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Biostatistics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102741/tutorial-on-biostatistics-linear-regression-analysis-of-continuous-correlated-eye-data
#1
Gui-Shuang Ying, Maureen G Maguire, Robert Glynn, Bernard Rosner
PURPOSE: To describe and demonstrate appropriate linear regression methods for analyzing correlated continuous eye data. METHODS: We describe several approaches to regression analysis involving both eyes, including mixed effects and marginal models under various covariance structures to account for inter-eye correlation. We demonstrate, with SAS statistical software, applications in a study comparing baseline refractive error between one eye with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the unaffected fellow eye, and in a study determining factors associated with visual field in the elderly...
January 19, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097842/in-hospital-capacity-building-in-research-and-management-for-pediatric-professionals
#2
Graciela Demirdjian, Susana Rodríguez, Juan C Vassallo, Vilma Irazola, Josefa Rodríguez
We describe an educational strategy aimed at capacity-building of hospital health care professionals in research and management initiated at a pediatric hospital in 2006, and the results obtained eight years after its implementation. Research and Management in Pediatrics (GIP) is an annual 250-hour course combining meetings and off-site assignments delivered through the Hospital's on-line campus. It provides students with practical tools for research (epidemiology, methodology, bibliographic search, evidencebased medicine, biostatistics) and management (strategic planning, management programs, health services research, quality improvement, health economics)...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097472/proceedings-of-the-third-international-molecular-pathological-epidemiology-mpe-meeting
#3
REVIEW
Peter T Campbell, Timothy R Rebbeck, Reiko Nishihara, Andrew H Beck, Colin B Begg, Alexei A Bogdanov, Yin Cao, Helen G Coleman, Gordon J Freeman, Yujing J Heng, Curtis Huttenhower, Rafael A Irizarry, N Sertac Kip, Franziska Michor, Daniel Nevo, Ulrike Peters, Amanda I Phipps, Elizabeth M Poole, Zhi Rong Qian, John Quackenbush, Harlan Robins, Peter K Rogan, Martha L Slattery, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Mingyang Song, Tyler J VanderWeele, Daniel Xia, Emily C Zabor, Xuehong Zhang, Molin Wang, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is a transdisciplinary and relatively new scientific discipline that integrates theory, methods, and resources from epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. The underlying objective of MPE research is to better understand the etiology and progression of complex and heterogeneous human diseases with the goal of informing prevention and treatment efforts in population health and clinical medicine. Although MPE research has been commonly applied to investigating breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, its methodology can be used to study most diseases...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039181/sports-biostatistician-a-critical-member-of-all-sports-science-and-medicine-teams-for-injury-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Martí Casals, Caroline F Finch
Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted...
December 30, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029654/abcg2-confers-promotion-in-gastric-cancer-through-modulating-downstream-crkl-in-vitro-combining-with-biostatistics-mining
#5
Junqing Wang, Zhou Yunyun, Lu Wang, Xuehua Chen, Zhenggang Zhu
ABCG2, member of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, is known as crucial regulator related to multi-drug resistance in human tumors and has recently been putatively studied as human carcinoma cell biomarker. While, effects of ABCG2 on human gastric cancer (GC) has not been illustrated thoroughly. In this study, by applying biostatistics mining methods, we observed that ABCG2 is frequently aberrantly expressed in GC patients through exploring dataset of GSE19826 in NCBI GEO database. Contemporary, extreme up-regulation of ABCG2 was discovered in both GC specimens and cell lines of our center, from which we observed high level of ABCG2 associated with GC clinicopathologic features and poor outcomes...
December 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991573/porcine-circovirus-type-2-pcv2-evolution-before-and-after-the-vaccination-introduction-a-large-scale-epidemiological-study
#6
Giovanni Franzo, Claudia Maria Tucciarone, Mattia Cecchinato, Michele Drigo
Since their commercialization, vaccines against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) have been the cornerstone control strategy. Nevertheless, the periodic emergence of new genotype waves and the recent reports of vaccine failure outbreaks have raised the question if widespread vaccination strategies could have driven viral evolution and affected different genotype fitness. To investigate this issue an in-deep analysis, based on a bioinformatics and biostatistics approach, has been implemented. ORF2 sequences from vaccinated and non-vaccinated populations (i...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987293/diagnostic-testing-in-the-context-of-high-value-care-incorporating-prior-probability
#7
Lucien Cardinal
This is the fifth article of a series on fundamental concepts in biostatistics and research. In this article, the author reviews the fundamental concepts in diagnostic testing, prior probability and predictive value, and how they relate to the concept of high-value care. The topics are discussed in common language with a minimum of jargon and mathematics. Emphasis is given to conceptual understanding. A companion article preceding this one focused on sensitivity and specificity.
