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Biostatistics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319603/population-neuroscience-dementia-epidemiology-serving-precision-medicine-and-population-health
#1
Mary Ganguli, Emiliano Albanese, Sudha Seshadri, David A Bennett, Constantine Lyketsos, Walter A Kukull, Ingmar Skoog, Hugh C Hendrie
Over recent decades, epidemiology has made significant contributions to our understanding of dementia, translating scientific discoveries into population health. Here, we propose reframing dementia epidemiology as "population neuroscience," blending techniques and models from contemporary neuroscience with those of epidemiology and biostatistics. On the basis of emerging evidence and newer paradigms and methods, population neuroscience will minimize the bias typical of traditional clinical research, identify the relatively homogenous subgroups that comprise the general population, and investigate broader and denser phenotypes of dementia and cognitive impairment...
January 9, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319150/report-on-paediatric-care-in-the-moroccan-military-mission-in-the-gaza-strip
#2
Abdelhakim Elyajouri, Rachid Abilkacem, Aomar Agadr
This report aims to describe the epidemiologic findings of the workload associated with paediatric consultation of the Moroccan Military field hospital in the Gaza Strip. The patient Administration System and Biostatistics Activity database was reviewed and queried for all patients < 15 years of age who were consulted in the Moroccan Army hospital in the Gaza Strip between November 2012 to February 2013. Paediatric consultations during the study period were 7420 (19.9%) out of 37 227 consultations. The largest proportion of children were from 2 to 13 years old (3066 of 7420 children; 41...
January 2, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309734/methodologic-guide-for-evaluating-clinical-performance-and-effect-of-artificial-intelligence-technology-for-medical-diagnosis-and-prediction
#3
Seong Ho Park, Kyunghwa Han
The use of artificial intelligence in medicine is currently an issue of great interest, especially with regard to the diagnostic or predictive analysis of medical images. Adoption of an artificial intelligence tool in clinical practice requires careful confirmation of its clinical utility. Herein, the authors explain key methodology points involved in a clinical evaluation of artificial intelligence technology for use in medicine, especially high-dimensional or overparameterized diagnostic or predictive models in which artificial deep neural networks are used, mainly from the standpoints of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics...
January 8, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288544/metabarcoding-for-the-parallel-identification-of-several-hundred-predators-and-their-preys-application-to-bat-species-diet-analysis
#4
Maxime Galan, Jean-Baptiste Pons, Orianne Tournayre, Éric Pierre, Maxime Leuchtmann, Dominique Pontier, Nathalie Charbonnel
Assessing diet variability is of main importance to better understand the biology of bats and design conservation strategies. Although the advent of metabarcoding has facilitated such analyses, this approach does not come without challenges. Biases may occur throughout the whole experiment, from fieldwork to biostatistics, resulting in the detection of false negatives, false positives or low taxonomic resolution. We detail a rigorous metabarcoding approach based on a short COI minibarcode and two-step PCR protocol enabling the 'all at once' taxonomic identification of bats and their arthropod preys for several hundreds of samples...
December 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249462/muscle-stem-cells-exhibit-distinct-clonal-dynamics-in-response-to-tissue-repair-and-homeostatic-aging
#5
Matthew T Tierney, Michael J Stec, Steffen Rulands, Benjamin D Simons, Alessandra Sacco
The clonal complexity of adult stem cell pools is progressively lost during homeostatic turnover in several tissues, suggesting a decrease in the number of stem cells with distinct clonal origins. The functional impact of reduced complexity on stem cell pools, and how different tissue microenvironments may contribute to such a reduction, are poorly understood. Here, we performed clonal multicolor lineage tracing of skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs) to address these questions. We found that MuSC clonal complexity is maintained during aging despite heterogenous reductions in proliferative capacity, allowing aged muscle to mount a clonally diverse, albeit diminished, response to injury...
January 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227258/-causes-of-lethality-of-ischemic-stroke-and-ways-to-improve-prevention-methods
#6
Y Uteuliyev, K Konysbayeva, L Tekebaeva, B Alibekov, G Tokmurziyeva
In this article, the authors conduct an in-depth analysis of the causes of mortality from ischemic stroke in Almaty city of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Based on the materials of the city pathoanatomical bureau for 2015, 2016, and nine months of 2017. Autopsy materials and results of histological examination were analyzed. The materials of the study were processed using the methods of applied biostatistics. According to the results of the study, the authors came to the conclusion that the greatest number of patients who died of this pathology is in men aged 51 and older than 80 years, and in women 61 and older...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221994/allele-and-haplotype-diversity-of-12-x-strs-in-sardinia
#7
C Robino, D Lacerenza, S Aneli, C Di Gaetano, G Matullo, R Robledo, C Calò
The analysis of clusters of tightly linked X-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) markers can assist the interpretation of complex kinship cases. However, when linkage disequilibrium (LD) is present in the population of origin of tested individuals, haplotype rather than allele frequencies should be used in likelihood calculations. The diversity of twelve X-STRs arranged in four linkage groups (I: DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378; II: DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074; III: DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101; IV: DXS10146-DXS10134-DXS7423) was tested in a Sardinian population sample (n=516) including three open populations from the Northern, Central and Southern part of the island, and three isolates (Benetutti, Desulo, Carloforte)...
