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Jessica A Nash, Albert L Kwansa, James Samuel Peerless, Ho Shin Kim, Yaroslava G Yingling
Nanoparticles (NPs) play increasingly important roles in nanotechnology and nanomedicine where nanoparticle surface chemistry allows for control over interactions with other nanoparticles and biomolecules. In particular, for applications in drug and gene delivery, a fundamental understanding of the NP-nucleic acid interface allows for development of more efficient and effective nanoparticle carriers. Computational modeling can provide insights of processes occurring at the inorganic NP-nucleic interface, in detail which is difficult to access by experimental methods...
October 24, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
E C Economou, S Marinelli, M C Smith, A A Routt, V V Kravets, H W Chu, K Spendier, Z J Celinski
Superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) and highly anisotropic barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) nanoparticles were coated with an anti-inflammatory drug and magnetically transported through mucus produced by primary human airway epithelial cells. Using wet planetary ball milling, dl-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid-coated BaFe12O19 nano-particles (BaNPs) of 1-100 nm in diameter were prepared in water. BaNPs and conventional 20-30-nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FeNPs) were then encased in a polymer (PLGA) loaded with dexamethasone (Dex) and tagged for imaging...
September 2016: BioNanoScience
Wei Cui, Anhe Wang, Jie Zhao, Junbai Li
Polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules have become a novel and promising class of hybrid materials with great potential since they can be applied in various areas, such as pharmaceutical sciences, biotechnology, and biomedicine. The concept of using such carriers for biology application is diagnosis and treatment of diseases for convenience, safety and specific targeting. Therefore, the development of biocompatible, biodegradable and specific characteristic nanostructure material is highly desirable. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective techniques to fabricate such materials...
October 6, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Satadru Jha, Federico Ramadori, Santina Quarta, Alessandra Biasiolo, Enrica Fabris, Paola Baldan, Gaetano Guarino, Mariagrazia Ruvoletto, Gianmarco Villano, Cristian Turato, Angelo Gatta, Fabrizio Mancin, Patrizia Pontisso, Paolo Scrimin
One of the most daunting challenges of nanomedicine is the finding of appropriate targeting agents to deliver suitable payloads precisely to cells affected by malignancies. Even more complex is to achieve the ability to ensure the nanosystems enter those cells. Here we use 2 nm (metal core) gold nanoparticles to target human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells stably transfected with the SERPINB3 (SB3) protein. The nanoparticles were coated with a 85:15 mixture of thiols featuring, respectively, a phosphoryl choline, to ensure water solubility and biocompatibility, and a 28-mer peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence 21-47 of the hepatitis B virus-PreS1 protein (PreS1(21-47))...
October 22, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Vincenzo Amendola, Stefano Scaramuzza, Francesco Carraro, Elti Cattaruzza
Laser ablation in liquids (LAL) emerged as a powerful technique for the synthesis of multielement nanoparticles (NPs) such as metal alloys with thermodynamically forbidden composition. Consequently, there is a great interest in expanding the current knowledge about NPs formation during LAL, in order to improve the control on product structure and to extend the range of compositions accessible by this technique. Here we performed a systematic investigation on alloy NPs formation by nanosecond LAL of Au/Fe/glass multilayers with different thickness and order of deposition...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Vivienne H Tam, Chris Sosa, Rui Liu, Nan Yao, Rodney D Priestley
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle to drug delivery for diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). This brief review highlights the current invasive and non-invasive technologies available to address this problem. In particular, nanomedicine has shown much promise as a non-invasive strategy due to its drug loading capabilities, ease of targeting to the BBB, and small size. The versatility of this technology in terms of type of drug and imaging agent, carrier material, and targeting mechanism is highlighted in this review...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Thidarat Wongpinyochit, Blair F Johnston, F Philipp Seib
Silk is a promising biopolymer for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well its ability to protect and subsequently release its payload in response to a trigger. While silk can be formulated into various material formats, silk nanoparticles are emerging as promising drug delivery systems. Therefore, this article covers the procedures for reverse engineering silk cocoons to yield a regenerated silk solution that can be used to generate stable silk nanoparticles...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Marco Giardiello, Neill J Liptrott, Tom O McDonald, Darren Moss, Marco Siccardi, Phil Martin, Darren Smith, Rohan Gurjar, Steve P Rannard, Andrew Owen
Considerable scope exists to vary the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, with subsequent impact on biological interactions; however, no accelerated process to access large nanoparticle material space is currently available, hampering the development of new nanomedicines. In particular, no clinically available nanotherapies exist for HIV populations and conventional paediatric HIV medicines are poorly available; one current paediatric formulation utilizes high ethanol concentrations to solubilize lopinavir, a poorly soluble antiretroviral...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Shringika Soni, Rakesh Kumar Ruhela, Bikash Medhi
Purpose: For the past few decades central nervous system disorders were considered as a major strike on human health and social system of developing countries. The natural therapeutic methods for CNS disorders limited for many patients. Moreover, nanotechnology-based drug delivery to the brain may an exciting and promising platform to overcome the problem of BBB crossing. In this review, first we focused on the role of the blood-brain barrier in drug delivery; and second, we summarized synthesis methods of nanomedicine and their role in different CNS disorder...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Ahmet Bekdemir, Francesco Stellacci
