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Biostatistics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146653/identifying-bioethical-issues-in-biostatistical-consulting-findings-from-a-us-national-pilot-survey-of-biostatisticians
#1
Min Qi Wang, Alice F Yan, Ralph V Katz
OBJECTIVES: The overall purposes of this first US national pilot study were to (1) test the feasibility of online administration of the Bioethical Issues in Biostatistical Consulting (BIBC) Questionnaire to a random sample of American Statistical Association (ASA) members; (2) determine the prevalence and relative severity of a broad array of bioethical violations requests that are presented to biostatisticians by investigators seeking biostatistical consultations; and (3) establish the sample size needed for a full-size phase II study...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140486/the-national-cancer-institute-s-conference-on-acupuncture-for-symptom-management-in-oncology-state-of-the-science-evidence-and-research-gaps
#2
Farah Z Zia, Oluwadamilola Olaku, Ting Bao, Ann Berger, Gary Deng, Arthur Yin Fan, Mary K Garcia, Patricia M Herman, Ted J Kaptchuk, Elena J Ladas, Helene M Langevin, Lixing Lao, Weidong Lu, Vitaly Napadow, Richard C Niemtzow, Andrew J Vickers, Xin Shelley Wang, Claudia M Witt, Jun J Mao
The Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine, at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a symposium on "Acupuncture for Cancer Symptom Management" on June 16 and 17, 2016. Invited speakers included 19 scientists and scholars with expertise in acupuncture and cancer research from the United States, Europe, and China. The conference reviewed the NCI's grant funding on acupuncture, analyzed the needs of cancer patients, reviewed safety issues, and assessed both the current scientific evidence and research gaps of acupuncture in oncology care...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126825/artificial-intelligence-in-medical-practice-the-question-to-the-answer
#3
REVIEW
D Douglas Miller, Eric W Brown
Computer science advances and ultra-fast computing speeds find artificial intelligence (AI) broadly benefitting modern society - forecasting weather, recognizing faces, detecting fraud, and deciphering genomics. AI's future role in medical practice remains an unanswered question. Machines (computers) learn to detect patterns not decipherable using biostatistics by processing massive datasets (big data) through layered mathematical models (algorithms). Correcting algorithm mistakes (training) adds to AI predictive model confidence...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126153/an-empirical-bayes-test-for-allelic-imbalance-detection-in-chip-seq
#4
Qi Zhang, Sündüz Keles
Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) has enabled discovery of genomic regions enriched with biological signals such as transcription factor binding and histone modifications. Allelic-imbalance (ALI) detection is a complementary analysis of ChIP-seq data for associating biological signals with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It has been successfully used in elucidating functional roles of non-coding SNPs. Commonly used statistical approaches for ALI detection are often based on binomial testing and mixture models, both of which rely on strong assumptions on the distribution of the unobserved allelic probability, and have significant practical shortcomings...
November 3, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120700/basket-studies-redefining-clinical-trials-in-the-era-of-genome-driven-oncology
#5
Jessica J Tao, Alison M Schram, David M Hyman
Understanding a tumor's detailed molecular profile has become increasingly necessary to deliver the standard of care for patients with advanced cancer. Innovations in both tumor genomic sequencing technology and the development of drugs that target molecular alterations have fueled recent gains in genome-driven oncology care. "Basket studies," or histology-agnostic clinical trials in genomically selected patients, represent one important research tool to continue making progress in this field. We review key aspects of genome-driven oncology care, including the purpose and utility of basket studies, biostatistical considerations in trial design, genomic knowledge-base development, and patient matching and enrollment models, which are critical for translating our genomic knowledge into clinically meaningful outcomes...
November 8, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113107/redesigning-journal-clubs-to-staying-current-with-the-literature
#6
Roland N Dickerson, G Christopher Wood, Joseph M Swanson, Rex O Brown
Staying current with the literature is of paramount importance to the pharmacist engaged in an evidence-based clinical practice. Given the expanding roles and responsibilities of today's pharmacists combined with exponential growth in new medical and health sciences literature, staying current has become an extremely daunting task. Traditional journal clubs have focused upon their role as a training vehicle for teaching critical reading skills to residents. However, schools of pharmacy are now required to provide instruction in biostatistics, research design, and interpretation...
