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immunology therapy

Ioana Adriana Muntean, Ioana Corina Bocsan, Diana Deleanu
Wheat is the most commonly grown cereal. Immunological reaction to wheat may be IgE or T-cell- mediated. Asthma could be induced by inhaled flour or by exposure to allergens present in bakery products. In patients with IgE-mediated allergy to wheat proteins there is no specific therapy, except oral immunotherapy (OIT). There are few data regarding OIT with wheat protein in allergic patients. We present a case of a 32-yearold female patient, who worked for 5 years in wheat and bakery products industry, who developed an occupational asthma and chronic urticaria after flour inhalation or ingestion of foods that containit...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Ronald F van Vollenhoven
The autoimmune rheumatological diseases rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are treated with conventional immunosuppressive agents and with modern biological immunomodulators. The latter group of medications have brought about a major change in our ability to control RA and SpA, with more modest results for SLE. The biologicals are very specific in their mechanisms of action, targeting one specific cytokine or one particular cellular marker. Because of this, their efficacy can readily be linked to a single immunomodulatory mechanism...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Kenichi Asano, Kenta Kikuchi, Masato Tanaka
Tissue macrophages comprise heterogeneous subsets that differ in localization, phenotype, and ontogeny. They acquire tissue-specific phenotype in order to maintain normal tissue physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the functions of CD169-positive macrophage subset residing in the lymphoid organs and intestinal tract. Strategically positioned at the interface between tissue and circulating fluid, CD169+ macrophages in the lymphoid organs capture blood- and lymph-borne particulate materials...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Ya Kolesnik, T Zharkova, O Rzhevskaya, T Kvaratskheliya, O Sorokina
The article presents the results of our own studies to determine the criteria for the adverse variants of the course of infectious mononucleosis (IM) in children. The study was conducted in the regional children's infectious clinical hospital in Kharkov. 161 children aged three to fifteen years were under observation with diagnosis of infectious moninucleosis. Out of 161 ill children, 140 (86.9%) had moderate severity of disease, and 21 (13.1%) had severe forms. All children were prescribed standard clinical and laboratory-instrumental examinations...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Andrew Swayne, Linda Tjoa, Simon Broadley, Sasha Dionisio, David Gillis, Leslie Jacobson, Mark R Woodhall, Andrew McNabb, Daniel Schweitzer, Ben Tsang, Angela Vincent, Sarosh R Irani, Richard Wong, Patrick Waters, Stefan Blum
INTRODUCTION: Antibodies to glycine receptors (GlyR-Abs) were first defined in progressive encephalopathy with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), but subsequently identified in other clinical presentations. We aimed to assess the clinical associations of all patients identified with GlyR-Abs in Queensland, Australia between April 2014 to May 2017, and compared these to cases reported in the literature. METHODS: A literature review identified the clinical features of all published GlyR-Ab positive cases through online databases...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Nicla Porciello, Martina Kunkl, Loretta Tuosto
Regulation of immune responses is critical for ensuring pathogen clearance and for preventing reaction against self-antigens. Failure or breakdown of immunological tolerance results in autoimmunity. CD28 is an important co-stimulatory receptor expressed on T cells that, upon specific ligand binding, delivers signals essential for full T-cell activation and for the development and homeostasis of suppressive regulatory T cells. Many in vivo mouse models have been used for understanding the role of CD28 in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, thus leading to the development of CD28 signaling modulators that have been approved for the treatment of some autoimmune diseases...
2018: F1000Research
André Alan Nahas, Mayara Ingrid de Sousa Lima, Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart, Luiz Ricardo Goulart
Leprosy causes the most common peripheral neuropathy of infectious etiology, posing an important public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms of nerve damage induced by M. leprae is mandatory to develop tools for early diagnosis and preventive measures. The phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigens are major components of the bacterial surface and are implicated on leprosy immunopathogenesis and neural damage. Although the anti-PGL-1 serum IgM is highly used for operational classification of patients, the anti-LAM salivary IgA (sIgA) has not been investigated as diagnostic or prognostic marker in leprosy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ana Patricia Ayala-Cuellar, Ji-Houn Kang, Eui-Bae Jeung, Kyung-Chul Choi
Mesenchymal stem cells are classified as multipotent stem cells, due to their capability to transdifferentiate into various lineages that develop from mesoderm. Their popular appeal as cell-based therapy was initially based on the idea of their ability to restore tissue because of their differentiation potential in vitro ; however, the lack of evidence of their differentiation to target cells in vivo led researchers to focus on their secreted trophic factors and their role as potential powerhouses on regulation of factors under different immunological environments and recover homeostasis...
