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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050459/third-party-regulatory-t-cells-prevent-murine-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#1
Jung-Yeon Lim, Keon-Il Im, Yunejin Song, Nayoun Kim, Young-Sun Nam, Young-Woo Jeon, Seok-Goo Cho
Background/Aims: Adoptive therapy with regulatory T (Treg) cells to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) would benefit from a strategy to improve homing to the sites of inflammation following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although donor-derived Treg cells have mainly been used in these models, third-party-derived Treg cells are a promising alternative for cell-based immunotherapy, as they can be screened for pathogens and cell activity, and banked for GVHD prevention...
October 19, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048660/canonical-and-non-canonical-wnt-signaling-in-cancer-stem-cells-and-their-niches-cellular-heterogeneity-omics-reprogramming-targeted-therapy-and-tumor-plasticity-review
#2
Masaru Katoh
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the potential for self-renewal, differentiation and de-differentiation, undergo epigenetic, epithelial-mesenchymal, immunological and metabolic reprogramming to adapt to the tumor microenvironment and survive host defense or therapeutic insults. Intra-tumor heterogeneity and cancer-cell plasticity give rise to therapeutic resistance and recurrence through clonal replacement and reactivation of dormant CSCs, respectively. WNT signaling cascades cross-talk with the FGF, Notch, Hedgehog and TGFβ/BMP signaling cascades and regulate expression of functional CSC markers, such as CD44, CD133 (PROM1), EPCAM and LGR5 (GPR49)...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048509/plasma-but-not-cerebrospinal-fluid-interleukin-7-and-interleukin-5-levels-pre-antiretroviral-therapy-commencement-predict-cryptococcosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#3
Ngomu Akeem Akilimali, Christina C Chang, Daniel M Muema, Tarylee Reddy, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Sharon R Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
Background: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) frequently experience clinical deterioration, known as cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS), upon initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The immunological mechanisms underlying C-IRIS are incompletely defined and no reliable predictive biomarkers exist. We investigated whether plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and chemokines predicted C-IRIS and are potential predictive biomarkers...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048352/effects-of-short-term-probiotic-ingestion-on-immune-profiles-and-microbial-translocation-among-hiv-1-infected-vietnamese-children
#4
Azumi Ishizaki, Xiuqiong Bi, Lam Van Nguyen, Kazunori Matsuda, Hung Viet Pham, Chung Thi Thu Phan, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hiroshi Ichimura
Here, we investigated the effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on immune profiles and intestinal microbial translocation among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This prospective study included 60 HIV-infected children-including 31 without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (HIV(+)) and 29 who received ART for a median of 3.5 years (ART(+)) and 20 children without HIV infection (HIV(-)). Participants were recruited in Vietnam. All children were given fermented milk containing LcS (6...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046675/interpreting-t-cell-cross-reactivity-through-structure-implications-for-tcr-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#5
Dinler A Antunes, Maurício M Rigo, Martiela V Freitas, Marcus F A Mendes, Marialva Sinigaglia, Gregory Lizée, Lydia E Kavraki, Liisa K Selin, Markus Cornberg, Gustavo F Vieira
Immunotherapy has become one of the most promising avenues for cancer treatment, making use of the patient's own immune system to eliminate cancer cells. Clinical trials with T-cell-based immunotherapies have shown dramatic tumor regressions, being effective in multiple cancer types and for many different patients. Unfortunately, this progress was tempered by reports of serious (even fatal) side effects. Such therapies rely on the use of cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes, an essential part of the adaptive immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046310/protein-structure-facilitates-high-resolution-immunological-mapping
#6
Madison Zuverink, Joseph T Barbieri
Select Agents (SA) pose unique challenges towards licensing vaccines and therapies. In the case of toxin-mediated diseases, Health and Human Services assign guidelines for SA use, oversee vaccine and therapy development, and approve animal models and approaches to identify mechanism(s) for toxin neutralization. In this commentary, we discuss next generation vaccines and therapies against ricin toxin and botulinum toxin, SA-regulated toxins, which utilize structure-based approaches for counter measures to guide rapid response to future biothreats...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046194/the-role-of-intravenous-access-during-oral-food-challenges-in-food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome
#7
Laura E Pena, Danielle Guffey, Charles G Minard, Sara Anvari, Carla M Davis
BACKGROUND: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-immunoglobulin E mediated food hypersensitivity syndrome characterized by profuse vomiting and diarrhea, which leads to lethargy, dehydration, and hypotension. Given the potential severity of reactions, resolution of FPIES is confirmed via oral food challenge (OFC) during which intravenous (IV) access is recommended to facilitate IV fluids (IVF) and steroid therapy. Risk factors for IV treatment are not well characterized...
