal disease is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) complications. Whether this is true in liver transplant recipients (LTR) is unknown. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 671 LTR (2002-2012) from a large urban tertiary care center and 37,322 LTR using Vizient hospitalization data linked to the United Network for Organ Sharing. The MDRD4 equation estimated GFR (eGFR). Outcomes were 1-year CV complications (death/hospitalization from myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiac arrest, pulmonary embolism or stroke) and mortality...
March 20, 2018: Transplantation
Emily Shava, Lauren E Lipira, Geetha G Beauchamp, Deborah J Donnell, Shahin Lockman, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the role of opiate dependency treatment in risky sexual behavior could help optimize interventions for people who inject drugs (PWID). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether long-term medication-assisted treatment (LT-MAT) of opiate dependency with buprenorphine/naloxone influenced risky sexual behavior among HIV-uninfected PWID and identified predictors of risky sexual behavior. METHODS: We used data from HPTN058, a randomized controlled trial of LT-MAT vs...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sy-Miin Chow, Lu Ou, Arridhana Ciptadi, Emily B Prince, Dongjun You, Michael D Hunter, James M Rehg, Agata Rozga, Daniel S Messinger
A growing number of social scientists have turned to differential equations as a tool for capturing the dynamic interdependence among a system of variables. Current tools for fitting differential equation models do not provide a straightforward mechanism for diagnosing evidence for qualitative shifts in dynamics, nor do they provide ways of identifying the timing and possible determinants of such shifts. In this paper, we discuss regime-switching differential equation models, a novel modeling framework for representing abrupt changes in a system of differential equation models...
March 19, 2018: Psychometrika
Karina Franco-Paredes, Felipe J Díaz-Reséndiz, Carlos Alejandro Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Lilián Elizabeth Bosques-Brugada
The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate a causal model of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with different body composition. The participants were 209 adolescents (107 women and 102 men) ranging from 10 to 15 years of age. A model based on that proposed by Wilson and Cleary (JAMA 273(1):59-65, 1995) was elaborated. The body composition of the participants was analyzed. They were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires composed of the following factors: biological status (BS; included body mass index and weight), symptomatic psychological status (SPS; included the variables of drive for thinness and food concerns), functional status (FS; composed of physical activity, food consumption estimation, and socioeconomic status), and HRQoL, which included the dimensions of psychological well-being, autonomy and relationship with parents, social support and peers, and the academic environment...
March 20, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Philip L Richardson, Ewan D Wakefield, Richard A Phillips
Background: Albatrosses and other large seabirds use dynamic soaring to gain sufficient energy from the wind to travel large distances rapidly and with little apparent effort. The recent development of miniature bird-borne tracking devices now makes it possible to explore the physical and biological implications of this means of locomotion in detail. Here we use GPS tracking and concurrent reanalyzed wind speed data to model the flight performance of wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans soaring over the Southern Ocean...
2018: Movement Ecology
Montserrat Baldan-Martin, Juan A Lopez, Nerea Corbacho-Alonso, Paula J Martinez, Elena Rodriguez-Sanchez, Laura Mourino-Alvarez, Tamara Sastre-Oliva, Tatiana Martin-Rojas, Raul Rincón, Eva Calvo, Jesus Vazquez, Fernando Vivanco, Luis R Padial, Gloria Alvarez-Llamas, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, Luis M Ruilope, Maria G Barderas
The evaluation of cardiovascular (CV) risk is based on equations derived from epidemiological data in individuals beyond the limits of middle age such as the Framingham and SCORE risk assessments. Lifetime Risk calculator (QRisk® ), estimates CV risk throughout a subjects' lifetime, allowing those. A more aggressive and earlier intervention to be identified and offered protection from the consequences of CV and renal disease. The search for molecular profiles in young people that allow a correct stratification of CV risk would be of great interest to adopt preventive therapeutic measures in individuals at high CV risk...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
A V Bobylev
We consider in this paper the problem of derivation and regularization of higher (in Knudsen number) equations of hydrodynamics. The author's approach based on successive changes of hydrodynamic variables is presented in more detail for the Burnett level. The complete theory is briefly discussed for the linearized Boltzmann equation. It is shown that the best results in this case can be obtained by using the 'diagonal' equations of hydrodynamics. Rigorous estimates of accuracy of the Navier-Stokes and Burnett approximations are also presented...
