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Deepthi Alapati, Edward E Morrisey
While our understanding of the genetics and pathology of congenital lung diseases such as surfactant protein deficiency, cystic fibrosis and alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is extensive, treatment options are lacking. Since the lung is a barrier organ in direct communication with the external environment, targeted delivery of gene corrective technologies to the respiratory system via intra-tracheal or intranasal routes is an attractive option for therapy. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology is a promising approach to repair or inactivate disease causing mutations...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Maria Gogou, Katerina Haidopoulou, Maria Eboriadou, Evangelos Pavlou
Background The aim of this study is to investigate through polysomnography sleep quality in children with rolandic epilepsy and compare sleep variables between these children and healthy controls. Methods Our study population included 15 children with rolandic epilepsy and 27 healthy children who underwent overnight polysomnography. Parameters about sleep architecture and sleep respiratory events were recorded and analyzed. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results Patients and controls did not differ in basic epidemiological traits...
October 25, 2016: Neuropediatrics
T Kühlein, F Madlo-Thiess, V Wambach, S Schaffer
Background: Quality management (QM) became mandatory for the ambulatory sector of the German health care system 10 years ago. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out how general practitioners (GPs) perceived the introduction of this measure, how they see it today and what they expect of the future concerning QM. Materials and Methods: In a qualitative study, interviews following a semi-structured guideline with GPs were conducted. Following transcription, interviews were coded in triangulation, first inductively, then deductively until saturation was reached...
October 25, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Zhen Shen, Chen-Yang Zhi, Ruo-Nan Wang, Hai-Cheng Gao
The purpose of this case is to investigate a case of obturator hernia leading to right thigh abscess on 68-year-old woman of China. A 68-year-old Chinese woman was referred to China-Japan Friendship Hospital of Jilin University with abdominal pain, bloating, exhaust, stop defecation in 2011. She had chronic bronchitis, emphysema with a history of 20 years. This patient did not have any bad habits, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, etc. In this surgery, CT was used to diagnose the basic condition of the patient...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Anthony L Ritaccio, Justin Williams, Tim Denison, Brett L Foster, Philip A Starr, Aysegul Gunduz, Maeike Zijlmans, Gerwin Schalk
Excerpted proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG), which convened October 15-16, 2015 in Chicago, IL, are presented. The workshop series has become the foremost gathering to present current basic and clinical research in subdural brain signal recording and analysis.
October 22, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Justin Donhauser
The world's leading environmental advisory institutions look to ecological theory and research as an objective guide for policy and resource management decision-making. In addition to the theoretical and broadly philosophical merits of doing so, it is therefore practically significant to clear up confusions about ecology's conceptual foundations and to clarify the basic workings of inferential methods used in the science. Through discussion of key moments in the genesis of the theoretical branch of ecology, this essay elucidates a general heuristic role of teleological metaphors in ecological research and defuses certain enduring confusions about work in ecology...
October 22, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Frederick Romberg, Bennett A Shaywitz, Sally E Shaywitz
We examine the dilemmas faced by a medical student with dyslexia who wonders whether he should "out" himself to faculty to receive the accommodations entitled by federal law. We first discuss scientific evidence on dyslexia's prevalence, unexpected nature, and neurobiology. We then examine the experiences of medical students who have revealed their dyslexia to illustrate the point that, far too often, attending physicians who know little about dyslexia can misperceive the motives or behavior of students with dyslexia...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Asif J Iqbal, Edward A Fisher, David R Greaves
What is inflammation's big idea? In this brief overview of the role of myeloid cells in inflammation, we will critically discuss what drives the initiation, amplification, and resolution of inflammation in different anatomical sites in response to different pathological stimuli. It can be argued that we have a good understanding of the basic principles that underlie myeloid cell activation and the mobilization of innate immune cells to sites of injury and infection in acute inflammation. The challenge now for inflammation biologists is to understand how resolution of this normal physiological response goes wrong in hyperacute and chronic inflammation...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Justin M Mittelstädt, Yvonne Pecena, Viktor Oubaid, Peter Maschke
INTRODUCTION: This paper investigates personality traits as potential factors for success in an astronaut selection by comparing personality profiles of unsuccessful and successful astronaut candidates in different phases of the ESA selection procedure. It is further addressed whether personality traits could predict an overall assessment rating at the end of the selection. METHODS: In 2008/2009, ESA performed an astronaut selection with 902 candidates who were either psychologically recommended for mission training (N = 46) or failed in basic aptitude (N = 710) or Assessment Center and interview testing (N = 146)...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Federico Melaccio, María Del Carmen Marín, Alessio Valentini, Fabio Montisci, Silvia Rinaldi, Marco Cherubini, Xuchun Yang, Yoshitaka Kato, Michael Stenrup, Yoelvis Orozco-Gonzalez, Nicolas Ferré, Hoi Ling Luk, Hideki Kandori, Massimo Olivucci
We report on a prototype protocol for the automatic and fast construction of congruous sets of QM/MM models of rhodopsin-like photoreceptors and of their mutants. In the present implementation the information required for the construction of each model is essentially a crystallographic structure or a comparative model complemented with information on the protonation state of ionizable side-chains and distributions of external counterions. Starting with such information a model formed by a fixed environment system, a flexible cavity system and a chromophore system is automatically generated...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Xiao-Feng Tian, Guo-Min Huang, Hong-Liang Zang, Hong Cao
Previous studies have demonstrated the overexpression of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme 4 (PACE4) mRNA in prostate cancer tissues. This overexpression is correlated with higher circulating protein levels in certain patients, however, the role of PACE4 in apoptosis and the potential molecular mechanisms of pancreatic cancer remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and potential molecular mechanisms of PACE4 on apoptosis in the Panc‑1 pancreatic cancer cell line...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
M Rincón-Cortés, R M Sullivan
Disrupted social behavior is a core symptom of multiple psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Many of these disorders are exacerbated by adverse infant experiences, including maltreatment and abuse, which negatively affect amygdala development. Although a link between impaired social behavior, abnormal amygdala function and depressive-like behavior following early adversity has been demonstrated in humans and animal models, the developmental emergence of maltreatment-related social deficits and associated amygdala neural activity are unknown...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Yuyu Ishimoto, Noriko Yoshimura, Shigeyuki Muraki, Hiroshi Yamada, Keiji Nagata, Hiroshi Hashizume, Noboru Takiguchi, Akihito Minamide, Hiroyuki Oka, Sakae Tanaka, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Kozo Nakamura, Toru Akune, Munehito Yoshida
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study OBJECTIVE.: To determine the association between lumbar spondylolisthesis and low back pain and symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) in a population-based cohort. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The basic epidemiology of lumbar spondylolisthesis is not well known. There is little information regarding the association between lumbar spondylolisthesis and clinical symptoms such as low back pain and LSS symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included data from 938 participants (308 men, 630 women; mean age, 67...
