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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356460/repeatability-and-sources-of-variation-of-the-bacteria-killing-assay-in-the-common-snapping-turtle
#1
Michelle L Beck, Molly Thompson, William A Hopkins
Research on reptile ecoimmunology lags behind that on other vertebrates, despite the importance of such studies for conservation and evolution. Because the innate immune system is highly conserved across vertebrate lineages, assessments of its performance may be particularly useful in reptiles. The bacteria-killing assay requires a single, small blood sample and quantifies an individual's ability to kill microorganisms. The assay's construct validity and interpretability make it an attractive measure of innate immunity, but it requires proper optimization and sample storage...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356454/correlates-of-immune-defenses-in-golden-eagle-nestlings
#2
Elisabeth MacColl, Kris Vanesky, Jeremy A Buck, Benjamin M Dudek, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Julie A Heath, Garth Herring, Chris Vennum, Cynthia J Downs
An individual's investment in constitutive immune defenses depends on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined how Leucocytozoon parasite presence, body condition (scaled mass), heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, sex, and age affected immune defenses in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nestlings from three regions: California, Oregon, and Idaho. We quantified hemolytic-complement activity and bacterial killing ability, two measures of constitutive immunity. Body condition and age did not affect immune defenses...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356446/local-and-systemic-immune-responses-to-different-types-of-phytohemagglutinin-in-the-green-anole-lessons-for-field-ecoimmunologists
#3
Catherine Tylan, Tracy Langkilde
The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test is commonly used by ecologists to assess cell-mediated immune function of wild animals. It can be performed quickly and easily in the field, involving injection of PHA and measurement of the resultant swelling. There are multiple formulations of PHA used in ecological studies, with potentially differing outcomes that could produce inconsistent results. We tested two common types of PHA in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) to identify local and systemic immune responses underlying the resultant swelling at 6, 18, 24, and 48 hr post injection...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356443/immune-profiles-vary-seasonally-but-are-not-significantly-related-to-migration-distance-or-natal-dispersal-in-a-migratory-songbird
#4
Tosha R Kelly, Heather L MacGillivray, Keith A Hobson, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A MacDougall-Shackleton
A central tenet of ecoimmunology is that an organism's environment shapes its optimal investment in immunity. For example, the benefits of acquired (relatively pathogen specific) versus innate (nonspecific) immune defenses are thought to vary with the risk of encountering familiar versus unfamiliar pathogens. Because pathogen communities vary geographically, individuals that travel farther during seasonal migration or natal dispersal are predicted to have higher exposure to novel pathogens, and lower exposure to familiar pathogens, potentially favoring investment in innate immunity...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356424/immune-variation-during-pregnancy-suggests-immune-component-specific-costs-of-reproduction-in-a-viviparous-snake-with-disparate-life-history-strategies
#5
Maria G Palacios, Anne M Bronikowski
Growing evidence suggests the existence of trade-offs between immune function and reproduction in diverse taxa. Among vertebrates, however, there is still a taxonomic bias toward studies in endotherms, particularly birds. We tested the hypothesis that reproduction entails immune-related costs in the viviparous garter snake, Thamnophis elegans, from populations that exhibit two life-history strategies, termed ecotypes, with contrasting paces of life. Between the two ecotypes, we predicted lower immune function in gravid than non-gravid females of both strategies, but with relatively larger immunity costs in the ecotype that generally invests more in current reproduction...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356423/introduction-to-ecoimmunology-an-integrative-approach
#6
Rachel M Bowden, Susannah S French, Gregory E Demas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356384/demographic-and-temporal-variations-in-immunity-and-condition-of-polar-bears-ursus-maritimus-from-the-southern-beaufort-sea
#7
Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Patricia A Terletzky, Todd C Atwood, Eric M Gese, Geoffrey D Smith, Sydney Greenfield, John Pettit, Susannah S French
Assessing the health and condition of animals in their natural environment can be problematic. Many physiological metrics, including immunity, are highly influenced by specific context and recent events to which researchers may be unaware. Thus, using a multifaceted physiological approach and a context-specific analysis encompassing multiple time scales can be highly informative. Ecoimmunological tools in particular can provide important indications to the health of animals in the wild. We collected blood and hair samples from free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea and examined the influence of sex, age, and reproductive status on metrics of immunity, stress, and body condition during 2013-2015...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992281/a-return-to-wisdom-using-sickness-behaviors-to-integrate-ecological-and-translational-research
#8
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
Sickness is typically characterized by fever, anorexia, cachexia, and reductions in social, pleasurable, and sexual behaviors. These responses can be displayed at varying intensities both within and among individuals, and the adaptive nature of sickness responses can be demonstrated by the context-dependent nature of their expression. The study of sickness has become an important area of investigation for researchers in a wide range of areas, including psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and ecoimmunology (EI). The general goal of PNI is to identify key interactions among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems and behavior, and how disruptions in these processes might contribute to disease states...