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968881/a-smartphone-based-exercise-adherence-intervention-for-people-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-feasibility-pilot-study
#8
Janet Wh Sit, Sek-Ying Chair, Stanley Sc Hui, Kai-Chow Choi, Aileen Wk Chan, Eliza Ml Wong, Ho-Yu Cheng
BACKGROUND: Despite well-established benefits of exercise in the management of metabolic syndrome, evidence to support exercise adherence after program completion is lacking. We used a smartphone-based exercise adherence intervention (Virtual Trainer; Ex-VT) for adults with metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong, China. The objectives were to measure the feasibility, potential effectiveness, and implementation of Ex-VT in sustaining prescribed exercise practice for risk reduction in metabolic syndrome...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958618/morphokinetic-parameters-as-a-source-of-information-concerning-embryo-developmental-and-implantation-potential
#9
Robert Milewski, Jan Czerniecki, Agnieszka Kuczyńska, Bożena Stankiewicz, Waldemar Kuczyński
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to present the results of time-lapse observation and to verify whether morphokinetic parameters are associated with embryo developmental and implantation potential. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysed data concern the development of 1,060 embryos, 898 of which (84.72%) achieved the blastocyst stage and 307 were transferred into the uterine cavity. As a result, 126 (41.04%) biochemical pregnancies and 109 (35.50%) clinical pregnancies were observed...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955791/persistence-and-clearance-of-ebola-virus-rna-from-seminal-fluid-of-ebola-virus-disease-survivors-a-longitudinal-analysis-and-modelling-study
#10
Daouda Sissoko, Sophie Duraffour, Romy Kerber, Jacques Seraphin Kolie, Abdoul Habib Beavogui, Alseny-Modet Camara, Géraldine Colin, Toni Rieger, Lisa Oestereich, Bernadett Pályi, Stephanie Wurr, Jeremie Guedj, Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Rosalind M Eggo, Conall H Watson, W John Edmunds, Joseph Akoi Bore, Fara Raymond Koundouno, Mar Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Lisa L Carter, Liana Eleni Kafetzopoulou, Eeva Kuisma, Janine Michel, Livia Victoria Patrono, Natasha Y Rickett, Katrin Singethan, Martin Rudolf, Angelika Lander, Elisa Pallasch, Sabrina Bockholt, Estefanía Rodríguez, Antonino Di Caro, Roman Wölfel, Martin Gabriel, Céline Gurry, Pierre Formenty, Sakoba Keïta, Denis Malvy, Miles W Carroll, Xavier Anglaret, Stephan Günther
BACKGROUND: By January, 2016, all known transmission chains of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in west Africa had been stopped. However, there is concern about persistence of Ebola virus in the reproductive tract of men who have survived EVD. We aimed to use biostatistical modelling to describe the dynamics of Ebola virus RNA load in seminal fluid, including clearance parameters. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we recruited men who had been discharged from three Ebola treatment units in Guinea between January and July, 2015...
January 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930363/upregulated-mir-16-expression-is-an-independent-indicator-of-relapse-and-poor-overall-survival-of-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-patients
#11
Marios A Diamantopoulos, Christos K Kontos, Dimitrios Kerimis, Iordanis N Papadopoulos, Andreas Scorilas
BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenocarcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among adults in Western countries. miR-16 is heavily involved in cancer progression. In this study, we examined the potential diagnostic and prognostic utility of miR-16 expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from 182 colorectal adenocarcinoma specimens and 86 non-cancerous colorectal mucosae...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922622/the-natural-course-of-spinal-cord-injury-changes-over-40-years-among-those-with-exceptional-survival
#12
J S Krause, J C Newman, J M R Clark, M Dunn
OBJECTIVES: To identify 40-year longitudinal changes in health, activity, employment, life satisfaction and self-rated adjustment after spinal cord injury. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal, mailed self-report. METHODS: Participants were identified from outpatient records of a Midwestern USA university hospital in 1973. Follow-ups were conducted in 1984 and approximate 10-year intervals thereafter. A total of 49 participants completed each of the five assessments...
December 6, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912797/helminth-infections-and-gut-microbiota-a-feline-perspective
#13
Ana M Duarte, Timothy P Jenkins, Maria S Latrofa, Alessio Giannelli, Elias Papadopoulos, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Matthew J Nolan, Domenico Otranto, Cinzia Cantacessi
BACKGROUND: Investigations of the relationships between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes are attracting growing interest by the scientific community, driven by the need to better understand the contribution of parasite-associated changes in the composition of the gut flora to both host malnutrition and immune modulation. These studies have however been carried out mainly in humans and experimental animals, while knowledge of the make-up of the gut commensal flora in presence or absence of infection by parasitic nematodes in domestic animals is limited...