December 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221136/kif3a-and-il-4-are-disease-specific-biomarkers-for-psoriatic-arthritis-susceptibility
#8
Raffaella Cascella, Claudia Strafella, Michele Ragazzo, Laura Manzo, Gaetana Costanza, John Bowes, Ulrike Hüffmeier, Saverio Potenza, Federica Sangiuolo, André Reis, Anne Barton, Giuseppe Novelli, Augusto Orlandi, Emiliano Giardina
To date, the genes associated with Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) are principally involved in inflammation, immune response and epidermal differentiation, without any information about the relationship between disease and bone metabolism genes. Our work was focused on 5q31 locus, which contains several genetic variants significantly associated with PsA. The study involved 1526 subjects (500 PsA, 426 PsV, 600 controls). The region was evaluated by selecting and genotyping the SNPs of interest by Real Time PCR and direct sequencing...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214901/jialiang-li-and-shuangge-ma-survival-analysis-in-medicine-and-genetics-li-jialiang-and-ma-shuangge-survival-analysis-in-medicine-and-genetics-chapman-hall-crc-biostatistics-series-new-york-2013-xvii-363-pp-hb-isbn-978-1-4398-9311-1-%C3%A2-51
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192854/null-hypotheses-interval-estimation-and-bayesian-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Jennifer J Shin, David Zurakowski
Hypothesis testing using a frequentist approach is the mainstay of biostatistics and forms the foundation for assessing the significance of study results. This classical method has well-understood advantages as it determines whether data are statistically improbable and provides a threshold (ie, the P value) for delineating significance. Alternative statistical approaches have been proposed, including Bayesian analysis. This technique incorporates a prior probability as to what is already known clinically with the observed data...
December 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162756/integrating-medical-biostatistics-into-postgraduate-medical-curriculum
#11
Tatjana M Ille, Ramprasad Muthukrishnan, Mihailo E Ille
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of biostatistics is important for a health professional to understand research methods, analyse new information presented in scientific journals and to assess its relevance for their clinical practice. METHODS: We discuss the implementation of biostatistics in medical curricula, give perspectives on medical education in India, and narrate our own experience of integration of biostatistics into the medical curriculum. RESULTS: Biostatistics is still not a part of all postgraduate curricula in spite of its growing importance for all medical practitioners in the 21st century...
July 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162017/public-health-educational-comprehensiveness-the-strategic-rationale-in-establishing-networks-among-schools-of-public-health
#12
Robert Otok, Katarzyna Czabanowska, Anders Foldspang
The establishment and continuing development of a sufficient and competent public health workforce is fundamental for the planning, implementation, evaluation, effect and ethical validity of public health strategies and policies and, thus, for the development of the population's health and the cost-effectiveness of health and public health systems and interventions. Professional public health strategy-making demands a background of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary curriculum including mutually, dynamically coherent competences - not least, competences in sociology and other behavioural sciences and their interaction with, for example, epidemiology, biostatistics, qualitative methods and health promotion and disease prevention...