June 14, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Daniel M Altmann
At a time when immunology seeks to progress ever more rapidly from characterization of a microbial or tumour antigen to the immune correlates that may define protective T-cell immunity, there is a need for robust tools to enable accurate predictions of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) and peptide-MHC-T-cell receptor binding. Improvements in the curation of data sets from high throughput pMHC analysis, such as the NIH Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), and the associated developments of predictive tools rooted in machine-learning approaches, are having significant impact...
July 2018: Immunology
Lishen Shan, Xinyuan Kang, Fen Liu, Xuxu Cai, Xiaohua Han, Yunxiao Shang
Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are associated with the occurrence and development of asthma. The aim of the present study was to analyze the secondary structure and B‑cell and T‑cell epitopes of VDR using online prediction software and aid in the future development of a highly efficient epitope‑based vaccine against asthma. Blood samples were collected from peripheral blood of asthmatic children. Reverse transcription quantitative‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of VDR in the peripheral blood...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
M Xipell, I Victoria, V Hoffmann, J Villarreal, A García-Herrera, O Reig, L Rodas, M Blasco, E Poch, B Mellado, L F Quintana
Direct stimulation of the antitumor activity of immune system through checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of different cancer types. The activity of these antibodies takes place in the immunological synapse blocking the binding of the negative immunoregulatory proteins, thus leading to the finalization of the immune response. Despite having a favorable toxicity profile, its mechanism of action impedes the negative regulation of the immune activity which can potentially favor autoimmune attacks to normal tissues...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Ellen C Moore, Lillian Sun, Paul E Clavijo, Jay Friedman, Joe B Harford, Anthony D Saleh, Carter Van Waes, Esther H Chang, Clint T Allen
Loss or mutation of TP53 has been linked to alterations in anti-tumor immunity as well as dysregulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. We explored immunologic effects and mechanisms following restoration of wild-type human TP53 cDNA in murine oral cancer cells using the therapeutic nanocomplex scL-53. We demonstrated scL-53 induces dose-dependent expression of TP53 and induction of apoptosis and immunogenic cell death. We further demonstrated both TP53-dependent and independent induction of tumor cell immunogenicity through the use of blocking mAbs, nanocomplex loaded with DNA plasmid with or without TP53 cDNA, empty nanocomplex and siRNA knockdown techniques...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Cian M McCrudden, John W McBride, Joanne McCaffrey, Emma M McErlean, Nicholas J Dunne, Vicky L Kett, Jonathan A Coulter, Tracy Robson, Helen O McCarthy
Background: Recent approvals of gene therapies by the FDA and the EMA for treatment of inherited disorders have further opened the door for assessment of nucleic acid pharmaceuticals for clinical usage. Arising from the presence of damaged or inappropriate DNA, cancer is a condition particularly suitable for genetic intervention. The RALA peptide has been shown to be a potent non-viral delivery platform for nucleic acids. This study examines the use of RALA to deliver a plasmid encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as an anti-cancer treatment...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Vishnu Jayakumar Sunandhakumari, Arun Sadasivan, Elizabeth Koshi, Aswathy Krishna, Aneesh Alim, Aneesh Sebastian
For years the pathogenesis of periodontitis was under an immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm. Th1 cells are considered to afford protection against the intracellular pathogens. These cells produce the interferons (IFN) that are involved in macrophage activation, which, in turn, plays an important role in phagocytosis, complement fixation, and opsonization. Th2 cells are thought to have evolved as a form of protection against parasitic helminthes. Th17 subset of CD4Not Necessary+ T cells was identified in the year 2005, which added greater complexity to Th function and are pro inflammatory in nature...