November 6, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109567/design-implementation-and-outcomes-of-a-three-week-pharmacy-bridging-course
#7
Jacqueline E McLaughlin, Julia Khanova, Adam Persky, Nathaniel Hathaway, Wendy Cox
Objective. To evaluate the design, implementation, and outcomes of a three-week pharmacy bridging course (PBC) covering five math and science areas for first-year doctor of pharmacy students in fall 2015. Methods. Each topic was taught as a separate module. All five modules used pre- and post-module assessments to measure student knowledge and confidence. Course grades for subsequent first-year courses (PY1) were collected to examine relationships between PBC and PY1 courses. Results. Scores on the post-knowledge assessments increased for all five subject areas compared to scores on pre-PBC knowledge assessments...
September 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094100/primary-prevention-of-cervical-cancer-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-resource-stratified-guideline
#8
Silvina Arrossi, Sarah Temin, Suzanne Garland, Linda O'Neal Eckert, Neerja Bhatla, Xavier Castellsagué, Sharifa Ezat Alkaff, Tamika Felder, Doudja Hammouda, Ryo Konno, Gilberto Lopes, Emmanuel Mugisha, Rául Murillo, Isabel C Scarinci, Margaret Stanley, Vivien Tsu, Cosette M Wheeler, Isaac Folorunso Adewole, Silvia de Sanjosé
Purpose: To provide resource-stratified (four tiers), evidence-based recommendations on the primary prevention of cervical cancer globally. Methods: The American Society of Clinical Oncology convened a multidisciplinary, multinational panel of oncology, obstetrics/gynecology, public health, cancer control, epidemiology/biostatistics, health economics, behavioral/implementation science, and patient advocacy experts. The Expert Panel reviewed existing guidelines and conducted a modified ADAPTE process and a formal consensus-based process with additional experts (consensus ratings group) for one round of formal ratings...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056858/innovative-partnerships-to-advance-public-health-training-in-community-based-academic-residency-programs
#9
Joan C Lo, Thomas E Baudendistel, Abhay Dandekar, Phuoc V Le, Stanton Siu, Bruce Blumberg
Collaborative partnerships between community-based academic residency training programs and schools of public health, represent an innovative approach to training future physician leaders in population management and public health. In Kaiser Permanente Northern California, development of residency-Masters in Public Health (MPH) tracks in the Internal Medicine Residency and the Pediatrics Residency programs, with MPH graduate studies completed at the University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, enables physicians to integrate clinical training with formal education in epidemiology, biostatistics, health policy, and disease prevention...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018043/educational-added-value-unit-development-and-testing-of-a-measure-for-educational-activities
#10
Amy B Guiot, Eric S Kirkendall, Craig H Gosdin, Samir S Shah, Dominick J DeBlasio, Katie A Meier, Jennifer K O'Toole
OBJECTIVES: University-based hospitalists educate health care professionals as an expectation, often lacking time and support for these activities. The purpose of this study was to (1) develop a tracking tool to record educational activities, (2) demonstrate its applicability and ease of completion for faculty members in different divisions, and (3) compare educational efforts of individuals from different professional pathways and divisions by using the educational added value unit (EAVU)...