November 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146653/identifying-bioethical-issues-in-biostatistical-consulting-findings-from-a-us-national-pilot-survey-of-biostatisticians
#13
Min Qi Wang, Alice F Yan, Ralph V Katz
OBJECTIVES: The overall purposes of this first US national pilot study were to (1) test the feasibility of online administration of the Bioethical Issues in Biostatistical Consulting (BIBC) Questionnaire to a random sample of American Statistical Association (ASA) members; (2) determine the prevalence and relative severity of a broad array of bioethical violations requests that are presented to biostatisticians by investigators seeking biostatistical consultations; and (3) establish the sample size needed for a full-size phase II study...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140486/the-national-cancer-institute-s-conference-on-acupuncture-for-symptom-management-in-oncology-state-of-the-science-evidence-and-research-gaps
#14
Farah Z Zia, Oluwadamilola Olaku, Ting Bao, Ann Berger, Gary Deng, Arthur Yin Fan, Mary K Garcia, Patricia M Herman, Ted J Kaptchuk, Elena J Ladas, Helene M Langevin, Lixing Lao, Weidong Lu, Vitaly Napadow, Richard C Niemtzow, Andrew J Vickers, Xin Shelley Wang, Claudia M Witt, Jun J Mao
The Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine, at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a symposium on "Acupuncture for Cancer Symptom Management" on June 16 and 17, 2016. Invited speakers included 19 scientists and scholars with expertise in acupuncture and cancer research from the United States, Europe, and China. The conference reviewed the NCI's grant funding on acupuncture, analyzed the needs of cancer patients, reviewed safety issues, and assessed both the current scientific evidence and research gaps of acupuncture in oncology care...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126825/artificial-intelligence-in-medical-practice-the-question-to-the-answer
#15
REVIEW
D Douglas Miller, Eric W Brown
Computer science advances and ultra-fast computing speeds find artificial intelligence (AI) broadly benefitting modern society-forecasting weather, recognizing faces, detecting fraud, and deciphering genomics. AI's future role in medical practice remains an unanswered question. Machines (computers) learn to detect patterns not decipherable using biostatistics by processing massive datasets (big data) through layered mathematical models (algorithms). Correcting algorithm mistakes (training) adds to AI predictive model confidence...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126153/an-empirical-bayes-test-for-allelic-imbalance-detection-in-chip-seq
#16
Qi Zhang, Sündüz Keles
Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) has enabled discovery of genomic regions enriched with biological signals such as transcription factor binding and histone modifications. Allelic-imbalance (ALI) detection is a complementary analysis of ChIP-seq data for associating biological signals with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It has been successfully used in elucidating functional roles of non-coding SNPs. Commonly used statistical approaches for ALI detection are often based on binomial testing and mixture models, both of which rely on strong assumptions on the distribution of the unobserved allelic probability, and have significant practical shortcomings...
November 3, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120700/basket-studies-redefining-clinical-trials-in-the-era-of-genome-driven-oncology
#17
Jessica J Tao, Alison M Schram, David M Hyman
Understanding a tumor's detailed molecular profile has become increasingly necessary to deliver the standard of care for patients with advanced cancer. Innovations in both tumor genomic sequencing technology and the development of drugs that target molecular alterations have fueled recent gains in genome-driven oncology care. "Basket studies," or histology-agnostic clinical trials in genomically selected patients, represent one important research tool to continue making progress in this field. We review key aspects of genome-driven oncology care, including the purpose and utility of basket studies, biostatistical considerations in trial design, genomic knowledge-base development, and patient matching and enrollment models, which are critical for translating our genomic knowledge into clinically meaningful outcomes...
November 8, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113107/redesigning-journal-clubs-to-staying-current-with-the-literature
#18
Roland N Dickerson, G Christopher Wood, Joseph M Swanson, Rex O Brown
Staying current with the literature is of paramount importance to the pharmacist engaged in an evidence-based clinical practice. Given the expanding roles and responsibilities of today's pharmacists combined with exponential growth in new medical and health sciences literature, staying current has become an extremely daunting task. Traditional journal clubs have focused upon their role as a training vehicle for teaching critical reading skills to residents. However, schools of pharmacy are now required to provide instruction in biostatistics, research design, and interpretation...
November 6, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109567/design-implementation-and-outcomes-of-a-three-week-pharmacy-bridging-course
#19
Jacqueline E McLaughlin, Julia Khanova, Adam Persky, Nathaniel Hathaway, Wendy Cox
Objective. To evaluate the design, implementation, and outcomes of a three-week pharmacy bridging course (PBC) covering five math and science areas for first-year doctor of pharmacy students in fall 2015. Methods. Each topic was taught as a separate module. All five modules used pre- and post-module assessments to measure student knowledge and confidence. Course grades for subsequent first-year courses (PY1) were collected to examine relationships between PBC and PY1 courses. Results. Scores on the post-knowledge assessments increased for all five subject areas compared to scores on pre-PBC knowledge assessments...
September 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094100/primary-prevention-of-cervical-cancer-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-resource-stratified-guideline
#20
Silvina Arrossi, Sarah Temin, Suzanne Garland, Linda O'Neal Eckert, Neerja Bhatla, Xavier Castellsagué, Sharifa Ezat Alkaff, Tamika Felder, Doudja Hammouda, Ryo Konno, Gilberto Lopes, Emmanuel Mugisha, Rául Murillo, Isabel C Scarinci, Margaret Stanley, Vivien Tsu, Cosette M Wheeler, Isaac Folorunso Adewole, Silvia de Sanjosé
Purpose: To provide resource-stratified (four tiers), evidence-based recommendations on the primary prevention of cervical cancer globally. Methods: The American Society of Clinical Oncology convened a multidisciplinary, multinational panel of oncology, obstetrics/gynecology, public health, cancer control, epidemiology/biostatistics, health economics, behavioral/implementation science, and patient advocacy experts. The Expert Panel reviewed existing guidelines and conducted a modified ADAPTE process and a formal consensus-based process with additional experts (consensus ratings group) for one round of formal ratings...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
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