December 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944450/dynamic-spatial-models-of-parasite-transmission-in-wildlife-their-structure-applications-and-remaining-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Lauren A White, James D Forester, Meggan E Craft
Individual differences in contact rate can arise from host, group and landscape heterogeneity and can result in different patterns of spatial spread for diseases in wildlife populations with concomitant implications for disease control in wildlife of conservation concern, livestock and humans. While dynamic disease models can provide a better understanding of the drivers of spatial spread, the effects of landscape heterogeneity have only been modelled in a few well-studied wildlife systems such as rabies and bovine tuberculosis...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814608/parasite-altered-feeding-behavior-in-insects-integrating-functional-and-mechanistic-research-frontiers
#10
REVIEW
Melissa A Bernardo, Michael S Singer
Research on parasite-altered feeding behavior in insects is contributing to an emerging literature that considers possible adaptive consequences of altered feeding behavior for the host or the parasite. Several recent ecoimmunological studies show that insects can adaptively alter their foraging behavior in response to parasitism. Another body of recent work shows that infection by parasites can change the behavior of insect hosts to benefit the parasite; manipulations of host feeding behavior may be part of this phenomenon...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662203/detection-of-bacterial-reactive-natural-igm-antibodies-in-desert-bighorn-sheep-populations
#11
Brian S Dugovich, Melanie J Peel, Amy L Palmer, Ryszard A Zielke, Aleksandra E Sikora, Brianna R Beechler, Anna E Jolles, Clinton W Epps, Brian P Dolan
Ecoimmunology is a burgeoning field of ecology which studies immune responses in wildlife by utilizing general immune assays such as the detection of natural antibody. Unlike adaptive antibodies, natural antibodies are important in innate immune responses and often recognized conserved epitopes present in pathogens. Here, we describe a procedure for measuring natural antibodies reactive to bacterial antigens that may be applicable to a variety of organisms. IgM from desert bighorn sheep plasma samples was tested for reactivity to outer membrane proteins from Vibrio coralliilyticus, a marine bacterium to which sheep would have not been exposed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480133/immune-responsiveness-to-phytohemagglutinin-displays-species-but-not-sex-differences-in-three-anuran-species
#12
Zhiqiang Zhang, Chenchen Jin, Kangshan Qu, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced skin swelling response is widely used as a rough surrogate of integrative cell-mediated and innate immunity across multiple vertebrate taxa due to its simplification and feasibility. However, little is known whether there are sex and interspecific differences of immune responsiveness to PHA in ectotherms, especially for anurans. Therefore, we studied sex and species differences of PHA response in three anurans, Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans), Dark-spotted frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) and Mongolian toads (Pseudepidalea raddei), captured in northern regions of Anhui Province (China)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065710/ecoimmunology-and-microbial-ecology-contributions-to-avian-behavior-physiology-and-life-history
#13
REVIEW
Jessica K Evans, Katherine L Buchanan, Simon C Griffith, Kirk C Klasing, BriAnne Addison
Bacteria have had a fundamental impact on vertebrate evolution not only by affecting the evolution of the immune system, but also generating complex interactions with behavior and physiology. Advances in molecular techniques have started to reveal the intricate ways in which bacteria and vertebrates have coevolved. Here, we focus on birds as an example system for understanding the fundamental impact bacteria have had on the evolution of avian immune defenses, behavior, physiology, reproduction and life histories...
