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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338970/woody-plant-ecosystems-under-climate-change-and-air-pollution-response-consistencies-across-zonobiomes
#1
R Matyssek, A R Kozovits, G Wieser, J King, H Rennenberg
Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338852/the-growth-of-biostatistics-and-estimation-of-cancer-risk-estimates-past-current-and-future-challenges
#2
Dale L Preston, Daniel O Stram
There has been a long process of growth and development of statistical approaches to the analysis of cancer incidence and mortality data obtained from the follow-up of radiation exposed populations. The challenges of radiation risk analysis provided impetus for innovative statistical methods, including, the inception and continued improvement of hazard rate regression methods. Key statistical contributions that improved cancer risk estimation include statistical advances pertaining to the measurement error problem...
March 2, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329653/introducing-public-health-themes-in-clinical-dermatology
#3
Scott A Norton
The ACGME's Core Competencies comprise six domains, which in turn contain dozens of often overlapping milestones. Several competencies explicitly invoke public health topics - but if one wears the right set of lenses, nearly every milestone, nearly every aspect of health and medicine, can be viewed from a public health perspective. Why then is Dermatology generally taught - and practiced - in an Intensive Care manner, where seemingly unlimited diagnostic & therapeutic efforts focus on single individuals, not the community?In this presentation, I argue that topics of public health concern should not be relegated to the minor leagues of GME...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321138/student-preparation-for-pgy1-residency-training-by-us-colleges-of-pharmacy-survey-of-the-residency-program-director-perspective
#4
Alyssa B Mutz, Jacob Beyer, Whitney L Dickson, Irina Gutman, Filiz Yucebay, Marcie Lepkowsky, Juliana Chan, Kristen Carter, Christopher L Shaffer, Patrick D Fuller
Purpose: To evaluate current residents' level of preparation by US colleges of pharmacy for postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency training from the perspective of residency program directors (RPDs). Methods: RPDs were asked in an electronic survey questionnaire to rate PGY1 pharmacy residents' abilities in 4 domains: communication, clinical knowledge, interpersonal/time-management skills, and professionalism/leadership. Results: One hundred ninety-seven RPDs of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-accredited PGY1 programs completed the survey...
February 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319460/power-and-sample-size-for-the-s-t-repeated-measures-design-combined-with-a-linear-mixed-effects-model-allowing-for-missing-data
#5
Toshiro Tango
Tango (Biostatistics 2016) proposed a new repeated measures design called the S:T repeated measures design, combined with generalized linear mixed-effects models and sample size calculations for a test of the average treatment effect that depend not only on the number of subjects but on the number of repeated measures before and after randomization per subject used for analysis. The main advantages of the proposed design combined with the generalized linear mixed-effects models are (1) it can easily handle missing data by applying the likelihood-based ignorable analyses under the missing at random assumption and (2) it may lead to a reduction in sample size compared with the simple pre-post design...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315391/quality-assessment-of-vitamin-d-metabolite-assays-used-by-clinical-and-research-laboratories
#6
G D Carter, J Berry, R Durazo-Arvizu, E Gunter, G Jones, J Jones, H L J Makin, P Pattni, K W Phinney, C T Sempos, E L Williams
The Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme (DEQAS) was launched in 1989 and monitors the performance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) assays. In April 2015 a pilot scheme for 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) was introduced. The 25-OHD scheme is accuracy - based with target values assigned by the NIST Reference Measurement Procedure (RMP) for 25-OHD2 and 25-OHD3. A similar method is used to assign values for 3-epi-25-OHD. Five samples of human serum are distributed quarterly to over 1000 participants in 58 countries (April 2016) and clinical laboratories are expected to submit results within approximately 5 weeks...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288291/fundamentals-in-biostatistics-for-research-in-pediatric-dentistry-part-i-basic-concepts