November 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045253/gut-microbial-diversity-in-hiv-infection-post-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-key-target-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Mohamed El-Far, Cécile L Tremblay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the HIV-infected population is living longer and getting older under current treatment regimens, significant challenges arise for health management as the infection is associated with various premature aging phenotypes, particularly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here we review the current understanding of HIV-related gut dysbiosis in association with CVD and advances in clinical trials aiming to restore gut microbial diversity. RECENT FINDING: Identification of a unique signature for gut dysbiosis in HIV infection between different cohorts remains challenging...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045165/asparaginase-activity-levels-and-monitoring-in-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Wanda Salzer, Bruce Bostrom, Yoav Messinger, Anthony J Perissinotti, Bernard Marini
Asparaginase is an integral component of multiagent chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Adequate asparagine depletion is believed to be an important factor in achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes. Measurement of asparaginase activity allows practitioners to evaluate the potential effectiveness of therapy in real time. Asparaginase activity levels can be used to identify patients with silent inactivation and modify therapy in these patients. Patients with silent inactivation to asparaginase who are switched to therapy with an immunologically distinct asparaginase exhibit outcomes similar to patients who never developed silent inactivation...
October 18, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044226/bone-marrow-transplant-induced-alterations-in-notch-signaling-promote-pathologic-th17-responses-to-%C3%AE-herpesvirus-infection
#10
S J Gurczynski, X Zhou, M Flaherty, C A Wilke, B B Moore
Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a common, often fatal, complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) characterized by severe pneumonitis and interstitial fibrosis. Fully reconstituted syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) mice infected with murine γ-herpesvirus-68 develop interleukin-17 (IL-17)-driven pneumonitis and fibrosis, which mimics clinical manifestations of IPS. We found CD103+ and CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs) are selectively deficient for the Notch ligand, DLL4, following BMT and CD4+ T cells isolated from lungs and spleens of infected BMT mice display Notch signaling defects...
October 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044082/rickettsial-retinitis-direct-bacterial-infection-or-an-immune-mediated-response
#11
Rohan Chawla, Gadkar Amit Pundlik, Rama Chaudhry, Chandan Thakur
Infectious retinitis postfebrile illness is known to be caused by chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, Bartonella, Lyme's disease, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia, Herpes viruses etc. Rickettsia is Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropods vectors. Ocular involvement is common including conjunctivitis, keratitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis, retinitis, retinal vascular changes, and optic nerve involvement. Retinitis lesions in rickettsia can occur because of an immunological response to the bacteria or because of direct invasion and proliferation of bacteria in the inner retina...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044016/drug-induced-hypothyroidism
#12
Leonardo F L Rizzo, Daniela L Mana, Héctor A Serra
The thyroid axis is particularly prone to interactions with a wide variety of drugs, whose list increases year by year. Hypothyroidism is the most frequent consequence of drug-induced thyroid dysfunction. The main mechanisms involved in the development of primary hypothyroidism are: inhibition of the synthesis and/or release of thyroid hormones, immune mechanisms related to the use of interferon and other cytokines, and the induction of thyroiditis associated with the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and drugs blocking the receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042994/immunological-mechanism-of-low-dose-priming-radiation-resistance-in-walker-256-tumor-model-mice
#13
Li Feng, Ling Qin, Dan Guo, Daping Deng, Feng Lu, Hailiang Li, Narisu Bao, Xiting Yang, Hongyu Ding, Jianguo Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low-dose priming radiation induces antitumor immunity that can be augmented by the modulation of natural killer (NK) cell and cytokine activity using a mouse tumor model. Walker-256 cells were injected into the right flank of male BALB/c mice. At 7 days after inoculation, mice were divided into three groups, including group 1,2,3. In group 1 the mice were without radiation, in group 2 the mice were received 2 Gy radiation only, and in group 3 the mice were radiated with a priming dose of 75 mGy followed by 2 Gy radiation after 24 h...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042868/characteristics-and-prognosis-of-hepatic-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-children-10-years-of-experience-at-a-university-hospital-in-korea
#14
Chae-Yeon Min, Joo Young Song, Su Jin Jeong
PURPOSE: Studies on cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in immunocompetent children are lacking, and minimal information is available in the medical literature on hepatic manifestations and complications of CMV. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and prognosis of children with CMV hepatitis, and to investigate its prevalence at a single medical center in Korea over a 10-year period. METHODS: One hundred thirty-two children diagnosed with CMV infection based on specific markers (anti-CMV IgM, CMV polymerase chain reaction in blood and urine, or CMV culture of urine) were included in the study...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042364/a-cd200r-cd28-fusion-protein-appropriates-an-inhibitory-signal-to-enhance-t-cell-function-and-therapy-of-murine-leukemia
#15
Shannon K Oda, Andrew W Daman, Nicolas M Garcia, Felecia Wagener, Thomas M Schmitt, Xiaoxia Tan, Aude G Chapuis, Philip D Greenberg
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common adult acute leukemia in the U.S., has the poorest survival rate, with 26% of patients surviving 5 years. Adoptive immunotherapy with T cells genetically modified to recognize tumors is a promising and evolving treatment option. However, antitumor activity, particularly in the context of progressive leukemia, can be dampened both by limited costimulation and triggering of immunoregulatory checkpoints that attenuate T cell responses. Expression of CD200 (OX2), a negative regulator of T cell function that binds CD200R, is commonly increased in leukemia and other malignancies, and is associated with poor prognosis in leukemia patients...