April 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jingyuan Xie, Jicheng Lv, Weiming Wang, Guisen Li, Zhangsuo Liu, Hongyu Chen, Feifei Xu, Jing Sun, Yan Ouyang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Meng Yang, Manman Shi, Wen Zhang, Hong Ren, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Hong Zhang, Nan Chen
BACKGROUND: The clinical course of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) is highly variable, making it difficult to predict which patients are at risk for rapid progression. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a kidney failure risk prediction equation for adults with IgAN. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of 2,155 Chinese patients with IgAN. CANDIDATE PREDICTORS: Clinical and histology variables. OUTCOMES: Time to end-stage renal disease (ESRD)...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Benjamin W Chrisinger, Michael J Kallan, Eliza D Whiteman, Amy Hillier
Food shopping decisions are pathways between food environment, diet and health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The choices of where to shop and what to buy are interrelated, though a better understanding of this dynamic is needed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's nationally representative Food Acquisitions and Purchase Survey food-at-home dataset was joined with other databases of retailer characteristics and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) of purchases. We used linear regression models with general estimating equations to assess relationships between trip, store, and shopper characteristics with trip HEI scores...
March 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Hui-Wan Chuang, Chi-Wen Kao, Ming-Der Lee, Yue-Cune Chang
Depression is a common issue in institutionalized elderly people. The "Attentively Embracing Story" theory is applied to help individuals transform negative thoughts into positive, and reflect on spiritual healing. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a "Story-Centred Care Intervention Program" based on the "Attentively Embracing Story" theory in improving depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and heart rate variability in institutionalized elderly people. Seventy long-term care residents were recruited from two long-term care facilities and randomized into the story-centred care intervention (n = 35) and control groups (n = 35)...
2018: PloS One
Sankaran Sundaresan, Ali Ozel, Jari Kolehmainen
As multiscale structures are inherent in multiphase flows, constitutive models employed in conjunction with transport equations for momentum, species, and energy are scale dependent. We suggest that this scale dependency can be better quantified through deep learning techniques and formulation of transport equations for additional quantities such as drift velocity and analogies for species, energy, and momentum transfer. How one should incorporate interparticle forces, which arise through van der Waals interaction, dynamic liquid bridges between wet particles, and tribocharging, in multiscale models warrants further study...
March 19, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Mohammad Abu-Zaineh, Maame Esi Woode, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Interest in the Senian capability framework as an alternative approach to wellbeing measurement has increased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to look at the extent to which an individual's capability to achieve wellbeing in one dimension is associated with his or her attempt to achieve wellbeing in another dimension in a fragile setting affected by conflict. METHODS: Capability is defined as the ability to achieve health, knowledge, and wealth and is measured as latent variables using a structural equation model...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Feda Almurnak, Alaa Jaradah, Husam Hamdouna
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have reported that exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health problems in children. Results of studies have also shown a high prevalence (58-80%) of post-traumatic stress disorder in war-affected children living in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of perceived life satisfaction on the consequences of children's exposure to trauma and the balance of positive and negative affect...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Yair Lahav, Yoram Epstein, Ron Kedem, Haggai Schermann
Anthropometric measures of body composition are often used for rapid and cost-effective estimation of percentage body fat (%BF) in field research, serial measurements and screening. Our aim was to develop a validated estimate of %BF for the general population, based on simple body circumferences measures. The study cohort consisted of two consecutive samples of health club members, designated as 'development' (n 476, 61 % men, 39 % women) and 'validation' (n 224, 50 % men, 50 % women) groups. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements as part of their registration to a health club...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
J S Gomes, A P Trevizol, D V Ducos, A Gadelha, B B Ortiz, A O Fonseca, H T Akiba, C C Azevedo, L S P Guimaraes, P Shiozawa, Q Cordeiro, A Lacerda, A M Dias
Background: The lack of efficacy of pharmacological treatments for cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia highlights the need for new interventions. We investigated the effects of tDCS on working memory and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Method: Double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial, investigating the effects of 10 sessions of tDCS in schizophrenia subjects. Stimulation used 2 mA, for 20 min, with electrodes of 25 cm2 wrapped in cotton material soaked in saline solution...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Mana Biabani, Michael Farrell, Maryam Zoghi, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are frequently used to assess corticospinal and intercortical activities. Trial to trial variance of the potentials is commonly observed, and averages of multiple MEPs are usually reported. Multiple trials have resources implications and are not compatible with some experimental protocols. This study investigated the minimum number of MEPs required to reliably assess corticospinal excitability (CSE), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intercortical facilitation (ICF), within and between sessions...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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