#7
J A Garrocho-Rangel, M S Ruiz-Rodríguez, A J Pozos-Guillén
The purpose of this report was to provide the reader with some basic concepts in order to better understand the significance and reliability of the results of any article on Pediatric Dentistry. Currently, Pediatric Dentists need the best evidence available in the literature on which to base their diagnoses and treatment decisions for the children's oral care. Basic understanding of Biostatistics plays an important role during the entire Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) process. This report describes Biostatistics fundamentals in order to introduce the basic concepts used in statistics, such as summary measures, estimation, hypothesis testing, effect size, level of significance, p value, confidence intervals, etc...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285484/basic-biostatistics-and-clinical-medicine
#8
Joshua Banting, Tony Meriano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281147/molecular-tumor-boards-ethical-issues-in-the-new-era-of-data-medicine
#9
Henri-Corto Stoeklé, Marie-France Mamzer-Bruneel, Charles-Henry Frouart, Christophe Le Tourneau, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Guillaume Vogt, Christian Hervé
The practice and development of modern medicine requires large amounts of data, particularly in the domain of cancer. The future of personalized medicine lies neither with "genomic medicine" nor with "precision medicine", but with "data medicine" (DM) (big data, data mining). The establishment of this DM has required far-reaching changes, to establish four essential elements connecting patients and doctors: biobanks, databases, bioinformatic platforms and genomic platforms. The "transformation" of scientific research areas, such as genetics, bioinformatics and biostatistics, into clinical specialties has generated a new vision of care...
March 9, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262773/metabolomics-for-clinical-use-and-research-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Berthold Hocher, Jerzy Adamski
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a high prevalence in the general population and is associated with high mortality; a need therefore exists for better biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression and therapy stratification. Moreover, very sensitive biomarkers are needed in drug development and clinical research to increase understanding of the efficacy and safety of potential and existing therapies. Metabolomics analyses can identify and quantify all metabolites present in a given sample, covering hundreds to thousands of metabolites...
March 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253530/statistics-for-radiology-research
#11
Nancy A Obuchowski, Naveen Subhas, Joshua Polster
Biostatistics is an essential component in most original research studies in imaging. In this article we discuss five key statistical concepts for study design and analyses in modern imaging research: statistical hypothesis testing, particularly focusing on noninferiority studies; imaging outcomes especially when there is no reference standard; dealing with the multiplicity problem without spending all your study power; relevance of confidence intervals in reporting and interpreting study results; and finally tools for assessing quantitative imaging biomarkers...
February 2017: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242302/the-feature-selection-approach-for-evaluation-of-potential-rheumatoid-arthritis-markers-using-maldi-tof-datasets
#12
Bartosz Urbaniak, Piotr Nowicki, Dorota Sikorska, Włodzimierz Samborski, Zenon J Kokot
BACKGROUND: The selection of the most representative mass profiles, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) serum samples was developed. This allows for selection and identification of potential biomarkers in RA serum samples. METHODS: The RA and controls samples were analyzed using MALDI-TOF. Two different protein elution procedures utilizing ZipTips (E1 and E2) were examined. The statistical evaluation of data was performed using different feature selection (FS) methods in combination with different classifiers, while identification of selected masses was performed using MALDI-TOF-TOF...