October 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040190/novel-therapeutics-for-ovarian-cancer-the-11th-biennial-rivkin-center-ovarian-cancer-research-symposium
#16
Neil Johnson, John B Liao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize developments in novel therapeutics for ovarian cancer presented at the Ovarian Cancer Research Symposium held at the University of Washington. METHODS: A symposium of the leaders in ovarian cancer research was convened to present and discuss current advances and future directions in ovarian cancer research. RESULTS: The fourth session was held on September 13, 2016, and focused on Novel Therapeutics for Ovarian Cancer...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039351/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-prognosis-of-interferon-alpha-induced-thyroid-disorders-a-prospective-clinical-study
#17
Łukasz Obołończyk, Małgorzata Siekierska-Hellmann, Piotr Wiśniewski, Anna Lewczuk, Monika Berendt-Obołończyk, Anna Lakomy, Zofia Michalska, Danuta Radowska, Grażyna Moszkowska, Agnieszka Bianek-Bodzak, Krzysztof Sworczak
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide problem and hepatitis, which is its natural unfavourable course, is still a challenge for hepatologist. At present, standards of treatment are changing from combined therapy with interferon alpha (IFN-α) and ribavirin to new antiviral drugs. The current classification divides interferon induced thyroid diseases (IITD) into two groups: autoimmune (Hashimoto disease, Graves disease, positive antithyroid autoantibodies in euthyroid patients) and non-autoimmune (destructive thyroiditis, non-autoimmune hypothyroidism)...
September 25, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038892/-pityriasis-amiantacea-and-folliculitis-decalvans-an-unusual-manifestation-associated-with-antitumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-therapy
#18
M Zamperetti, B Zelger, R Höpfl
We report on a 21-year-old woman with a 3-year history of crusts and erosions on her scalp that had appeared after starting treatment with adalimumab due to Crohn's disease. By clinicopathological correlation pityriasis amiantacea with underlying folliculitis decalvans was diagnosed. Topical and systemic antibiotic treatment showed rapid response. The occurrence of pityriasis amiantacea in folliculitis decalvans associated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor therapy is remarkable and highlights the ambivalent role of TNF-α in diseases with immunological dysfunctions in combination with infections...
October 16, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038380/integrating-nanomedicine-and-imaging
#19
REVIEW
Carlos Pérez-Medina, Sjoerd Hak, Thomas Reiner, Zahi A Fayad, Matthias Nahrendorf, Willem J M Mulder
Biomedical engineering and its associated disciplines play a pivotal role in improving our understanding and management of disease. Motivated by past accomplishments, such as the clinical implementation of coronary stents, pacemakers or recent developments in antibody therapies, disease management now enters a new era in which precision imaging and nanotechnology-enabled therapeutics are maturing to clinical translation. Preclinical molecular imaging increasingly focuses on specific components of the immune system that drive disease progression and complications, allowing the in vivo study of potential therapeutic targets...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037136/effect-of-priming-of-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-with-interferon-%C3%AE-on-their-immunomodulating-properties
#20
N M Kapranov, Y O Davydova, I V Galtseva, N A Petinati, N I Drize, L A Kuzmina, E N Parovichnikova, V G Savchenko
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are widely used for cell therapy, in particular for prophylaxis and treatment of graft-versus-host disease. Due to their immunomodulatory properties, MSCs affect the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations, which depends on the immunological state of the organism and can change in different diseases and during treatment. Administration of MSCs is not always effective. Treatment of MSCs with different cytokines (in particular IFN-γ) leads to enhancement of their immunomodulatory properties...
October 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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