December 3, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911589/recommended-reading-from-university-of-georgia-department-of-epidemiology-and-biostatistics-fellows
#14
Leonardo Martinez, María Eugenia Castellanos, Benjamin D Hallowell, Christopher C Whalen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904175/biostatistics-series-module-6-correlation-and-linear-regression
#15
Avijit Hazra, Nithya Gogtay
Correlation and linear regression are the most commonly used techniques for quantifying the association between two numeric variables. Correlation quantifies the strength of the linear relationship between paired variables, expressing this as a correlation coefficient. If both variables x and y are normally distributed, we calculate Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). If normality assumption is not met for one or both variables in a correlation analysis, a rank correlation coefficient, such as Spearman's rho (ρ) may be calculated...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902575/veterans-voice-through-the-lens-of-their-medical-records-what-it-reveals-about-congestive-heart-failure-readmissions
#16
Carl W Stevenson, Kattie Payne
PURPOSE OF STUDY: The medical record is a sea of information that can reveal what patients are trying to tell us about their health condition. It can reveal hints and trends as to why veterans with congestive heart failure (CHF) are being readmitted within 30 days after hospital discharge. These hints and trends lead caregivers to key contributing variables to veterans' readmission. Furthermore, these variables can be used to predict patient outcomes such as readmission and even prognosis...
January 2017: Professional Case Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881428/genome-transcriptome-and-proteome-the-rise-of-omics-data-and-their-integration-in-biomedical-sciences
#17
Claudia Manzoni, Demis A Kia, Jana Vandrovcova, John Hardy, Nicholas W Wood, Patrick A Lewis, Raffaele Ferrari
Advances in the technologies and informatics used to generate and process large biological data sets (omics data) are promoting a critical shift in the study of biomedical sciences. While genomics, transcriptomics and proteinomics, coupled with bioinformatics and biostatistics, are gaining momentum, they are still, for the most part, assessed individually with distinct approaches generating monothematic rather than integrated knowledge. As other areas of biomedical sciences, including metabolomics, epigenomics and pharmacogenomics, are moving towards the omics scale, we are witnessing the rise of inter-disciplinary data integration strategies to support a better understanding of biological systems and eventually the development of successful precision medicine...
November 22, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876072/high-specificity-bioinformatics-framework-for-epigenomic-profiling-of-discordant-twins-reveals-specific-and-shared-markers-for-acpa-and-acpa-positive-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
David Gomez-Cabrero, Malin Almgren, Louise K Sjöholm, Aase H Hensvold, Mikael V Ringh, Rakel Tryggvadottir, Juha Kere, Annika Scheynius, Nathalie Acevedo, Lovisa Reinius, Margaret A Taub, Carolina Montano, Martin J Aryee, Jason I Feinberg, Andrew P Feinberg, Jesper Tegnér, Lars Klareskog, Anca I Catrina, Tomas J Ekström
BACKGROUND: Twin studies are powerful models to elucidate epigenetic modifications resulting from gene-environment interactions. Yet, commonly a limited number of clinical twin samples are available, leading to an underpowered situation afflicted with false positives and hampered by low sensitivity. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation data from two small sets of monozygotic twins representing different phases during the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to find novel genes for further research...
November 22, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876014/prenatal-diagnosis-in-sweden-2011-to-2013-a-register-based-study
#19
Kerstin Petersson, Marie Lindkvist, Margareta Persson, Peter Conner, Annika Åhman, Ingrid Mogren
BACKGROUND: Prenatal diagnosis involves methods used in early pregnancy as either screening tests or diagnostic methods. The aims of the study were to i) investigate guidelines on prenatal diagnosis in the counties of Sweden, ii) investigate uptake of prenatal diagnosis, and iii) background characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in relation to different prenatal diagnostic methods. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study using data from the Swedish Pregnancy Register 2011 to 2013 (284,789 pregnancies) was performed...
November 22, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829380/design-and-development-of-the-australian-and-new-zealand-anz-myeloma-and-related-diseases-registry
#20
Krystal Bergin, Elizabeth Moore, Zoe McQuilten, Erica Wood, Bradley Augustson, Hilary Blacklock, Joy Ho, Noemi Horvath, Tracy King, John McNeil, Peter Mollee, Hang Quach, Christopher M Reid, Brian Rosengarten, Patricia Walker, Andrew Spencer
BACKGROUND: Plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) are a spectrum of disorders resulting from the clonal expansion of plasma cells, ranging from the pre-malignant condition monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to multiple myeloma (MM). MM generates a significant burden of disease on the community and it is predicted that it will increase in both incidence and prevalence owing to an ageing population and longer survival secondary to new therapeutic options. Robust and comprehensive clinical data are currently lacking but are required to define current diagnostic, investigational and management patterns in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) for comparison to both local and international guidelines for standards of care...
November 9, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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