October 10, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979004/summary-and-synthesis-how-to-present-a-research-proposal
#11
Maninder Singh Setia, Saumya Panda
This concluding module attempts to synthesize the key learning points discussed during the course of the previous ten sets of modules on methodology and biostatistics. The objective of this module is to discuss how to present a model research proposal, based on whatever was discussed in the preceding modules. The lynchpin of a research proposal is the protocol, and the key component of a protocol is the study design. However, one must not neglect the other areas, be it the project summary through which one catches the eyes of the reviewer of the proposal, or the background and the literature review, or the aims and objectives of the study...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975369/blended-learning-is-an-effective-strategy-for-acquiring-competence-in-public-health-biostatistics
#12
Natasa Milic, Srdjan Masic, Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Goran Trajkovic, Jelena Marinkovic, Jelena Milin-Lazovic, Zoran Bukumiric, Marko Savic, Andja Cirkovic, Milan Gajic, Dejana Stanisavljevic
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether blended learning is an effective strategy for acquiring competence in public health biostatistics. METHODS: The trial was conducted with 69 Masters' students of public health attending the School of Public Health at University of Belgrade. Students were exposed to the traditional and blended learning styles. Blended learning included a combination of face-to-face and distance learning methodologies integrated into a single course...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945839/validation-of-a-new-prognostic-model-to-easily-predict-outcome-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-the-grant-score-applied-to-the-assure-trial-population
#13
S Buti, M Puligandla, M Bersanelli, R S DiPaola, J Manola, S Taguchi, N B Haas
Background: Prognostic scores have been developed to estimate the risk of recurrence and the probability of survival after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The use of these tools, despite being helpful to plan a customized schedule of follow-up, to the patient's tailored counselling and to select individuals who could potentially benefit from adjuvant treatment, currently is not routine, due to their relative complexity and to the lack of histological data (i.e. necrosis). Patients and methods: We developed a simple score called GRade, Age, Nodes and Tumor (GRANT) based on four easily obtained parameters: Fuhrman grade, age, pathological nodal status and pathological tumor size...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938152/comparison-of-manual-and-automated-ampliseq%C3%A2-workflows-in-the-typing-of-a-somali-population-with-the-precision-id-identity-panel
#14
Suzanne van der Heijden, Susanne Juel de Oliveira, Marie-Louise Kampmann, Claus Børsting, Niels Morling
The Precision ID Identity Panel was used to type 109 Somali individuals in order to obtain allele frequencies for the Somali population. These frequencies were used to establish a Somali HID-SNP database, which will be used for the biostatistic calculations in family and immigration cases. Genotypes obtained with the Precision ID Identity Panel were found to be almost in complete concordance with genotypes obtained with the SNPforID PCR-SBE-CE assay. In seven SNP loci, silent alleles were identified, of which most were previously described in the literature...
September 14, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937359/chi-square-and-fisher-s-exact-tests-from-the-biostatistics-and-epidemiology-lecture-series-part-1
#15
Amy Nowacki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937358/basics-of-study-design-practical-considerations-from-the-biostatistics-and-epidemiology-lecture-series-part-1
#16
Robert L Chatburn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937357/the-architecture-of-clinical-research-from-the-biostatistics-and-epidemiology-lecture-series-part-1
#17
James K Stoller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937356/introduction-biostatistics-and-epidemiology-lecture-series-part-1
#18
Aanchal Kapoor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929372/clinical-equivalence-with-g-csf-biosimilars-methodologic-approach-in-a-neo-adjuvant-setting-in-non-metastatic-breast-cancer
#19
REVIEW
A Krendyukov, M Schiestl, N Höbel, M Aapro
Biosimilars are biological medicines that have been shown to be similar to a reference biological medicine that has already been approved for use. Development of biosimilars is based on a "totality of evidence" approach that involves a series of steps by which biosimilars must demonstrate similarity to a reference product in all aspects of the drug and eliminate any remaining uncertainties. Clinical studies are then considered confirmatory and are performed to show that there are no clinically meaningful differences compared with the reference product in a sensitive patient population...
September 20, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926390/misconceptions-misuses-and-misinterpretations-of-p-values-and-significance-testing
#20
Joel J Gagnier, Hal Morgenstern
The interpretation and reporting of p values and significance testing in biomedical research are fraught with misconceptions and inaccuracies. Publications of peer-reviewed research in orthopaedics are not immune to such problems. The American Statistical Association (ASA) recently published an official statement on the use, misuse, and misinterpretation of statistical testing and p values in applied research. The ASA statement discussed 6 principles: (1) "P-values can indicate how incompatible the data are with a specified statistical model...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
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