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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651051/molecular-precision-at-micrometer-length-scales-hierarchical-assembly-of-dna-protein-nanostructures
#1
Daniel Schiffels, Veronika A Szalai, J Alexander Liddle
Robust self-assembly across length scales is a ubiquitous feature of biological systems, but remains challenging for synthetic structures. Taking a cue from biology - where disparate molecules work together to produce large, functional assemblies - we demonstrate how to engineer microscale structures with nanoscale features: Our self-assembly approach begins by using DNA polymerase to controllably create double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sections on a single-stranded template. The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) sections are then folded into a mechanically flexible skeleton by the origami method...
June 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650445/a-distinct-function-of-the-retinoblastoma-protein-in-the-control-of-lipid-composition-identified-by-lipidomic-profiling
#2
H Muranaka, A Hayashi, K Minami, S Kitajima, S Kohno, Y Nishimoto, N Nagatani, M Suzuki, L A N Kulathunga, N Sasaki, N Okada, T Matsuzaka, H Shimano, H Tada, C Takahashi
Here, by combining lipidomics with transcriptome analysis, we demonstrate that Rb depletion in mouse embryonic fibroblastss induces significant alterations in their lipid composition. We discovered that Rb depletion induced increase in lysophosphatidylserine, diacylglycerol (DAG), fatty acid (FA), acylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), arachidonoyl ethanolamine, and decrease in phosphatidylglycerol, monoacylglycerol, without change in total lipid per protein levels. Analysis of the acyl chain composition of DAG, PC and phosphatidylserine revealed increase of saturated and mono-unsaturated acyl chains with specific carbon chain length...
June 26, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646901/effect-of-ezetimibe-add-on-therapy-over-52%C3%A2-weeks-extension-analysis-of-prospective-randomized-trial-research-study-in-type-2-diabetes-subjects
#3
Kentaro Sakamoto, Mitsunobu Kawamura, Takayuki Watanabe, Keiko Ashidate, Takahide Kohro, Akira Tanaka, Yasumichi Mori, Motoki Tagami, Tsutomu Hirano, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Teruo Shiba
BACKGROUND: Lowering cholesterol levels decreases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Effective ways to stably reduce LDL-C level are warranted in type 2 diabetic patients, a high-risk population for CVD, with various anti-diabetic therapeutic background. The RESEARCH study focuses on LDL-C reduction in this population along with modifications of the lipid profiles. We evaluated long-term ezetimibe add-on therapy in T2DM patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: In a randomized, multicenter, open-label, prospective study, a total of 109 T2DM patients not attaining LDL-C target value despite first-line dose statin (10 mg of atorvastatin or 1 mg of pitavastatin) therapy in Japan were recruited...
June 24, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645297/interleukin-1-receptor-type-1-is-overexpressed-in-neurons-but-not-in-glial-cells-within-the-rat-superficial-spinal-dorsal-horn-in-complete-freund-adjuvant-induced-inflammatory-pain
#4
Krisztina Holló, László Ducza, Zoltán Hegyi, Klaudia Dócs, Krisztina Hegedűs, Erzsébet Bakk, Ildikó Papp, Gréta Kis, Zoltán Mészár, Zsuzsanna Bardóczi, Miklós Antal
BACKGROUND: All known biological functions of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are mediated by type 1 interleukin receptor (IL-1R1). IL-1β-IL-1R1 signaling modulates various neuronal functions including spinal pain processing. Although the role of IL-1β in pain processing is generally accepted, there is a discussion in the literature whether IL-1β exerts its effect on spinal pain processing by activating neuronal or glial IL-1R1. To contribute to this debate, here we investigated the expression and cellular distribution of IL-1R1 in the superficial spinal dorsal horn in control animals and also in inflammatory pain...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643694/simultaneous-maximum-a-i-posteriori-i-longitudinal-pet-image-reconstruction
#5
Sam Ellis, Andrew J Reader
Positron emission tomography (PET) is frequently used to monitor functional changes that occur over extended time scales, for example in longitudinal oncology PET protocols that include routine clinical follow-up scans to assess the efficacy of a course of treatment. In these contexts PET datasets are currently reconstructed into images using single-dataset reconstruction methods. Inspired by recently proposed joint PET-MR reconstruction methods, we propose to reconstruct longitudinal datasets simultaneously by using a joint penalty term in order to exploit the high degree of similarity between longitudinal images...
June 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629654/activity-determination-of-60-co-and-the-importance-of-its-beta-spectrum
#6
Karsten Kossert, Justyna Marganiec-Gałązka, Xavier Mougeot, Ole J Nähle
The activity concentration of a (60)Co solution was measured by means of two 4πβ-γ coincidence counting systems using a liquid scintillation counter and a proportional counter (PC) in the beta channel, respectively. Additional liquid scintillation measurements were carried out and CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing as well as the triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) methods were applied to analyse the data. The last two methods require computed beta spectra to determine the counting efficiencies. The results of both 4πβ-γ coincidence counting techniques are in very good agreement and yield a robust reference value...