June 13, 2018: Dentistry journal
Ariel E Marciscano, Ali Ghasemzadeh, Thomas R Nirschl, Debebe Theodros, Christina M Kochel, Brian J Francica, Yuki Muroyama, Robert A Anders, Andrew B Sharabi, Esteban Velarde, Wendy Mao, Kunal R Chaudhary, Matthew G Chaimowitz, John Wong, Mark Selby, Kent B Thudium, Alan J Korman, David Ulmert, Daniel Lj Thorek, Theodore L DeWeese, Charles G Drake
PURPOSE: In the proper context, radiation therapy (RT) can promote anti-tumor immunity. It is unknown if elective nodal irradiation (ENI), a strategy that irradiates tumor-associated draining lymph nodes (DLN), impacts adaptive immune responses and combinatorial efficacy of RT with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We developed a preclinical model to compare stereotactic RT (Tumor RT) with or without ENI to examine immunological differences between RT techniques that spare or irradiate the DLN...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Finetti Francesca, Cosima T Baldari
The development of T cell mediated immunity relies on the assembly of a highly specialized interface between T cell and antigen presenting cell (APC), known as the immunological synapse (IS). IS assembly is triggered when the T cell receptor (TCR) binds to specific peptide antigen presented in association to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) by the APC, and is followed by the spatiotemporal dynamic redistribution of TCR, integrins, co-stimulatory receptors and signaling molecules, allowing for the fine-tuning and integration of the signals that lead to T cell activation...
June 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Philipp Metzger, Sabrina V Kirchleitner, Lars M Koenig, Christine Hörth, Sebastian Kobold, Stefan Endres, Max Schnurr, Peter Duewell
Checkpoint molecules such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) dampen excessive T cell activation to preserve immune homeostasis. PD-1-specific monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized cancer therapy, as they reverse tumour-induced T cell exhaustion and restore CTL activity. Based on this success, deciphering underlying mechanisms of PD-1-mediated immune functions has become an important field of immunological research. Initially described for T cells, there is emerging evidence of unconventional PD-1 expression by myeloid as well as tumor cells, yet, with cell-intrinsic functions in various animal tumor models...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Heather M McGee, Megan E Daly, Sohelia Azghadi, Susan L Stewart, Leslie Oesterich, Jeffrey Schlom, Renee Donahue, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Qian Chen, Shyam Rao, Ruben C Fragoso, Richard K Valicenti, Robert J Canter, Emmanual M Maverakis, William J Murphy, Karen Kelly, Arta M Monjazeb
PURPOSE: Despite the strong interest in combining stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SAR) with immunotherapy, limited data characterizing the systemic immune response after SAR are available. We hypothesized that the systemic immune response to SAR would differ by irradiated site owing to inherent differences in the microenvironment of various organs. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients receiving SAR to any organ underwent prospective blood banking before and 1 to 2 weeks after SAR...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Aravindhan Ganesan, Theinmozhi Arulraj, Tahir Choulli, Khaled H Barakat
BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies blocking the Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) receptor have revolutionized the field of anti-cancer therapy for the last few years. The human T-cell-based immune responses are modulated by two contradicting signals. CTLA-4 provides a T cell inhibitory signal through its interaction with B7 ligands (B7-1 and B7-2), while CD28 provides a stimulatory signal when interacting with the same ligands. A previous theoretical model has focused on understanding the processes of costimulatory and inhibitory complex formations at the synapse...
June 11, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Penny Owens, Melanie Wong, Kaustuv Bhattacharya, Carolyn Ellaway
AIM: Pompe disease is a rare, autosomal, recessive disorder. Alterations in the gene encoding lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase cause impaired glycogen degradation and resultant lysosomal glycogen accumulation. Classic infantile-onset Pompe disease (IPD) manifests soon after birth, severe cases have complete/near complete enzyme deficiency. IPD is associated with a broad spectrum of non-specific clinical features, and diagnostic delays are common. Without treatment, death typically occurs within the first 2 years of life...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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