February 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865788/testosterone-and-immune-reproductive-tradeoffs-in-healthy-women
#14
Tierney K Lorenz, Julia R Heiman, Gregory E Demas
Although testosterone (T) has been characterized as universally immunosuppressive across species and sexes, recent ecoimmunology research suggests that T's immunomodulatory effects (enhancing/suppressing) depend on the organism's reproductive context. Very little is known about the immune effects of T in healthy females, and even less about how reproductive effort modulates the immune effects of T in humans. We investigated how the interaction between endogenous T and sexual activity predicted menstrual cycle-related changes in several measures of immunity: inflammation (indexed by interleukin-6, IL-6), adaptive immunity (indexed by immunoglobulin A, IgA), and functional immunity (indexed by bactericidal assay)...
February 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818221/endocrine-reproductive-immune-interactions-in-female-and-male-gal%C3%A3-pagos-marine-iguanas
#15
Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susannah S French
Endocrine-immune interactions are variable across species and contexts making it difficult to discern consistent patterns. There is a paucity of data in non-model systems making these relationships even more nebulous, particularly in reptiles. In the present study, we have completed a more comprehensive test of the relationship among steroid hormones and ecologically relevant immune measures. We tested the relationship between baseline and stress-induced levels of sex and adrenal steroid hormones and standard ecoimmunological metrics in both female and male Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)...
February 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765499/neuroendocrine-immune-circuits-phenotypes-and-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Noah T Ashley, Gregory E Demas
Multidirectional interactions among the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems have been demonstrated in humans and non-human animal models for many decades by the biomedical community, but ecological and evolutionary perspectives are lacking. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions can be conceptualized using a series of feedback loops, which culminate into distinct neuroendocrine-immune phenotypes. Behavior can exert profound influences on these phenotypes, which can in turn reciprocally modulate behavior. For example, the behavioral aspects of reproduction, including courtship, aggression, mate selection and parental behaviors can impinge upon neuroendocrine-immune interactions...
January 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386071/the-effect-of-diet-and-time-after-bacterial-infection-on%C3%A2-fecundity-resistance-and-tolerance-in-drosophila%C3%A2-melanogaster
#17
Megan A M Kutzer, Sophie A O Armitage
Mounting and maintaining an effective immune response in the face of infection can be costly. The outcome of infection depends on two host immune strategies: resistance and tolerance. Resistance limits pathogen load, while tolerance reduces the fitness impact of an infection. While resistance strategies are well studied, tolerance has received less attention, but is now considered to play a vital role in host-pathogen interactions in animals. A major challenge in ecoimmunology is to understand how some hosts maintain their fitness when infected while others succumb to infection, as well as how extrinsic, environmental factors, such as diet, affect defense...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537228/context-dependent-associations-between-heterozygosity-and-immune-variation-in-a-wild-carnivore
#18
Patrick M Brock, Simon J Goodman, Ailsa J Hall, Marilyn Cruz, Karina Acevedo-Whitehouse
BACKGROUND: A multitude of correlations between heterozygosity and fitness proxies associated with disease have been reported from wild populations, but the genetic basis of these associations is unresolved. We used a longitudinal dataset on wild Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) to develop a relatively new perspective on this problem, by testing for associations between heterozygosity and immune variation across age classes and between ecological contexts. RESULTS: Homozygosity by locus was negatively correlated with serum immunoglobulin G production in pups (0-3 months of age), suggesting that reduced genetic diversity has a detrimental influence on the early development of immune defence in the Galapagos sea lion...
2015: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26064646/activation-of-an-inflammatory-response-is-context-dependent-during-early-development-of-the-california-sea-lion
#19
Camila Vera-Massieu, Patrick M Brock, Carlos Godínez-Reyes, Karina Acevedo-Whitehouse
Variations in immune function can arise owing to trade-offs, that is, the allocation of limited resources among costly competing physiological functions. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the ontogeny of the immune system within an ecological context, and it is still unknown whether development affects the way in which resources are allocated to different immune effectors. We investigated changes in the inflammatory response during early development of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and examined its association with body condition, as a proxy for the availability of energetic resources...
April 2015: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25870395/social-status-immune-response-and-parasitism-in-males-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Bobby Habig, Elizabeth A Archie
In male vertebrates, two conflicting paradigms--the energetic costs of high dominance rank and the chronic stress of low rank--have been proposed to explain patterns of immune function and parasitism. To date, neither paradigm has provided a complete explanation for status-related differences in male health. Here, we applied meta-analyses to test for correlations between male social status, immune responses and parasitism. We used an ecoimmunological framework, which proposes that males should re-allocate investment in different immune components depending on the costs of dominance or subordination...
May 26, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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