June 15, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629540/kinetics-and-dose-dependency-of-intranasal-oxytocin-effects-on-amygdala-reactivity
#7
Franny B Spengler, Johannes Schultz, Dirk Scheele, Maximiliane Essel, Wolfgang Maier, Markus Heinrichs, René Hurlemann
BACKGROUND: Current neuroimaging perspectives on a variety of mental disorders emphasize dysfunction of the amygdala. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT), a key mediator in the regulation of social cognition and behavior, accumulates in cerebrospinal fluid after intranasal administration in macaques and humans and modulates amygdala reactivity in both species. However, the translation of neuromodulatory OXT effects to novel treatment approaches is hampered by the absence of studies defining the most effective dose and dose-response latency for targeting the amygdala...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628606/splicing-stimulates-sirna-formation-at-drosophila-dna-double-strand-breaks
#8
Karin Merk, Marco Breinig, Romy Böttcher, Stefan Krebs, Helmut Blum, Michael Boutros, Klaus Förstemann
DNA double-strand breaks trigger the production of locus-derived siRNAs in fruit flies, human cells and plants. At least in flies, their biogenesis depends on active transcription running towards the break. Since siRNAs derive from a double-stranded RNA precursor, a major question is how broken DNA ends can generate matching sense and antisense transcripts. We performed a genome-wide RNAi-screen in cultured Drosophila cells, which revealed that in addition to DNA repair factors, many spliceosome components are required for efficient siRNA generation...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627127/metal-organic-framework-derived-hybrid-carbon-nanocages-as-a-bifunctional-electrocatalyst-for-oxygen-reduction-and-evolution
#9
Shaohong Liu, Zhiyu Wang, Si Zhou, Fengjiao Yu, Mengzhou Yu, Chang-Yang Chiang, Wuzong Zhou, Jijun Zhao, Jieshan Qiu
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are cornerstone reactions for many renewable energy technologies. Developing cheap yet durable substitutes of precious-metal catalysts, especially the bifunctional electrocatalysts with high activity for both ORR and OER reactions and their streamlined coupling process, are highly desirable to reduce the processing cost and complexity of renewable energy systems. Here, a facile strategy is reported for synthesizing double-shelled hybrid nanocages with outer shells of Co-N-doped graphitic carbon (Co-NGC) and inner shells of N-doped microporous carbon (NC) by templating against core-shell metal-organic frameworks...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618638/localized-dark-solitons-and-vortices-in-defocusing-media-with-spatially-inhomogeneous-nonlinearity
#10
Jianhua Zeng, Boris A Malomed
Recent studies have demonstrated that defocusing cubic nonlinearity with local strength growing from the center to the periphery faster than r^{D}, in space of dimension D with radial coordinate r, supports a vast variety of robust bright solitons. In the framework of the same model, but with a weaker spatial-growth rate ∼r^{α} with α≤D, we test here the possibility to create stable localized continuous waves (LCWs) in one-dimensional (1D) and 2D geometries, localized dark solitons (LDSs) in one dimension, and localized dark vortices (LDVs) in two dimensions, which are all realized as loosely confined states with a divergent norm...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618495/robustness-of-synthetic-oscillators-in-growing-and-dividing-cells
#11
Joris Paijmans, David K Lubensky, Pieter Rein Ten Wolde
Synthetic biology sets out to implement new functions in cells, and to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles. Elowitz and Leibler [Nature (London) 403, 335 (2000)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/35002125] showed that by rational design of the reaction network, and using existing biological components, they could create a network that exhibits periodic gene expression, dubbed the repressilator. More recently, Stricker et al. [Nature (London) 456, 516 (2008)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature07389] presented another synthetic oscillator, called the dual-feedback oscillator, which is more stable...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617929/age-effects-on-saccadic-adaptation-evidence-from-different-paradigms-reveals-specific-vulnerabilities
#12
Jing Huang, Karl R Gegenfurtner, Alexander C Schütz, Jutta Billino
Saccadic eye movements provide an opportunity to study closely interwoven perceptual, motor, and cognitive changes during aging. Here, we investigated age effects on different mechanisms of saccadic plasticity. We compared age effects in two different adaptation paradigms that tap into low- and high-level adaptation processes. A total of 27 senior adults and 25 young adults participated in our experiments. In our first experiment, we elicited adaptation by a double-step paradigm, which is designed to trigger primarily low-level, gradual motor adaptation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617595/an-ab-initio-exciton-model-including-charge-transfer-excited-states
#13
Xin Li, Robert M Parrish, Fang Liu, Sara I L Kokkila Schumacher, Todd J Martínez
The Frenkel exciton model is a useful tool for theoretical studies of multi- chromophore systems. We recently showed that the exciton model could be used to coarse-grain electronic structure in multichromophoric systems, focusing on singly-excited exciton states [Acc. Chem. Res. 2014, 47, 2857-2866]. However, our previous implementation excluded charge-transfer excited states, which can play an important role in light-harvesting systems and near-infrared optoelectronic materials. Recent studies have also emphasized the significance of charge-transfer in singlet fission, which mediates the coupling between the locally excited states and the multi-excitonic states...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609023/relations-of-sex-hormone-levels-to-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-black-hispanic-and-asian-pacific-islander-postmenopausal-women
#14
Yan Song, Michele Cho, Kathleen Brennan, Brian H Chen, Yiqing Song, JoAnn E Manson, Andrea L Hevener, Nai-Chieh Y You, Anthony W Butch, Simin Liu
BACKGROUND: Sex hormones may play important roles in sex-specific biological aging. We specifically examined the associations between circulating concentrations of sex hormones and leukocyte telomere length (TL). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1124 black, 444 Hispanic, and 289 Asian/Pacific Islander women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Cohort. Concentrations of estradiol and testosterone were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassays...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606591/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-rvsv%C3%A2-g-zebov-gp-ebola-virus-vaccine-candidate-in-healthy-adults-a-phase-1b-randomised-multicentre-double-blind-placebo-controlled-dose-response-study
#15
D Gray Heppner, Tracy L Kemp, Brian K Martin, William J Ramsey, Richard Nichols, Emily J Dasen, Charles J Link, Rituparna Das, Zhi Jin Xu, Eric A Sheldon, Teresa A Nowak, Thomas P Monath
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Zaire Ebola virus outbreak highlighted the need for a safe, effective vaccine with a rapid onset of protection. We report the safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) across a 6 log10 dose range in two sequential cohorts. METHODS: In this phase 1b double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study we enrolled and randomly assigned healthy adults (aged 18-61 years) at eight study sites in the USA to receive a single injection of vaccine or placebo, administered by intramuscular injection...