Nanomedicine requires in-depth knowledge of nanoparticle-protein interactions. These interactions are studied with methods limited to large or fluorescently labelled nanoparticles as they rely on scattering or fluorescence-correlation signals. Here, we have developed a method based on analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) as an absorbance-based, label-free tool to determine dissociation constants (KD), stoichiometry (Nmax), and Hill coefficient (n), for the association of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with gold nanoparticles...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Tumor progression and response to treatment is determined in large part by the generation of mechanical stresses that stem from both the solid and the fluid phase of the tumor. Furthermore, elevated solid stress levels can regulate fluid stresses by compressing intratumoral blood and lymphatic vessels. Blood vessel compression reduces tumor perfusion, while compression of lymphatic vessels hinders the ability of the tumor to drain excessive fluid from its interstitial space contributing to the uniform elevation of the interstitial fluid pressure...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Gurpreet S Suri, Amritvir Kaur, Tapas Sen
Persistent development in nanomedicine has enabled successful nanosizing of most drug samples which, in turn, imparts remarkable properties to the drugs such as enhanced solubility and bioavailability for the applications in drug delivery. In this context, several review articles are available in scientific domain covering inorganic nanoparticles such as Au, Ag, SPIONs, Qdots, carbon nanotubes and graphene; however, this review covers the development of drug nanoparticles together with their possibilities and limitation from fabrication (bottom up vs top down) to application in drug delivery during the last 5 years...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine
Anees A Ansari, Abdul K Parchur, Brijesh Kumar, S B Rai
The design of nanostructured materials with highly stable water-dispersion and luminescence efficiency is an important concern in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. In this paper, we described the synthesis and distinct surface modification on the morphological structure and optical (optical absorption, band gap energy, excitation, emission, decay time, etc.) properties of highly crystalline water-dispersible CaF2:Ce/Tb nanocrystals (core-nanocrystals). The epitaxial growth of inert CaF2 and silica shell, respectively, on their surface forming as CaF2:Ce/Tb@CaF2 (core/shell) and CaF2:Ce/Tb@CaF2@SiO2 (core/shell/SiO2) nanoarchitecture...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Gaoxing Su, Xiaofei Zhou, Hongyu Zhou, Ye Li, Xianren Zhang, Yin Liu, Dapeng Cao, Bing Yan
Understandings of how biomolecules modify nanoparticles in a biological context and how these exchanges impact nano-bio interactions are fundamental to nanomedicine and nanotoxicology research. In this work, cancer-targeting gold nanoparticles (TGNPs) with different sizes (5, 15, and 40 nm) were designed and synthesized. These nanoparticles spontaneously adsorbed proteins in complete cell culture medium (DMEM with 10% human serum). Although the targeting ligands on the surface of nanoparticles were likely to be shielded by adsorbed proteins, the targeting capability of nanoparticles was maintained due to the highly dynamic nature of protein adsorption...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Thiago Lopes Rocha, Nélia C Mestre, Simone Maria Teixeira Sabóia-Morais, Maria João Bebianno
Despite the wide application of quantum dots (QDs) in electronics, pharmacy and nanomedicine, limited data is available on their environmental health risk. To advance our current understanding of the environmental impact of these engineered nanomaterials, the aim of this review is to give a detailed insight on the existing information concerning the behaviour, transformation and fate of QDs in the aquatic environment, as well as on its mode of action (MoA), ecotoxicity, trophic transfer and biomagnification at various trophic levels (micro-organisms, aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates)...
October 13, 2016: Environment International
Nikolas T Weissmueller, Hoang Dung Lu, Amanda Hurley, Robert K Prud'homme
One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nano-encapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP...
October 16, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Xiongwei Hu, Xiaochun Dong, Yi Lu, Jianping Qi, Weili Zhao, Wei Wu
The biological fate of nanocarriers has yet to be fully explored, mainly because of the lack of functional tools like probes to identify integral nanocarriers in the body. Understanding their in vivo fate remains as the bottleneck to the development of nanomedicines. Bioimaging results based on conventional fluorescent or radioactive probes should be judged critically because images merely reflect bulk signals of an admixture of the nanoparticles and free probes. It is crucial to discriminate between nanocarrier-bound and free signals...
October 11, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Jabadurai Jayapaul, Susanne Arns, Matt Bunker, Marek Weiler, Sandra Rutherford, Peter Comba, Fabian Kiessling
: Riboflavin (Rf) receptors bind and translocate Rf and its phosphorylated forms (e.g. flavin mononucleotide, FMN) into cells where they mediate various cellular metabolic pathways. Previously, we showed that FMN-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (FLUSPIO) nanoparticles are suitable for labeling metabolically active cancer and endothelial cells in vitro. In this study, we focused on the in vivo application of FLUSPIO using prostate cancer xenografts. Size, charge, and chemical composition of FLUSPIO were evaluated...
2016: Nano Research
Bhabatosh Banik, Brett W Askins, Shanta Dhar
The field of intracellular organelle targeting using nanoparticle (NP) is mushrooming rapidly. Thus, the area of nanotechnology-enabled targeting of mitochondrion, the cellular powerhouse, for diseases characterized by mitochondrial dysfunctions such as cancer, diseases of the central nervous system, and cardiovascular diseases is also growing at a rapid pace. Optimization of a NP's ability to target the mitochondria requires quantification of the particles in this subcellular organelle and isolation of mitochondria from the cells...
October 13, 2016: Nanoscale
Pingsheng Huang, Huijuan Song, Yumin Zhang, Jinjian Liu, Ju Zhang, Weiwei Wang, Jianfeng Liu, Chen Li, Deling Kong
The objective of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal delivery of nanomedicines by an injectable, thermosensitive and nanoparticle self-aggregated hydrogel for peritumoral chemotherapy. Doxorubicin (Dox) was taken as the model medicine, which was encapsulated into poly(ε-caprolactone-co- 1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone-co -1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT) nanoparticles (PECT/Dox NPs). Macroscale hydrogel was formed by thermosensitive self-aggregation of PECT/Dox NPs in aqueous solution...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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