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G P Chuiko, O V Dvornik, S I Shyian, Ye A Baganov
BACKGROUND: A new computer model for systolic pulse waves within the cardiovascular system is presented. The emphasis was made on blood stroke volume (BS). The new waveform for pulse wave demands the re-computing of the BS. The authors showed the applicability of suggested model for arterial aging problem. METHODS: Suggested model is based on the well-known Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. Instead of the common accepted solitary wave, the periodical cnoidal wave is used...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Michael J Cooney
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes, with a focus on their reaction rates. The study of an enzyme's kinetics considers the various stages of activity, reveals the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, correlates its value to assay conditions, and describes how a drug or a poison might inhibit the enzyme. Victor Henri initially reported that enzyme reactions were initiated by a bond between the enzyme and the substrate. By 1910, Michaelis and Menten were advancing their work by studying the kinetics of an enzyme saccharase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chansik An, Hyungjin Rhee, Kyunghwa Han, Jin-Young Choi, Young-Nyun Park, Mi-Suk Park, Myeong-Jin Kim, Sumi Park
OBJECTIVES: To examine the added value of considering smooth hypointense rim in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI as capsule appearance for diagnosing tumour capsules and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A total of 377 hepatic lesions (330 HCCs, 35 non-HCC malignancies and 12 benign) were included from 345 patients who underwent resection after MRI between January 2008 and December 2011. Two radiologists assessed the presence or absence of conventional capsule appearance and smooth hypointense rim in the HBP, and categorized each hepatic lesion according to the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System...
October 21, 2016: European Radiology
Joseph S Domino, Jonggyu Baek, William J Meurer, Nelda Garcia, Lewis B Morgenstern, Morgan Campbell, Lynda D Lisabeth
OBJECTIVE: To explore temporal trends in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in a biethnic community without an academic medical center and variation in trends by age, sex, ethnicity, and stroke severity. METHODS: Cases of AIS were identified from 7 hospitals in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, a population-based surveillance study between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2012. tPA, demographics, and stroke severity as assessed by the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were ascertained from medical records...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Magnolia Cardona-Morrell, Amanda Chapman, Robin M Turner, Ebony Lewis, Blanca Gallego-Luxan, Michael Parr, Ken Hillman
AIM: To investigate associations between clinical parameters - beyond the evident physiological deterioration and limitations of medical treatment - with in-hospital death for patients receiving Rapid Response System (RRS) attendances. METHODS: Retrospective case-control analysis of clinical parameters for 328 patients aged 60 years and above at their last RRS call during admission to a single teaching hospital in the 2012-2013 calendar years. Generalised estimating equation modelling was used to compare the deceased with a randomly selected sample of those who had RRS calls and survived admission (controls), matched by age group, sex, and hospital ward...
October 18, 2016: Resuscitation
Ricardo Pagan
BACKGROUND: Although sleep is considered an essential part of individuals' lives, there are no previous studies analysing how sleep duration affects the levels of life satisfaction reported by males and females with disabilities. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To analyse and compare the impact of hours of sleep on life satisfaction scores reported by people without and with disabilities (stratified by sex) in Germany. METHODS: Using data taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2008-2013, we estimate life satisfaction equations for males and females (running a fixed-effects model) which include a set of variables measuring the number of sleep hours on workdays and weekends...
October 11, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Jaweed Haqparwar, Antonio Pepe, Klaus Fassbender, Ulrich Dillmann, Samer Ezziddin, Andrea Schaefer, Daniela Leppert, Jörg Spiegel
INTRODUCTION: Alpha-synuclein pathology (ASP) is a characteristic histopathological finding in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The ASP involves not only the brain but also extracranial structures. In the present study we utilized MIBG scintigraphy to measure the sympathetic innervation of the major salivary glands. We were interested in whether MIBG uptake in the major salivary glands represents a potential biomarker for ASP in PD. METHODS: We investigated 77 PD patients (age 61 ± 10 years, mean ± SD), while 15 non-PD patients (age 58 ± 15 years) with arterial hypertension, who underwent MIBG scintigraphy to exclude pheochromocytoma, served as age-matched controls...
October 15, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Alena Škodová, Roman Prokeš, Zdeněk Šimek, Branislav Vrana
In situ extraction of steroid hormones from waste water using adsorption-based integrative passive samplers represents a promising approach for their monitoring in water at ultra-trace concentrations. Three passive samplers, namely a POCIS, a Chemcatcher fitted with an Empore SDB-RPS disk, and an Empore SDB-RPS disk-based sampler with enhanced water flow, were calibrated in situ in treated municipal wastewater for the purpose of monitoring five estrogens (17-β-estradiol, 17-α-estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, estrone and estriol) at sub ng per litre concentrations...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Bram Thijssen, Tjeerd M H Dijkstra, Tom Heskes, Lodewyk F A Wessels
BACKGROUND: Computational models in biology are characterized by a large degree of uncertainty. This uncertainty can be analyzed with Bayesian statistics, however, the sampling algorithms that are frequently used for calculating Bayesian statistical estimates are computationally demanding, and each algorithm has unique advantages and disadvantages. It is typically unclear, before starting an analysis, which algorithm will perform well on a given computational model. RESULTS: We present BCM, a toolkit for the Bayesian analysis of Computational Models using samplers...