June 9, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602655/attention-robustly-gates-a-closed-loop-touch-reflex
#16
Dana Sherman, Tess Oram, David Harel, Ehud Ahissar
Rats' large whiskers (macrovibrissae) are used to explore their nearby environment, typically using repetitive protraction-retraction "whisking" motions that are coordinated with head and body movements [1-8]. Once objects are detected, the rat can further explore the object tactually by using both the macrovibrissae and an array of shorter, stationary microvibrissae on the chin, as well as by using the lips [9-11]. When touch occurs during whisking, a fast reflexive response, termed a touch-induced pump (TIP), may be triggered...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599166/the-means-side-effect-distinction-in-moral-cognition-a-meta-analysis
#17
Adam Feltz, Joshua May
Experimental research suggests that people draw a moral distinction between bad outcomes brought about as a means versus a side effect (or byproduct). Such findings have informed multiple psychological and philosophical debates about moral cognition, including its computational structure, its sensitivity to the famous Doctrine of Double Effect, its reliability, and its status as a universal and innate mental module akin to universal grammar. But some studies have failed to replicate the means/byproduct effect especially in the absence of other factors, such as personal contact...
June 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599106/iridium-based-multimetallic-nanoframe-nanoframe-structure-an-efficient-and-robust-electrocatalyst-toward-oxygen-evolution-reaction
#18
Jongsik Park, Young Jin Sa, Hionsuck Baik, Taehyun Kwon, Sang Hoon Joo, Kwangyeol Lee
Nanoframe electrocatalysts have attracted great interest due to their inherently high active surface area per a given mass. Although recent progress has enabled the preparation of single nanoframe structures with a variety of morphologies, more complex nanoframe structures such as a double-layered nanoframe have not yet been realized. Herein, we report a rational synthetic strategy for a structurally robust Ir-based multimetallic double-layered nanoframe (DNF) structure, nanoframe@nanoframe. By leveraging the differing kinetics of dual Ir precursors and dual transition metal (Ni and Cu) precursors, a core-shell-type alloy@alloy structure could be generated in a simple one-step synthesis, which was subsequently transformed into a multimetallic IrNiCu DNF with a rhombic dodecahedral morphology via selective etching...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598795/determination-of-reference-intervals-for-urinary-steroid-profiling-using-a-newly-validated-gc-ms-ms-method
#19
Wilhelmina H A de Jong, Edward Buitenwerf, Alle T Pranger, Ineke J Riphagen, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Michiel N Kerstens, Ido P Kema
BACKGROUND: Urinary steroid profiling (USP) is a powerful diagnostic tool to asses disorders of steroidogenesis. Pre-analytical factors such as age, sex and use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) may affect steroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. In general, USP reference intervals are not adjusted for these variables. In this study we aimed to establish such reference intervals using a newly-developed and validated gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection method (GC-MS/MS)...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598160/a-double-decarboxylation-in-superfolder-green-fluorescent-protein-leads-to-high-contrast-photoactivation
#20
Joshua D Slocum, Lauren J Webb
A photoactivatable variant of superfolder GFP (GFP) was created by replacing the threonine at position 203 with aspartic acid. Photoactivation by exposure of this mutant to UV light resulted in conversion of the fluorophore from the neutral to the negatively charged form, accompanied by a ~95-fold increase in fluorescence under 488 nm excitation. Mass spectrometry before and after exposure to UV light revealed a change in mass of 88 Da, attributed to the double decarboxylation of Glu 222 and Asp 203. Kinetics studies and non-linear power-dependence of the initial rate of photoconversion indicated that the double decarboxylation occurred via a multiphoton absorption process at 254 nm...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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