February 24, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216720/biostatistics-series-module-7-the-statistics-of-diagnostic-tests
#13
Avijit Hazra, Nithya Gogtay
Crucial therapeutic decisions are based on diagnostic tests. Therefore, it is important to evaluate such tests before adopting them for routine use. Although things such as blood tests, cultures, biopsies, and radiological imaging are obvious diagnostic tests, it is not to be forgotten that specific clinical examination procedures, scoring systems based on physiological or psychological evaluation, and ratings based on questionnaires are also diagnostic tests and therefore merit similar evaluation. In the simplest scenario, a diagnostic test will give either a positive (disease likely) or negative (disease unlikely) result...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207842/evaluating-evidence-based-health-care-teaching-and-learning-in-the-undergraduate-human-nutrition-occupational-therapy-physiotherapy-and-speech-language-and-hearing-therapy-programs-at-a-sub-saharan-african-academic-institution
#14
Anel Schoonees, Anke Rohwer, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. METHODS: We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190508/navigating-the-clinical-trial-pathway-conception-design-execution-and-results-dissemination
#15
John S Sampalis, Joanne Watson, Stella Boukas, Marianna Boukas, Natalie Harvey, Sanjay Machado, Michel Bordeleau, Emmanouil Rampakakis
Dr Sampalis is founder, Chief Executive Officer, and Chief Scientific Officer of JSS Medical Research Inc, founded in 1997. He is a tenured professor of Surgery and Epidemiology & Biostatistics of McGill University, the University of Montreal and University of Laval. Recognized as a leading clinical epidemiologist and one of the top trauma researchers in Canada, he possesses extensive expertise in health services research, clinical trials, and offers services as a Research and Epidemiological Consultant for numerous pharmaceutical companies, hospitals and government organizations and agencies...
March 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183354/protocol-for-the-analysis-of-a-natural-experiment-on-the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-on-diabetes-care-in-community-health-centers
#16
Nathalie Huguet, Heather Angier, Miguel Marino, K John McConnell, Megan J Hoopes, Jean P O'Malley, Lewis A Raynor, Sonja Likumahuwa-Ackman, Heather Holderness, Jennifer E DeVoe
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansions could substantially improve access to health insurance and healthcare services for patients at risk for diabetes mellitus (DM), with pre-DM, or already diagnosed with DM. The ACA called for every state to expand Medicaid coverage by 2014. In a 2012 legal challenge, the US Supreme Court ruled that states were not required to implement Medicaid expansions. This 'natural experiment' presents a unique opportunity to learn whether and to what extent Medicaid expansion can affect healthcare access and services for patients with DM risk, pre-DM, or DM...
February 10, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178730/an-overview-of-pharmacoepidemiology-in-new-zealand-medical-databases-registries-and-research-achievements
#17
Prasad Nishtala, Henry Ndukwe, Te-Yuan Chyou, Mohammed Salahudeen, Sujita Narayan
Pharmacoepidemiology is an eclectic blend of epidemiology, clinical pharmacology and biostatistics. In New Zealand there have been recent advances in pharmacoepidemiology to examine drug utilisation, monitor adverse drug events and complement pharmacovigilance. This paper attempts to describe the past, present and future of pharmacoepidemiology, particularly in the area of translational research with a particular focus on medicine use and safety. New Zealand is well-positioned globally to make significant contributions to the knowledge base of drug safety in real-world settings...
January 27, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159490/chemohormonal-therapy-in-metastatic-hormone-sensitive-prostate-cancer-sweeney-cj-chen-yh-carducci-m-liu-g-jarrard-df-eisenberger-m-wong-yn-hahn-n-kohli-m-cooney-mm-dreicer-r-vogelzang-nj-picus-j-shevrin-d-hussain-m-garcia-ja-dipaola-rs-department-of-medicine
#18
Eggener Scott
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the backbone of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer since the 1940s. We assessed whether concomitant treatment with ADT plus docetaxel would result in longer overall survival than that with ADT alone. METHODS: We assigned men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to receive either ADT plus docetaxel (at a dose of 75mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3wk for 6 cycles) or ADT alone...
March 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128859/norman-edward-breslow-key-figure-in-the-foundation-of-modern-biostatistics
#19
Martin Schumacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107208/environment-susceptibility-windows-development-and-child-health
#20
Robert O Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To illustrate the role of the exposome in child health while highlighting unique aspects of this research pertinent to children, such as the time dependency of environmental exposures on fetal programming, as well as the time-dependent nature of child behavior, diet, and motor function, which alter the probability of exposure to different compounds. Future environmental health research will be more hypothesis generating but will also need to heed lessons learned from other 'omic' sciences...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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