October 24, 2016: Spine
Mitsuaki Kojima, Joao Antonio Gimenes-Junior, Simone Langness, Koji Morishita, Ophelie Lavoie-Gagne, Brian Eliceiri, Todd W Costantini, Raul Coimbra
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that mesenteric lymph (ML) has a crucial role in driving the systemic inflammatory response after trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). The specific mediators in the ML that contribute to its biological activity remain unclear despite decades of study. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are shed into body fluids such as serum and urine that can mediate intercellular communication. We hypothesized that exosomes are present in the ML after trauma/shock and are responsible for the biological activity of ML...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Meghan M McConnell, Sandra Monteiro, Molly M Pottruff, Alan Neville, Geoff R Norman, Kevin W Eva, Kulamakan Kulasegaram
PURPOSE: Training to become a physician is an emotionally laden experience. Research in cognitive psychology indicates that emotions can influence learning and performance, but the materials used in such research (e.g., word lists) rarely reflect the complexity of material presented in medical school. The present study examined whether emotions influence learning of basic science principles. METHOD: Fifty-five undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to write about positive, negative, or neutral life events for nine minutes...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Sebastian Schneeweiss, Wesley Eddings, Robert J Glynn, Elisabetta Patorno, Jeremy Rassen, Jessica M Franklin
BACKGROUND: Data-adaptive approaches to confounding adjustment may improve performance beyond expert knowledge when analyzing electronic healthcare databases and have additional practical advantages for analyzing multiple databases in rapid cycles. Improvements seemed possible if outcome predictors were reliably identified empirically and adjusted. METHODS: In five cohort studies from diverse healthcare databases, we implemented a base-case high-dimensional propensity score algorithm with propensity score decile-adjusted outcome models to estimate treatment effects among prescription drug initiators...
October 21, 2016: Epidemiology
Paul Mehlmann, Christian Mück-Lichtenfeld, Tristan T Y Tan, Fabian Dielmann
We report the synthesis and remarkable properties of phosphine P(NIiPr)3 (NIiPr = 1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolin-2-ylidenamino), a crystalline solid accessible through a short and scalable route. Evaluation of the electron donor properties reveals a TEP value of 2029.7 cm-1 for the new phosphine that is significantly lower than those of all known phosphines or even N-heterocyclic carbenes. Moreover, P(NIiPr)3 is more basic [pKBH+(MeCN) = 38.8] than Verkade's proazaphosphatranes, thus being the strongest reported nonionic phosphorus(III) superbase...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
F R M Portrait, B van den Berg
How much are the Dutch prepared to pay for mental health care? Nearly every year the content of the basic health insurance package alters as a results of new insights and scientific and medical progress. Up till now, the government of the Netherlands has largely ignored the wishes of its people regarding which services should be included in or dropped from the basis health care package.<br/> AIM: To describe a method for measuring the Dutch population's willingness to pay (wtp) for the inclusion of mental health care in the basic health insurance package and, at the same time, to present the first empirical findings obtained by this method...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
P P T Jeurissen, B A Ravesteijn, R T J M Janssen, M A C Tanke
After a decade of robust growth in spending, Dutch mental healthcare is on a more stricter budgetary path since 2012. High prevalence of illness and limited spending, imply the need for efficient mental healthcare delivery.<br/> AIM: To advise how mental health care can be managed more efficiently. There will also have to be more differentiation between mild and serious psychiatric illnesses.<br/> METHOD: Review of academic articles and policy studies.<br/> RESULTS: With regard to the treatment of fairly common disorders, more attention needs to be given to integrated basic care and e-health...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Cintia Anton-Torrecillas, Diego Felipe-Blanco, Jose C Gonzalez-Gomez
Mildly basic aqueous conditions facilitated the tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPB) mediated dehydrogenative addition of a range of ethers, including acetals, to diverse substituted 2-isocyanobiaryls. Mechanistic studies suggest that this radical cascade is an example of base promoted homolytic aromatic substitution (BHAS).
October 25, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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