October 21, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
Tong Zhao, Lingxiao Yang, Weida Yan, Junmei Zhang, Wei Lu, Yumeng Yang, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang
Daytime and night-time PM1 and PM2.5 samples were simultaneously collected at the summit of Mount Tai during summer and autumn 2014. The mass concentrations and chemical compositions were analysed to determine the temporal variations of PM1 and PM2.5 and their contributions to visibility impairment. In summer, the average mass concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were 38.16μg/m(3) and 53.33μg/m(3), respectively. In autumn, the values were 42.75μg/m(3) and 59.16μg/m(3). Water-soluble inorganic ions were the most abundant species in both PM1 and PM2...
October 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Deanna Gray-Miceli, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Arwin Thomasson, Patricia Quigley, Kang Li, William Craelius
BACKGROUND: Patients at greatest risk for fall-related injuries are older adults with orthostatic hypotension (OH), a condition which drops blood pressure. This study sought to determine salient demographic and patient-level factors increasing risk for OH among a sample of elderly fallers. METHODS: Data analysis for this retrospective study sought to assess the relationship between various demographic and clinical risk factors and the likelihood of OH. Because fallers could experience multiple falls, generalized estimating equations were used to account for patient-level correlations...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
C Steensma, L Loukine, H Orpana, L McRae, J Vachon, F Mo, M Boileau-Falardeau, C Reid, B C Choi
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have evaluated the impact of depression in terms of losses to both premature mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on the overall population. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is a summary measure of population health that combines both morbidity and mortality into a single summary statistic that describes the current health status of a population. METHODS: We estimated HALE for the Canadian adult population according to depression status...
October 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Vinicius A Sortica, Juliana D Lindenau, Maristela G Cunha, Maria DO Ohnishi, Ana Maria R Ventura, Ândrea Kc Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Sidney Eb Santos, Luciano Sp Guimarães, Mara H Hutz
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine/primaquine is the current therapy to eliminate Plasmodium vivax infection in the Amazon region. AIMS: This study investigates CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms influence on cloroquine/primaquine treatment. PATIENTS & METHODS: Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed to determine the genetic influence in parasitemia and/or gametocytemia clearance over treatment time in 164 patients...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
Marisa Elena Domino, Mona Kilany, Rebecca Wells, Joseph P Morrissey
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether medical homes have heterogeneous effects in different subpopulations, leveraging the interpretations from a variety of statistical techniques. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary claims data from the NC Medicaid program for 2004-2007. The sample included all adults with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression who were not dually enrolled in Medicare or in a nursing facility. STUDY DESIGN: We modeled a number of monthly service use, adherence, and expenditure outcomes using fixed effects, generalized estimating equation with and without inverse probability of treatment weights, and instrumental variables analyses...
October 21, 2016: Health Services Research
Ahmad Ainurofiq, Syaiful Choiri, Muhamad Ali Azhari, Chaterin Romauli Siagian, Bambang Budi Suryadi, Fea Prihapsara, Sholichah Rohmani
Purpose: The aim of this research was to formulate and develop an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) that incorporated a MEL/β-CD complex, using a quality by design (QbD) approach to enhance solubility and drug release. Methods: Multiple regression linear analysis was conducted to develop the kneading process and ODT formulation. Mixing time and amount of solvent were used as independent variables in kneading process optimisation, while the superdisintegrants were used to obtain the desired formulation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were performed for complex characterization...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Richard M Schumacher, Jana L Arabas, Jerry L Mayhew, William F Brechue
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inter-investigator differences in anthropometric assessments on the prediction of one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press in college football players. Division-II players (n = 34, age = 20.4 ± 1.2 y, 182.3 ± 6.6 cm, 99.1 ± 18.4 kg) were measured for selected anthropometric variables and 1RM bench press at the conclusion of a heavy resistance training program. Triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfolds were measured in triplicate by three investigators and used to estimate %fat...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Taizo Mori, Torsten Hegmann
ABSTRACT: Size, shape, overall composition, and surface functionality largely determine the properties and applications of metal nanoparticles. Aside from well-defined metal clusters, their composition is often estimated assuming a quasi-spherical shape of the nanoparticle core. With decreasing diameter of the assumed circumscribed sphere, particularly in the range of only a few nanometers, the estimated nanoparticle composition increasingly deviates from the real composition, leading to significant discrepancies between anticipated and experimentally observed composition, properties, and characteristics...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
C Huxley, J Achten, M L Costa, F Griffiths, X L Griffin
OBJECTIVES: The annual incidence of hip fracture is 620 000 in the European Union. The cost of this clinical problem has been estimated at 1.75 million disability-adjusted life years lost, equating to 1.4% of the total healthcare burden in established market economies. Recent guidance from The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) states that research into the clinical and cost effectiveness of total hip arthroplasty (THA) as a treatment for hip fracture is a priority...
October 2016: Bone & Joint Research
Hans Pottel, Liesbeth Hoste, Eric Yayo, Pierre Delanaye
BACKGROUND: Normal kidney function or, more specifically, normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in men and women and its decline with age is still much debated today. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation has gender (and race) multiplication factors, accounts for a decline that starts at very young age and assumes that the mean GFR is as high as 120-130 ml/min/1.73 m2 from a young age. The full age spectrum (FAS) estimated mean GFR is about 107 ml/min/1...
October 21, 2016: Nephron
Jennifer H MacLachlan, Benjamin C Cowie
Background: The Department of Health and Human Services in Victoria provides funded hepatitis B vaccine to many priority groups at risk of acquiring infection. We aimed to determine the uptake of vaccine ordering for at-risk groups over time, to assess any trends and identify any gaps in prevention of hepatitis B for those at risk. Methods: Routinely collected administrative data regarding the indication for vaccine ordered by practitioners were analysed for the period June 2013 to December 2014. Number of doses and courses distributed was determined and compared with the estimated size of the priority populations...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
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